揭秘:洪秀全手下的太平天国名将到底是些什么人-看世界

揭秘:洪秀全手下的太平天国名将到底是些什么人

  他们的出身不尽相同,学识有限倒算是共同点。据说,太平军围攻长沙时,左宗棠曾去拜见洪秀全,献攻守建国之策,并劝天王尊崇儒教,放弃拜上帝会。因洪秀全不以为然,左某悄然离去,成为湘军中平定太平天国的重要人物之一。忠王李秀成日后的自供词一语破的:“天王不用读书人。”

  导读:1851年9月,太平军夺取了他们的第一座城池永安州城(今蒙山县)。在此停留的7个月里,完成了一系列的军政建设,还封了5个王。东王是个烧炭的山民;西王萧朝贵是自耕农;南王冯云山和洪秀全一样,在乡下读过几年私塾,可以算小知识分子;北王韦昌辉有几家店铺和大片田地,翼王石达开出身于富贵之家,这两人可以算士绅或地主。

Guide: in September 1851, the Taiping army captured their first city, Yongan prefecture (now Mengshan county). In the seven months of staying here, a series of military and political construction has been completed, and five kings have been appointed. The eastern king was a coal burning mountain people; the Western King Xiao Chaogui was a self-employed farmer; the southern King Feng Yunshan, like Hong Xiuquan, had read a private school in the countryside for several years, which could be regarded as a small intellectual; the northern King Wei Changhui had several shops and a large area of land, and Yiwang Shida opened up in a wealthy family, which could be regarded as a gentry or landlord.

  他们的出身不尽相同,学识有限倒算是共同点。据说,太平军围攻长沙时,曾去拜见洪秀全,献攻守建国之策,并劝尊崇儒教,放弃拜上帝会。因洪秀全不以为然,左某悄然离去,成为湘军中平定的重要人物之一。忠王李秀成日后的自供词一语破的:“天王不用读书人。”

They come from different origins, and their limited knowledge is the common ground. It is said that when the Taiping army besieged Changsha, it paid a visit to Hong Xiuquan, offered strategies to attack and defend the country, and advised them to respect Confucianism and give up worshiping the God society. Because Hong Xiuquan didn't think so, Zuo left quietly and became one of the important figures in Pingding. Li Xiucheng, the loyal king, said nothing in his later confession: "the king of heaven does not need a scholar."

  知识分子常有自己的想法,头脑不容易改造,自不能轻易任。书生文士在天朝是不可能得志的。太平军视为至宝的是孩子。每攻陷一座城市、路过一个乡村,必定竭尽可能把他们带走。孩子最天真无邪,加以训练,将来就可以成为死士。天朝晚期的将领,许多都是被带上路的孩子,例如英王陈玉成。

Intellectuals often have their own ideas. Their minds are not easy to transform, and they can't easily assume their responsibilities. It is impossible for scholars and scholars to succeed in the Chinese dynasty. Children are the most precious treasure of the Taiping army. Every time you capture a city or pass a village, you must try your best to take them away. Children are the most innocent. If they are trained, they will be dead in the future. Many of the generals in the late days of the dynasty were children taken on the road, such as Chen Yucheng, the king of England.

  至于普通将士,大多出身于苦寒之家。除了广西山民,“所据之地,男子一律‘随营’,先动以甘言,再施以威劫。所谓甘言,即传集百姓听‘讲道理’,如有不从,定斩不留。”——史家郭廷以总结。湘军的张德坚在《贼情汇纂》中记录,太平军掳人常常要“看手相”:如果掌心红润,手指上没有老茧,“恒指为妖”。反之,“挖煤开矿人、沿江纤夫、船户、码头挑脚、轿夫、铁木匠作、艰苦手艺,皆终岁勤劳,未尝温饱,被掳服役,贼必善遇之。”

As for ordinary soldiers, most of them came from poor families. In addition to the mountain people of Guangxi, "all the men in the area where they are based will" camp "first, and then they will use the words of Gan, and then they will use the power to rob. The so-called "sweet words", that is, it is said that the common people listen to "reason", if they do not follow, they will cut them off and not stay. " ——Guo Ting, a historian, summed it up. Zhang Dejian of the Hunan army recorded in the collection of thieves' feelings that the prisoners of the Taiping army often had to "look at the palms": if the palms were ruddy and there were no calluses on their fingers, the "constant fingers were demons". On the contrary, "coal miners, river trackers, boatmen, wharf porters, sedan bearers, blacksmiths and hard craftsmen are all hardworking all the year round, without food and clothing. If they are captured and served, thieves will meet them well."

