The deployment of beidou-3 was completed! On December 16, the long march-3b carrier rocket, which was developed by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (hereinafter referred to as the rocket Academy) affiliated to Aerospace Science and Technology Group Co., Ltd., launched the 52nd and 53rd Beidou navigation satellites into the central earth orbit in the way of "one rocket, two stars". So far, the 24 satellites planned by beidou-3 in this orbit have all been in place, marking the completion of the deployment of the core constellation of the global system.
What is the core constellation? Why is beidou-3 composed of three kinds of orbiting satellites? How far is the global system networking from us?
The long march 3B carrier rocket launched with the 52nd and 53rd Beidou navigation satellites. Xiao Guojun diagram
Main charge, teammate assists
In the "tiantuan" of beidou-3 satellite, there are three types of team members, who hold their posts in different orbits. The twin satellites launched this time, namely the MEO satellite (called "Mengxing" by Beidou, the Fifth Academy of Sciences), are the main force of global networking. They painstakingly fly around the earth, making their focal point draw wave lines on the ground, in order to cover a wider area of the world.
According to Wang Ping, the chief designer of beidou-3 satellite, the orbit height of the MEO satellite is about 20000 kilometers, and the orbit period is about 12 hours, which is not synchronous with the earth's rotation period. "From the ground, the continuous movement from west to East covers the whole world. So to provide global navigation services, we mainly rely on MEO satellites, which is why 24 MEO satellites are regarded as the core constellation of Beidou's global networking, "Wang said.
"Meng Xing" is very powerful when it comes to charging the global network. Among them, the affectionate "GEO Satellite" is the geostationary orbit satellite, which always moves with the earth's rotation, so as to focus on the motherland at all times; "IGSO satellite" is the tilt geostationary orbit satellite, which, like the diligent bee, makes its own point orbit under the stars cover the Asia Pacific region and protect the surrounding areas of China.
The twin stars are transferred to the launch tower. Nan Yong chart
Unique satellite constellation, China's first
Under the background that GPs, GLONASS, Galileo and other navigation systems in the United States are deployed with single orbit satellites one after another, Beidou in China is unique, and uses three kinds of orbit satellites to form a hybrid navigation constellation.
Why such a layout? It comes from Beidou's three-step development strategy. In the first two steps, Beidou has to provide services for China and the Asia Pacific region respectively, "lucky star" and "love Star" obviously have more advantages, while "Mengxing" is more suitable to play a role in the field of global navigation services. Moreover, at that time, "Mengxing" still had many key technologies that have not yet been broken through, which needs to be verified by actual combat.
For this reason, Beidou people of the fifth academy have built a GEO / IGSO / MEO hybrid constellation for the first time. With the minimum number of satellites, beidou-2 regional satellite navigation system, which integrates basic navigation, location reporting and other businesses, has become a model of regional satellite navigation system construction in the world.
This kind of technology system can construct regional system efficiently and expand global system at the same time. In the construction of Beidou No. 2 system, four "budding stars" are arranged, giving them sufficient time and excellent platform to gradually overcome a series of bottleneck problems of stable operation of global networking. Therefore, when Beidou embarks on the global networking journey, the "budding star" that leaps to become the main force can show great power.
At this time, "lucky star" and "love Star" become the best teammates. Beidou carefully designed a small number of key positions for them. They not only take the responsibility of "assisting attack" to cooperate with "Mengxing" and significantly enhance the overall technical indicators of beidou-3, but also carry a lot of "artifact" to open up the way for broad operation and application of Beidou in the future.
No hurry, no impatience, no blindness, based on the national conditions and ingenious design. This is the Beidou route and constellation scheme design full of practical wisdom and pragmatic spirit of the Chinese nation, which contributes Chinese wisdom and Chinese scheme to the international satellite navigation technology system.
The deployment of core constellation has laid a solid foundation for global networking
Victory is in sight, and global networking will be completed next year
Following the three-step path, Beidou people adhere to their strategic determination and have completed the deployment of the core constellation of beidou-3 global system in a steady way.
At present, beidou-3 global system networking has entered the decisive stage. According to the plan, in the first half of next year, all networking satellites will be launched in advance, and the world-class global satellite navigation system will be built independently. At the time of China's first Centennial goal and building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, Beidou's "global dream" will be realized.
At present, the Fifth Academy is aiming at the advanced technology in the future, systematically planning the next generation navigation satellite technology system with advanced performance, comprehensive function, safety and reliability, and putting forward the technology development strategy of national integrated positioning navigation timing system based on Beidou satellite.
