北斗三号部署完成 全球系统组网离我们还有多远?-看世界

北斗三号部署完成 全球系统组网离我们还有多远?

北斗三号部署完成!12月16日,由航天科技集团有限公司所属中国运载火箭技术研究院(以下简称火箭院)抓总研制的长征三号乙运载火箭以“一箭双星”的方式,将第52、53颗北斗导航卫星送入中圆地球轨道。至此,北斗三号在该轨道上规划的24颗卫星已全部到位,标志着全球系统核心星座部署完成。

The deployment of beidou-3 was completed! On December 16, the long march-3b carrier rocket, which was developed by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (hereinafter referred to as the rocket Academy) affiliated to Aerospace Science and Technology Group Co., Ltd., launched the 52nd and 53rd Beidou navigation satellites into the central earth orbit in the way of "one rocket, two stars". So far, the 24 satellites planned by beidou-3 in this orbit have all been in place, marking the completion of the deployment of the core constellation of the global system.

何谓核心星座?北斗三号为何由三种轨道卫星组成?全球系统组网离我们还有多远?

What is the core constellation? Why is beidou-3 composed of three kinds of orbiting satellites? How far is the global system networking from us?

长征三号乙运载火箭携带第52、53颗北斗导航卫星发射升空。肖国军图

The long march 3B carrier rocket launched with the 52nd and 53rd Beidou navigation satellites. Xiao Guojun diagram

主力冲锋,队友助攻

Main charge, teammate assists

在北斗三号卫星“天团”里,有三类队员,分别在不同轨道上坚守着岗位。本次发射的双星,也就是中圆轨道卫星(MEO卫星,被五院北斗人称为“萌星”)是全球组网的主力。他们不辞辛劳地绕着地球满场飞,让自己的聚焦点在地面画着波浪线,以求覆盖到全球更广阔的区域。

In the "tiantuan" of beidou-3 satellite, there are three types of team members, who hold their posts in different orbits. The twin satellites launched this time, namely the MEO satellite (called "Mengxing" by Beidou, the Fifth Academy of Sciences), are the main force of global networking. They painstakingly fly around the earth, making their focal point draw wave lines on the ground, in order to cover a wider area of the world.

据北斗三号卫星总设计师王平介绍,MEO卫星的轨道高度大概是在2万公里左右,轨道周期是12个小时左右,和地球自转周期不同步。“从地面上看,由西向东不断的运动覆盖全球。所以要想提供全球导航服务,主要是要依靠MEO卫星,这也是为什么把24颗MEO卫星作为北斗的全球组网的核心星座的原因”,王平说。

According to Wang Ping, the chief designer of beidou-3 satellite, the orbit height of the MEO satellite is about 20000 kilometers, and the orbit period is about 12 hours, which is not synchronous with the earth's rotation period. "From the ground, the continuous movement from west to East covers the whole world. So to provide global navigation services, we mainly rely on MEO satellites, which is why 24 MEO satellites are regarded as the core constellation of Beidou's global networking, "Wang said.

“萌星”在为全球组网冲锋的时候,队友们非常给力。其中,深情的“吉星”(GEO卫星)是地球静止轨道卫星,始终随着地球自转而动,以便时刻聚焦祖国;“爱星”(IGSO卫星)则是倾斜地球同步轨道卫星,像辛勤的蜜蜂一样,让自己的星下点轨迹包住亚太地区,保护中国周边。

"Meng Xing" is very powerful when it comes to charging the global network. Among them, the affectionate "GEO Satellite" is the geostationary orbit satellite, which always moves with the earth's rotation, so as to focus on the motherland at all times; "IGSO satellite" is the tilt geostationary orbit satellite, which, like the diligent bee, makes its own point orbit under the stars cover the Asia Pacific region and protect the surrounding areas of China.

双星转运至发射塔架。南勇图

The twin stars are transferred to the launch tower. Nan Yong chart

独特卫星星座,中国首创

Unique satellite constellation, China's first

美国GPS、俄罗斯格洛纳斯、欧洲伽利略等导航系统纷纷以单一轨道卫星部署星座的背景下,中国北斗却独树一帜,采用三种轨道卫星组成混合导航星座。

Under the background that GPs, GLONASS, Galileo and other navigation systems in the United States are deployed with single orbit satellites one after another, Beidou in China is unique, and uses three kinds of orbit satellites to form a hybrid navigation constellation.