  清末革命团体光复会创始人之一陶成章认为,太平军有中国民间秘密会社色彩。“非尽本于耶稣,而实有根于洪门之旧规而然也。”洪门又称天地会。为了壮大其队伍,太平军曾大量收纳会众,尤其是天地会党徒。不过洪秀全并不认同其“反清复明”的宗旨,“此种主张在年间该会初创时,果然不错的;但如今已过去二百年,我们可以仍说反清,但不可再说复明了。……如我们可以恢复汉族山河,当开创新朝。”

Tao Chengzhang, one of the founders of the restoration society, a revolutionary group in the late Qing Dynasty, believed that the Taiping army had the color of Chinese secret society. "Not from Jesus, but from the old rules of Hongmen." Hongmen is also called heaven and Earth Society. In order to strengthen its troops, the Taiping army had a large number of members, especially the heaven and Earth Society. However, Hong Xiuquan didn't agree with the tenet of "anti Qing and restoration of Ming Dynasty." this idea was really good when the association was founded in, but now it has been 200 years, we can still say anti Qing, but we can't say it again If we can restore the Han mountains and rivers, we will create a new dynasty. "

  太平军号称平等,其实分别心甚重。入上帝会的称为兄弟。来自广西的称为“老兄弟”,享特殊待遇,后入会的称为新兄弟,一般百姓则一律称为“外小”。天王许诺“兄弟”们:“上到小天堂,凡一概同打江山功勋等臣,大则封丞相、检点、指挥、将军、侍卫,至小亦军帅职,累代世袭,龙袍角带在天朝。”按太平天国军制,每军置军帅一,下辖一万三千多人。“凡是拜上帝之家,房屋俱要放火烧了。寒家无食,故而从他。乡下之人,不知远路,行百十里外,不悉回头,后又有追兵。”他们走上的是一条不归路。

The Taiping army is called equal, but in fact, it has a strong sense of separation. Those who join the Church of God are called brothers. Those from Guangxi are called "old brothers" and enjoy special treatment. Those who join the association later are called "new brothers", while ordinary people are all called "waixiao". The king of heaven promised the "brothers" that when they went to the little heaven, they would fight with all the officials, such as Jiangshan meritorious service, and then they would be prime minister, security guard, commander, general, and bodyguard. When they went to the little heaven, they would be commander in chief of the army. They would be handed down from generation to generation, and the Dragon Robe horn would be brought to the heaven According to the military system of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, each army has one commander-in-chief and over 13000 people under its jurisdiction. "Every house that worships God will be set on fire. The cold family has no food, so they follow him. People in the countryside don't know how far they are going. They travel a hundred miles and a hundred miles, but they don't know how to look back. After that, they have their pursuers. " They are on a path of no return.

  钱穆先生曾分析说:“农民骚动的主因,必由于吏治的不良,再促成之以饥荒。在官逼民反的实况下,回忆到民族的旧恨。这是清中叶以后变乱的共通现象。”“因一时一地的饥荒而激动变乱,要想乘机扩大延长,势必采用一种流动的恐怖政策,裹胁良民,使他们无产可依,只有追随着变乱的势力;这便是所谓‘流寇’。这一种变乱,骚扰区域愈大,虐杀愈烈,则裹胁愈多。”“饥荒可以促动农民,却不能把农民组织起来,要临时组织农民,便常赖于宗教。”“用邪教的煽惑起事,用流动的骚扰展开,这是安静散漫的农民所以能走上长期叛变的两条路子。”

Mr. Qian Mu once analyzed and said: "the main cause of the peasants' turmoil will be the poor administration of officials, which will lead to famine. In the reality of the official persecution and the people's revolt, I recall the old national hatred. This is a common phenomenon of chaos after the middle of the Qing Dynasty. " "In order to seize the opportunity to expand and extend the chaos caused by the famine in one place for a while, we must adopt a mobile terrorist policy to intimidate the good people so that they have no property to depend on, and only follow the forces of the chaos. This is the so-called" roving bandits ". This kind of disorder, the larger the area of harassment, the more violent the killing, the more threatening it will be. " "Famine can motivate farmers, but it can't organize them. If we want to organize farmers temporarily, we often depend on religion." "It's quiet and loose peasants who start things with the incitement of heresy and start things with the harassment of flow, so they can go on two ways of long-term treason."

 

 

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