Long march 3B rocket Academy
Sent to Beidou for 38 times, innovated and refined the "Beidou special train"
This launch is the last mission of this year's space launch of the long march 3A series rocket. With the "double hundred" achievements of 100% victory in the launch mission of 2019 and 100% victory in the implementation of the Beidou project launch mission, the launch mission of 2019 has been successfully completed.
Since the launch of the first beidou-2 navigation test satellite in 2007, 53 Beidou navigation satellites have been put into the predetermined orbit by the long March-3A series rockets (including long March-3A, long march-3b and long march-3c) with 38 successful performances in 12 years. If the Beidou navigation test satellite launched earlier is included, 57 Beidou satellites will be escorted into orbit by the long 3A series rocket with a success rate of 42 times and 100%. Looking back on every launch mission of Beidou project, the lift of Long March 3A series rockets is indispensable. Therefore, long march 3A series rockets are also called "Beidou special train".
From Beidou-1 to beidou-3, from the launch of geostationary orbit satellite to the deployment capability of three kinds of orbits of Beidou project, from several launches a year to more than ten launches a year, the research and development team of long march-3-a has been exploring the innovative path. "The long march 3A series rocket development team is a team that has the courage to innovate, is skilled in innovation, is willing to innovate, and is rich in innovation. Innovation is the fine tradition of the development team, as well as the soul and power source of rocket development." Jiang Jie, chief designer of the long march 3A rocket series, said.
When the earliest 3A series rockets received the Beidou launch mission, they only had the ability to launch geostationary orbit satellites. Beidou project put forward new requirements for launch vehicles to meet the multi orbital surface networking launch. In order to meet the demand, the research and development team carried out the research and development represented by the design technology of the middle circle earth orbit, the inclined earth synchronous orbit and the earth synchronous orbit launched by Beidou satellite project. The research and development team adopted the southeast shooting direction for the orbit design, while meeting the two-way demand of the project for the rocket carrying capacity and the satellite orbit deployment.
In particular, the research and development team has also set a precedent for China's "one arrow, two stars" to launch high orbit satellites. At the same time, it flies with the upper level of "space ferry vehicle" -- expedition I and its partner, directly sending the Beidou navigation satellite into the working orbit, further speeding up the deployment of the Beidou satellite, making contributions to saving energy and extending the working life of the satellite. This series The innovative measures greatly adapt to the task adaptability of the long 3A series rockets, greatly shorten the construction progress of Beidou project and greatly reduce the construction cost.
Rocket academy drawing
"Gold rocket", set more than records in 2019
Through the "busy" 2019, there are many records in the 12 launch missions of the long march 3A series: on March 10, the long march 3B launch vehicle launched the Zhongxing 6C satellite, successfully completing the 300th launch of the long march series of launch vehicles; on April 20, the long march 3B launch vehicle successfully launched the 44th satellite of the Beidou satellite navigation system, becoming the first launch frequency in China to exceed 100 On May 17, the long march 3C carrier rocket successfully launched the 45th satellite of Beidou satellite navigation system, and successfully completed the 200th launch of the carrier rocket of the rocket Academy
It is no accident that the long 3A series Rockets will undertake many landmark "events" of China's aerospace industry in 2019. Opening its launch records, we will find that this series of "gold Rockets" have played a key role in China's communications satellite project, lunar exploration project, Beidou project, Fengyun meteorological satellite project and international commercial satellite launch services.
According to Jiang Jie, the long march 3A series launch vehicle almost covers all the launch missions of high-speed orbit spacecraft in China, which is the "main force" of high-strength density launch of long march series launch vehicles, and the rocket series with the largest launch capacity, the most complex technology, the strongest adaptability, the most number of launches and the largest launch density among the medium-sized high-speed orbit launch vehicles in active service in China. Its maximum geosynchronous transfer orbit carrying capacity reaches 5.5 tons, and a reasonable capability gradient from 2.6 tons to 3.9 tons and then to 5.5 tons has been formed. The orbit entering accuracy is equivalent to that of the mainstream launch vehicles in the world, which can meet the launching tasks of various kinds of medium and high orbit payloads in China and most of geosynchronous transfer orbit payloads in the world.
In recent years, with the deepening of reliability work, the research and development team has become the target of reliability work of Long March 3A series rockets. Aiming at various systems of the whole arrow, several reliability growth projects have been carried out for design, process and test. It realizes the scheme of boosting and increasing the range shutdown and the redundancy of the cold helium pressurization system. "At present, the success rate of launching Long March 3A series rockets has reached 98%." Jiang Jie said.
"In 2020, the Beidou global system will be completed in an all-round way. It is expected that the long march 3A series rocket will complete more than 10 launch missions. The research and development team is still facing the test of high-intensity launch." CEN Zheng, commander-in-chief of the long triple a rocket, said, but it is precisely because of these tests that the research and development team is moving towards a higher goal.
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