为何如此布局?这源自北斗三步走的发展战略。在前两步里,北斗分别要为中国和亚太地区提供服务,“吉星”和“爱星”显然更有优势,而“萌星”更适合在全球导航服务的战场上发挥作用,况且当时“萌星”还有很多关键技术尚未突破,需要通过实战验证。

Why such a layout? It comes from Beidou's three-step development strategy. In the first two steps, Beidou has to provide services for China and the Asia Pacific region respectively, "lucky star" and "love Star" obviously have more advantages, while "Mengxing" is more suitable to play a role in the field of global navigation services. Moreover, at that time, "Mengxing" still had many key technologies that have not yet been broken through, which needs to be verified by actual combat.

为此,五院北斗人首次建成了GEO/IGSO/MEO混合星座,以最少的卫星数量建设了集基本导航、位置报告等多种业务于一体的北斗二号区域卫星导航系统,成为世界上区域卫星导航系统建设的典范。

For this reason, Beidou people of the fifth academy have built a GEO / IGSO / MEO hybrid constellation for the first time. With the minimum number of satellites, beidou-2 regional satellite navigation system, which integrates basic navigation, location reporting and other businesses, has become a model of regional satellite navigation system construction in the world.

这种技术体制可以高效构建区域系统,兼顾拓展全球系统。在北斗二号系统的建设中,布局了4颗“萌星”,给他们充分的时间和绝佳的平台去逐步攻克一系列全球组网稳定运行的瓶颈问题。因此,当北斗开启全球组网征程后,跃升为主力的“萌星”得以大显神威。

This kind of technology system can construct regional system efficiently and expand global system at the same time. In the construction of Beidou No. 2 system, four "budding stars" are arranged, giving them sufficient time and excellent platform to gradually overcome a series of bottleneck problems of stable operation of global networking. Therefore, when Beidou embarks on the global networking journey, the "budding star" that leaps to become the main force can show great power.

此时的“吉星”和“爱星”就成为最佳队友。北斗人为他们精心设计了数量不多、作用却很关键的岗位。他们不仅承担着配合“萌星”、显著增强北斗三号整体技术指标的“助攻”职责,还携带了很多“神器”,为未来北斗广泛运行与应用之路开疆拓土。

At this time, "lucky star" and "love Star" become the best teammates. Beidou carefully designed a small number of key positions for them. They not only take the responsibility of "assisting attack" to cooperate with "Mengxing" and significantly enhance the overall technical indicators of beidou-3, but also carry a lot of "artifact" to open up the way for broad operation and application of Beidou in the future.

不急不躁不盲目,立足国情巧设计。这充满了中华民族实践智慧和务实精神的北斗路线与星座方案设计,为国际卫星导航技术体系贡献了中国智慧和中国方案。

No hurry, no impatience, no blindness, based on the national conditions and ingenious design. This is the Beidou route and constellation scheme design full of practical wisdom and pragmatic spirit of the Chinese nation, which contributes Chinese wisdom and Chinese scheme to the international satellite navigation technology system.

核心星座部署完成为全球组网奠定了坚实基础

The deployment of core constellation has laid a solid foundation for global networking

胜利在望,明年完成全球组网

Victory is in sight, and global networking will be completed next year

沿着三步走的路径,北斗人坚持战略定力,在稳扎稳打中完成了北斗三号全球系统核心星座部署。

Following the three-step path, Beidou people adhere to their strategic determination and have completed the deployment of the core constellation of beidou-3 global system in a steady way.

目前,北斗三号全球系统组网已进入决战决胜的冲刺阶段,按计划,明年上半年将提前完成全部组网卫星发射,独立自主建成世界一流的全球卫星导航系统,在我国实现第一个百年奋斗目标、全面建成小康社会之际,实现北斗的“全球梦”。

At present, beidou-3 global system networking has entered the decisive stage. According to the plan, in the first half of next year, all networking satellites will be launched in advance, and the world-class global satellite navigation system will be built independently. At the time of China's first Centennial goal and building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, Beidou's "global dream" will be realized.

目前,五院正瞄准未来先进技术,系统规划了性能先进、功能全面、安全可靠的下一代导航卫星技术体系,提出了基于北斗卫星的国家综合定位导航授时体系技术发展策略。

At present, the Fifth Academy is aiming at the advanced technology in the future, systematically planning the next generation navigation satellite technology system with advanced performance, comprehensive function, safety and reliability, and putting forward the technology development strategy of national integrated positioning navigation timing system based on Beidou satellite.

