武则天乾陵的无字碑是怎么回事?武则天为何要立无字碑?-看世界

武则天乾陵的无字碑是怎么回事?武则天为何要立无字碑?

  乾陵是唐高宗李治与武则天的合葬陵,位于陕西乾县梁山之上,陵前矗立着两座墓碑。西边一块纪念高宗李治,武则天撰写《述圣纪》,三子中宗李显书写,刻于碑上,用以歌颂李治一生的功德。而东边一块纪念武则天的石碑,却只有三千三百个方格,而无一字。

  大家好,这里是小编,今天给大家说说无字碑故事,欢迎关注哦。

Hello everyone, this is Xiaobian. Today, I will tell you the story of wordless tablet. Welcome to pay attention.

  乾陵是与的合葬陵,位于陕西乾县梁山之上,陵前矗立着两座墓碑。西边一块纪念高宗李治,武则天撰写《述圣纪》,三子中宗书写,刻于碑上,用以歌颂李治一生的功德。而东边一块纪念武则天的石碑,却只有三千三百个方格,而无一字。

Qianling is a joint burial mausoleum with, which is located on Liangshan Mountain, Qianxian County, Shaanxi Province. Two tombstones stand in front of the mausoleum. In the west is a memorial to Li Zhi of Gaozong. Wu Zetian wrote the sacred records, which was written by three zhongzongs and engraved on the stele to praise the merits of Li Zhi's life. In the East, a stone tablet commemorating Wu Zetian has only 3300 squares without a word.

  无字碑

Wordless tablet

  既然立碑为何不刻字呢?这件事千百年来一直是史学界和民间热议的话题,仁者见仁智者见智,无字碑被议成了千古之谜。目前流行的说法有四种:

Since it has been a hot topic in the field of historiography and the people for thousands of years, people of different opinions have different opinions, and the wordless monument has been a mystery for thousands of years. There are four popular sayings at present:

  其一,武则天认为自己功劳太大,无法用文字表达。

First, Empress Wu thought that she was too much credit to express in words.

  其二,武则天认为自己,羞于立碑。

Second, Empress Wu thought she was ashamed to build a monument.

  其三,武则天有,留下无字碑,意味着千秋功罪由后人评说。

Third, Wu Zetian has left a wordless monument, which means that the merits and demerits of the thousand years will be judged by later generations.

  其四,李显对母亲怀恨在心,认为她篡唐立周时奇耻大辱,故意不给她立碑。

Fourthly, Li Xian held a grudge against her mother, thinking that she was shamed when she usurped the Tang Dynasty and established the Zhou Dynasty, and deliberately refused to establish a monument for her.

  乾陵

Qianling

  其实,唐朝以前的帝陵,没有立碑的规矩。那时立碑是一件极其严肃的事情,只有重大的祭祀与军功才立碑纪念,比如,燕然勒石与泰山封禅。帝王死后的评价都不敢用碑,全在一个,而且只有一两个字。

In fact, there was no rule for setting up a monument in the imperial mausoleum before the Tang Dynasty. At that time, it was a very serious thing to set up a monument. Only major sacrifices and military achievements could be set up to commemorate it. For example, Yan Ran Leshi and Mount Tai Fengchan. After the emperor's death, he dared not use the steles. They were all in one and only had one or two words.

  到了唐朝这些都发生了变化,太宗谥号为“文”,李治认为文不足以表达父亲的功绩,于是加为“文武圣”,后又增加为“文武大圣大广孝”。越往后越多,到了谥号居然多达二十多字。

In the Tang Dynasty, these changes took place. The posthumous title of Taizong was "Wen". Li Zhi thought that Wen was not enough to express his father's achievements, so he added it as "wenwusheng" and then added it as "wenwudasheng daguanxiao". More and more later, to posthumous title actually up to 20 words.

  即便如此,也不能尽后人对逝者的追思之情,索性在陵前立碑,为先帝歌功颂德。所以,从唐朝开始,就有了立碑的习惯,很多帝陵的石碑,都是后世追立的。

Even so, we can't do the posterity's love for the dead, simply put up a monument in front of the mausoleum, and sing praises for the former Emperor. Therefore, since the Tang Dynasty, there has been a habit of setting up steles. Many steles in imperial tombs have been built by later generations.

  高宗李治的墓碑,便是武则天与李显所立,有五千多字,也不敢地称为“述圣碑文”,而是称为“述圣记”。

The tombstone of Li Zhi, Emperor Gaozong, was set up by Wu Zetian and Li Xian. It has more than 5000 words. It is not dare to call it "the inscription of the sage" but "the record of the sage".

  按照这个道理,李显也应该为母亲撰写一篇歌功颂德的文章,刻于碑上,来追思母亲。作为母亲皇位的接班人,他也是最合适的人选。所以,武则天不可能越俎代庖,生前就说我的墓碑不写字什么的,那不是自己出自己的洋相吗!

According to this principle, Li Xian should also write a eulogy article for his mother and engrave it on the monument to remember his mother. As the successor to his mother's throne, he is also the most suitable candidate. Therefore, it is impossible for Empress Wu to act on her behalf. She said that my tombstone didn't write anything before she died. Isn't that her own appearance!

