菲律宾火山喷发 火山灰高达15公里,天空电闪雷鸣-看世界

菲律宾火山喷发 火山灰高达15公里,天空电闪雷鸣

菲律宾火山喷发,天空电闪雷鸣。2020年1月12日下午1时,距离菲律宾首都马尼拉以南大约60公里的塔阿尔火山12日爆发喷出大量火山灰,火山灰高达10至15公里。致使周边大约8000名居民撤离,马尼拉国际机场数十趟航班延误。

The volcano erupted in the Philippines and the sky flashed and thundered. At 1:00 p.m. on January 12, 2020, mount Taar, about 60 km south of Manila, the capital of the Philippines, erupted a large amount of volcanic ash on January 12, with the ash as high as 10-15 km. About 8000 residents were evacuated and dozens of flights at Manila International Airport were delayed.

根据菲律宾火山地震研究所的监测,当地时间12日13时(北京时间13时)左右,距马尼拉约90公里的塔阿尔火山突发剧烈活动,火山灰柱高度超过1000米。

According to the monitoring of the Philippine Institute of volcanic seismology, at about 13:00 local time (Beijing time) on the 12th, the volcano, about 90 km away from Manila, was suddenly active. The height of the ash column was more than 1000 meters.

视频中,天空出现耀眼闪电,闪电在火山灰中“穿梭”。当日火山灰冲至千米高,预计未来火山还将喷发,附近数千居民被要求紧急撤离。

In the video, there are dazzling lightning in the sky, which "shuttle" in the volcanic ash. On that day, the ash rushed to a kilometer high. It is expected that the volcano will erupt in the future. Thousands of nearby residents are required to evacuate.

火山喷出的物质主要包括碎屑物、熔岩、气体和水蒸气。火山喷发出的碎屑物与降雨、火山口冰雪融化或积水溢出形成的水流结合可形成泥石流,能冲毁道路、桥梁,淹没附近的乡村和城市

The material ejected from the volcano mainly includes clastic material, lava, gas and water vapor. The debris from the volcano combined with the water flow formed by rainfall, melting of ice and snow at the crater or overflow of water can form debris flow, which can destroy roads, bridges and submerge nearby villages and cities.

由气体和火山碎屑混合形成的火山碎屑流具有极大的破坏性和致命性且很难躲避。火山喷发所产生的巨大震动会导致火山周边的泥土松动,造成山体滑坡。火山喷发的熔岩遇到海水还会产生高温且具有腐蚀性的“熔岩雾霭”,对人体有害。

The pyroclastic flow, which is formed by the mixture of gas and pyroclastic, is very destructive and fatal and difficult to avoid. The huge vibration caused by volcanic eruption will cause the soil around the volcano to loosen and cause landslides. The lava from the volcano will produce high temperature and corrosive "lava mist" when encountering sea water, which is harmful to human body.

延伸阅读

Extended reading

当遭遇火山爆发时,我们如何自救?

How can we help ourselves when a volcano erupts?

1,应对熔岩危险:火山爆发喷出了大量炽热的熔岩,它会坚持向前推进,直到到达谷底或者最终冷却。它们毁灭所经之处的所有东西。在火山的各种危害中,熔岩流可能对生命的威胁最小,因为人们能跑出熔岩流的路线。当看到火山喷出熔岩时,我们可以迅速跑出熔岩流的路线范围。

1. Deal with the danger of lava: the volcano erupts a lot of hot lava, and it will keep pushing forward until it reaches the bottom of the valley or finally cools down. They destroy everything they go through. Among the hazards of volcanoes, lava flow may be the least dangerous to life, because people can run out of the route of lava flow. When we see lava coming out of the volcano, we can quickly run out of the range of the lava flow.

2,应对火山喷射物危险:火山喷射物大小不等,从卵石大小的碎片到大块岩石的热熔岩“炸弹”都有,能扩散到相当大的范围。而火山灰则能覆盖更大的范围,其中一些灰尘能被携至高空,扩散到全世界,进而影响天气情况。如果火山喷发时你正在附近,这时你应该快速逃离,并应戴上头盔或用其他物品护住头部,防止火山喷出的石块等砸伤头部。

2. Deal with the danger of volcanic ejecta: the size of volcanic ejecta varies from pebble sized fragments to hot lava "bombs" of large rocks, which can spread to a considerable range. And volcanic ash can cover a larger area, some of which can be carried to high altitude, spread to the world, and then affect weather conditions. If you are nearby when the volcano erupts, you should run away quickly, and wear a helmet or other things to protect your head, so as to prevent the rocks from erupting from the volcano from hitting your head.