长征三号乙火箭火箭院供图

Long march 3B rocket Academy

38次送北斗,创新炼就“北斗专列”

Sent to Beidou for 38 times, innovated and refined the "Beidou special train"

此次发射是长征三号甲系列火箭今年航天发射的最后一次任务,凭借2019年发射任务100%全胜,执行北斗工程发射任务100%全胜的“双百”战绩,圆满完成了2019年全年的发射任务。

This launch is the last mission of this year's space launch of the long march 3A series rocket. With the "double hundred" achievements of 100% victory in the launch mission of 2019 and 100% victory in the implementation of the Beidou project launch mission, the launch mission of 2019 has been successfully completed.

从2007年发射首颗北斗二号导航试验卫星算起,12年间,长三甲系列火箭(家族成员包括长征三号甲、长征三号乙和长征三号丙等)用38次圆满成功的完美表现,将53颗北斗导航卫星送入预定轨道。如果再算上更早前发射的北斗导航试验卫星,那么长三甲系列火箭以42次100%的发射成功率,护送57颗北斗卫星进入轨道。回顾每一次北斗工程的发射任务,都少不了长征三号甲系列火箭的托举,因此长征三号甲系列火箭也被人称为“北斗专列”。

Since the launch of the first beidou-2 navigation test satellite in 2007, 53 Beidou navigation satellites have been put into the predetermined orbit by the long March-3A series rockets (including long March-3A, long march-3b and long march-3c) with 38 successful performances in 12 years. If the Beidou navigation test satellite launched earlier is included, 57 Beidou satellites will be escorted into orbit by the long 3A series rocket with a success rate of 42 times and 100%. Looking back on every launch mission of Beidou project, the lift of Long March 3A series rockets is indispensable. Therefore, long march 3A series rockets are also called "Beidou special train".

从北斗一号到北斗三号;从发射地球静止轨道卫星,到具备北斗工程三种轨道的部署能力;从一年几次发射到一年十几次发射,长征三号甲研制团队一直在创新的道路上不断探索。“长征三号甲系列火箭研制队伍是一支勇于创新、精于创新、乐于创新、富于创新的队伍,创新是研制队伍的优良传统,也是火箭的发展之魂和动力之源。”长征三号甲系列火箭总设计师姜杰说。

From Beidou-1 to beidou-3, from the launch of geostationary orbit satellite to the deployment capability of three kinds of orbits of Beidou project, from several launches a year to more than ten launches a year, the research and development team of long march-3-a has been exploring the innovative path. "The long march 3A series rocket development team is a team that has the courage to innovate, is skilled in innovation, is willing to innovate, and is rich in innovation. Innovation is the fine tradition of the development team, as well as the soul and power source of rocket development." Jiang Jie, chief designer of the long march 3A rocket series, said.

最早长三甲系列火箭接到北斗发射任务时,仅具备地球静止轨道卫星发射能力,北斗工程对运载火箭提出了需要满足多轨道面组网发射的新要求。为满足需求,研制团队为此开展了以北斗卫星工程发射中圆地球轨道、倾斜地球同步轨道和地球同步轨道设计技术为代表的攻关研制,研制团队采用东南射向进行轨道设计,同时满足了工程对火箭运载能力和卫星轨道部署的双向需求。

When the earliest 3A series rockets received the Beidou launch mission, they only had the ability to launch geostationary orbit satellites. Beidou project put forward new requirements for launch vehicles to meet the multi orbital surface networking launch. In order to meet the demand, the research and development team carried out the research and development represented by the design technology of the middle circle earth orbit, the inclined earth synchronous orbit and the earth synchronous orbit launched by Beidou satellite project. The research and development team adopted the southeast shooting direction for the orbit design, while meeting the two-way demand of the project for the rocket carrying capacity and the satellite orbit deployment.

尤其是,研制团队还开创了我国“一箭双星”发射高轨道卫星的先例,同时与“太空摆渡车”——“远征一号”上面级与搭档飞行,将北斗导航卫星直接送入工作轨道,进一步加快了北斗卫星的部署速度,为卫星节约能量,延长卫星工作寿命做出了贡献,这一系列创新举措大大适应了长三甲系列火箭的任务适应性,大大缩短了北斗工程建设进度并大大降低了工程建设成本。

In particular, the research and development team has also set a precedent for China's "one arrow, two stars" to launch high orbit satellites. At the same time, it flies with the upper level of "space ferry vehicle" -- expedition I and its partner, directly sending the Beidou navigation satellite into the working orbit, further speeding up the deployment of the Beidou satellite, making contributions to saving energy and extending the working life of the satellite. This series The innovative measures greatly adapt to the task adaptability of the long 3A series rockets, greatly shorten the construction progress of Beidou project and greatly reduce the construction cost.