  并且,武则天的遗诏已经对自己的一生做出了诠释:“祔庙,归陵,去帝号,称则天大圣皇后。”当时的著名文人崔融所作《则天大圣皇后哀册文》也说:“辞不获己,从宜称制,……神器降临、大运匪革……”

In addition, Wu Zetian's imperial edict has made an interpretation of his life: "the temple, the mausoleum, to the imperial title, called Zetian the great saint queen." Cui Rong, a famous scholar at that time, wrote "empress Zetian's lament volume text", which also said: "if you don't get yourself, you should be called..." The arrival of artifact, the great fortune and bandit revolution... "

  遗诏相当于武则天给自己定的调子:先帝驾崩后,自己作为主妇,、暂居神器只是权宜之计,临终前将神器归还了李唐,自己仍是李家的媳妇。

The imperial edict is equivalent to the tune Wu Zetian set for herself: after the death of the first emperor, as a housewife, living in the artifact temporarily is only a temporary measure. Before dying, she returned the artifact to Li Tang, who is still the daughter-in-law of Li family.

  武则天剧照

Photos of Empress Wu

  按说李显应该以武则天遗诏为蓝本,尊从母亲遗志,写一篇类似于“述圣记”的文章,歌颂母亲。而且,从无字碑上已经刻好的三千三百个方格来看,似乎文章已经写好。那么为何没有刻上呢?其中有何隐情?

It is said that Li Xian should take Wu Zetian's legacy as a model, respect his mother's legacy, write an article similar to "the sage's record", and sing praises to his mother. Moreover, it seems that the article has been written from the 3300 squares that have been engraved on the wordless tablet. So why hasn't it been engraved? What's the secret?

  这要从当时的政局来看:

From the political situation at that time:

  武则天被以张柬之为首的五位大臣联手发动的搞下了台,李显复位后,对五位功臣十分忌惮,担心他们威胁自己的统治,想搞垮他们。而李显办法既不多,也不高明,依靠韦后,依靠。要扶持,打击功臣有什么依据呢?

Wu Zetian was launched by five ministers led by Zhang and Cambodia. After Li Xian's restoration, he was very afraid of the five meritocracy officials, worried that they threatened their rule and wanted to bring them down. However, Li Xian's methods are neither many nor brilliant, relying on empress Wei and relying on her. What is the basis for supporting and attacking meritorious officials?

  李显便想了一招,史书记载叫:“示袭武氏后,不改其政也”。他禁止所有天下说“中兴”,武氏仍立七庙,享受祭祀。这样做,就是让五位大臣知道,我的皇位是大周的,我承认她。大周不是革命,而是继承,你们发动政变简直是,有什么功劳呢!

Li Xian then thought of a move. According to the historical records, it was said that "after the attack on the Wu family, he would not change his politics.". He forbids all the world to say "Zhongxing". Wu still has seven temples and enjoys sacrifice. In doing so, I want to let the five ministers know that my throne is Zhou Dynasty, and I admit her. Big week is not a revolution, but a succession. It's a coup. What's the credit!

  神龙政变

Shenlong coup

  这样虽使五大臣哑口无言,但却与母亲的遗诏相冲突了。母亲说武周已经过去,我变回了李家媳妇;李显却在舆论上还得承认武周。这个碑文不好写啊。就是写了,也不能刻。

In this way, although the five ministers were speechless, they were in conflict with their mother's edict. My mother said that Wu Zhou had passed, and I had changed back to Li's daughter-in-law; but Li Xian had to admit Wu Zhou in public opinion. This inscription is not easy to write. Even if it's written, it can't be engraved.

  之后,大唐进入了八年的动荡,期间发生了七次政变,韦后、、都女人,想效法武则天。致使武则天的尊号频繁变化,太平公主强势时期,武则天竟又得到了“天后圣帝”的帝号,象征自己的野心。

After that, the Tang Dynasty entered eight years of turmoil, during which seven coups took place. Empress Wei, women from all over the country wanted to emulate Empress Wu Zetian. As a result, Wu Zetian's title changed frequently. During the period of Princess Taiping's strong power, Wu Zetian got the title of "empress saint" again, which symbolized her ambition.

  玄宗斗倒太平公主,坐稳皇位后,终于天下太平。玄宗确定了武则天的尊号为“则天顺圣皇后”,并按祖母的遗诏,做了她是李家媳妇的定论。然而李隆基比较开明,当时朝中与民间出现了许多声讨武则天的声音,作为,他也没敢冒着风险趟这个浑水,为祖母立碑。

After Xuanzong defeated Princess Taiping and took the throne, the world was finally peaceful. Xuanzong determined Wu Zetian's title as "empress zetianshun", and made a conclusion that she was Li's daughter-in-law according to her grandmother's edict. However, Li Longji was more enlightened. At that time, there were many voices of denouncing Wu Zetian in the court and among the people. As a result, he didn't dare to take the risk to wade in this muddy water and build a monument for his grandmother.

  李显剧照

Stills of Li Xian

  再到后来,思想保守的封建士大夫,站在维护正统与君权的立场上,将武则天一步步抹黑,变成了祸国殃民的历史罪人。谁又敢给一个罪人立碑,歌功颂德呢。所以,那块碑才一直无字。

Later, the conservative feudal scholar bureaucrats, standing on the position of maintaining the orthodoxy and monarchy, discredited Wu Zetian step by step and turned him into a historical sinner. Who dares to set up a monument and praise a sinner. Therefore, the tablet is still wordless.

  无字碑这个千古之谜也并没有那么复杂,只是封建统治阶级争权夺利的产物。而武则天一生的功过,早已通过各种各样的方式流传了下来,形成她独有的魅力。

The riddle of wordless tablet is not so complicated, it is just the result of feudalism ruling class competing for power and profit. The merits and demerits of Wu Zetian's life have been handed down in various ways, forming her unique charm.

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