3,应对火山灰灾害:火山灰是细微的火山碎屑,由岩石、矿物和火山玻璃碎片组成,有很强的刺激性。其重量能使屋顶倒塌。火山灰可窒息庄稼、阻塞交通路线和水道,且伴随有有毒气体,会对肺部产生伤害,特别是对儿童、老人和有呼吸道疾病的人。只有当离火山喷发处很近、气体足够集中时,才能伤害到健康的人。但当火山灰中的硫磺随雨而落时,硫酸(和别的一些特质)会大面积、大密度产生,会灼伤皮肤、眼睛和粘膜。戴上护目镜、通气管面罩或滑雪镜能保护眼睛--但不是太阳镜。用一块湿布护住嘴和鼻子,或者如果可能,用工业防毒面具。到避难所后,要脱去衣服,彻底洗净暴露在外的皮肤,用清水冲洗眼睛。

3. Dealing with the volcanic ash disaster: the volcanic ash is a fine pyroclast, which is composed of rocks, minerals and volcanic glass fragments, and has strong stimulation. Its weight can cause the roof to collapse. Volcanic ash can suffocate crops, block traffic routes and waterways, and is accompanied by toxic gases, which can cause lung damage, especially for children, the elderly and people with respiratory diseases. Only when it is close to the eruption and the gas is concentrated enough can it harm the healthy people. But when the sulfur in the ash falls with the rain, sulfuric acid (and other characteristics) will be produced in large area and density, which will burn the skin, eyes and mucous membrane. Wearing goggles, snorkel masks or ski goggles can protect your eyes - but not sunglasses. Cover your mouth and nose with a damp cloth or, if possible, an industrial gas mask. After going to the shelter, take off your clothes, thoroughly wash the exposed skin, and rinse your eyes with water.

4应对气体球状物危害:火山喷发时会有大量气体球状物喷出,这些物质以每小时160千米以上的速度滚下火山。这时,我们可以躲避在附近坚实的地下建筑物中,或跳入水中屏住呼吸半分钟左右,球状物就会滚过去。

4 deal with the hazards of gas globules: when a volcano erupts, a large number of gas globules will erupt, and these materials will roll down the volcano at a speed of more than 160 kilometers per hour. At this time, we can avoid in the nearby solid underground buildings, or jump into the water and hold our breath for about half a minute, and the ball will roll over.

5,如果是驾车逃离,那么一定要注意火山灰可使路面打滑。如果火山的高温岩浆逼近,就要弃车尽快爬到高处躲避岩浆。

5. If you are driving to escape, you must pay attention to that the volcanic ash can make the road slip. If the high temperature magma of the volcano approaches, it is necessary to abandon the car and climb to a high place as soon as possible to avoid the magma.

6,地球上的火山在爆发时,会辐射出大量的强电粒子流。这种带电粒子束,会影响火山周围电子设备的正常工作以及会出现电子钟表的计时误差。这类似于太空辐射的带电粒子对地球空间的电子通讯、电器设备、计时装置等产生的干扰。上述现象,主要是由火山在爆发过程中地壳运动所形成的带电粒子飘逸。同时,这些飘逸出的带电粒子又会对电子设备构成磁脉冲干扰。最关键的一环是脉冲磁场在电子设备中可形成较强的感应电荷聚集累加,并可导致电子电路产生非正常状态下的运行错误。

6. When the volcano on the earth erupts, it will radiate a large number of strong electric particle flows. This kind of charged particle beam will affect the normal operation of the electronic equipment around the volcano and the timing error of the electronic clock. This is similar to the interference of charged particles radiated from space to the electronic communication, electrical equipment, timing devices, etc. in the earth's space. The above phenomena are mainly due to the floating of charged particles formed by the crustal movement during the eruption of volcano. At the same time, these floating charged particles will form magnetic pulse interference to electronic equipment. The most important part is that the pulse magnetic field can form a strong accumulation of induced charge in the electronic equipment, which can lead to the abnormal operation of the electronic circuit.

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