火箭吊装

Rocket hoisting

火箭院供图

Rocket academy drawing

“金牌火箭”,创造2019年多个纪录

"Gold rocket", set more than records in 2019

走过“忙碌”的2019年,长三甲系列12次的发射任务中还创造了多个纪录:3月10日,长征三号乙运载火箭发射中星6C卫星,成功完成了长征系列运载火箭的第300次发射;4月20日,长征三号乙运载火箭成功发射北斗卫星导航系统第44颗卫星,成为我国首个发射次数突破100次的单一系列运载火箭;5月17日,长征三号丙运载火箭成功发射北斗卫星导航系统第45颗卫星,成功完成了火箭院运载火箭第200次发射……

Through the "busy" 2019, there are many records in the 12 launch missions of the long march 3A series: on March 10, the long march 3B launch vehicle launched the Zhongxing 6C satellite, successfully completing the 300th launch of the long march series of launch vehicles; on April 20, the long march 3B launch vehicle successfully launched the 44th satellite of the Beidou satellite navigation system, becoming the first launch frequency in China to exceed 100 On May 17, the long march 3C carrier rocket successfully launched the 45th satellite of Beidou satellite navigation system, and successfully completed the 200th launch of the carrier rocket of the rocket Academy

长三甲系列火箭在2019年承担众多中国航天具有里程碑意义的“大事”并非偶然。翻开它的发射纪录,我们会发现这一系列“金牌火箭”在我国通信卫星工程、探月工程、北斗工程、风云气象卫星工程以及国际商业卫星发射服务中发挥了关键作用。

It is no accident that the long 3A series Rockets will undertake many landmark "events" of China's aerospace industry in 2019. Opening its launch records, we will find that this series of "gold Rockets" have played a key role in China's communications satellite project, lunar exploration project, Beidou project, Fengyun meteorological satellite project and international commercial satellite launch services.

据姜杰介绍,长征三号甲系列运载火箭几乎包揽了我国所有高轨道航天器发射任务,是长征系列运载火箭高强密度发射的“主力”,是我国现役中型高轨运载火箭中运载能力最大、技术最复杂、适应性最强、发射次数最多、发射密度最大的火箭系列。其最大地球同步转移轨道运载能力达到5.5吨,并且形成了从2.6吨到3.9吨、再到5.5吨的合理能力梯度,入轨精度与当今世界主流运载火箭相当,能够满足我国当前各种中高轨道有效载荷以及当今世界上绝大多数地球同步转移轨道有效载荷的发射任务。

According to Jiang Jie, the long march 3A series launch vehicle almost covers all the launch missions of high-speed orbit spacecraft in China, which is the "main force" of high-strength density launch of long march series launch vehicles, and the rocket series with the largest launch capacity, the most complex technology, the strongest adaptability, the most number of launches and the largest launch density among the medium-sized high-speed orbit launch vehicles in active service in China. Its maximum geosynchronous transfer orbit carrying capacity reaches 5.5 tons, and a reasonable capability gradient from 2.6 tons to 3.9 tons and then to 5.5 tons has been formed. The orbit entering accuracy is equivalent to that of the mainstream launch vehicles in the world, which can meet the launching tasks of various kinds of medium and high orbit payloads in China and most of geosynchronous transfer orbit payloads in the world.

近年来,随着可靠性工作的深入,研制团队从整体上提高飞行可靠性,成为长征三号甲系列火箭可靠性工作的目标。针对全箭各系统,针对设计、工艺、测试多个环节,开展了多项可靠性增长项目。实现了助推增加射程关机、冷氦增压系统冗余方案等。“目前,长征三号甲系列火箭发射成功率已达到了98%。”姜杰说。

In recent years, with the deepening of reliability work, the research and development team has become the target of reliability work of Long March 3A series rockets. Aiming at various systems of the whole arrow, several reliability growth projects have been carried out for design, process and test. It realizes the scheme of boosting and increasing the range shutdown and the redundancy of the cold helium pressurization system. "At present, the success rate of launching Long March 3A series rockets has reached 98%." Jiang Jie said.

“2020年,北斗全球系统将全面建成,预计长征三号甲系列火箭还将完成10次以上的发射任务,研制团队依旧面临着高强密度发射的考验。”长三甲火箭总指挥岑拯如是说,但也正是因为这些考验,支撑着研制团队向着更高目标迈进。

"In 2020, the Beidou global system will be completed in an all-round way. It is expected that the long march 3A series rocket will complete more than 10 launch missions. The research and development team is still facing the test of high-intensity launch." CEN Zheng, commander-in-chief of the long triple a rocket, said, but it is precisely because of these tests that the research and development team is moving towards a higher goal.

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