“一九四二”记录者白修德:单枪匹马报道美大选-看世界

“一九四二”记录者白修德:单枪匹马报道美大选

  关于1942年发生在中国中原地区河南的那场并不为人熟知的大饥荒,白修德在后来的回忆录《探索历史》(InSearch ofHistory:APersonal Adventure)中这样描述:

  影片《一九四二》使白修德这个名字从历史深处迅速地走入到人们视野中。由于当时美国严格的新闻审查和国民政府的阻挠,1942-1943年的大饥荒报道并不顺利,美国记者白修德克服各种困难,深入灾区采访,他的报道很快在美国引起轰动,也间接给国民政府施加了赈灾压力。

The film "1942" makes the name of baishoude quickly enter people's vision from the depth of history. Due to the strict censorship of news and the obstruction of the national government, the report of the great famine from 1942 to 1943 was not smooth. The American journalist Bai Xiude overcame all kinds of difficulties and went deep into the disaster area to interview. His report soon caused a sensation in the United States and indirectly exerted relief pressure on the national government.

  关于1942年发生在中国中原地区河南的那场并不为人熟知的大饥荒,白修德在后来的回忆录《探索历史》(InSearch ofHistory:APersonal Adventure)中这样描述:

In his later memoir in search of history: personal adventure, Bai Xiude described the unknown famine in Henan Province, the Central Plains of China in 1942 as follows:

  把各县和各村的情况逐一加在一起统计,看来受灾最重的40个县里还有800万居民。其次是一些边缘县份,那里还有许多人正在奄奄待毙。根据我们目击的情况和地方官员给我们提供的死亡数字推算,我们可以推测有两三百万人已经背井离乡外逃了;另有200万人已经饿死。当时是三月份,我们估计,如果庄稼长势正常,新粮也要到五、六月份才能够成熟,所以还会有两三百万人饿死。我在灾区的最后一个星期集中精力于统计数字。我的最可靠的估计是,有500万人已经饿死或快要饿死——无论用什么方法计算,这个数字可能有20%的出入。但是最准确的数字通常都变成了统计资料,因而很容易被人遗忘。我印象最深的,并不是我所搜集的数字,甚至也不是我们在调查灾情时那种麻木不仁的心理,而是一天傍晚我们骑马外出时看见两个人躺在田野里哭泣的情景。他们是一对夫妇,躺在田野里互相搂抱,依偎取暖。我知道他们已命在旦夕,而我也不能停下来;但是在我看来,迎着凛冽的寒风,面对冷漠的世界,他和自己的妻子在弥留之际相依为命地蜷缩在一起,躺在坚硬的雪地上,是一幕惨景,然而他们相爱之深,委实感人肺腑。

According to the statistics of counties and villages one by one, it seems that there are still 8 million residents in the 40 most affected counties. Next are some marginal counties, where many people are dying. According to our sightings and the death figures provided by local officials, we can speculate that 23 million people have fled from their homes and another 2 million have died of hunger. At that time, it was March. We estimated that if the crops grew normally, the new grain would not mature until May and June, so 23 million people would starve to death. My last week in the disaster area focused on statistics. My most reliable estimate is that five million people have starved to death or are dying of starvation - a figure that may vary by 20% in any way. But the most accurate figures are usually statistics, so they are easily forgotten. What impressed me most was not the numbers I collected, not even the apathy we had when investigating the disaster, but the sight of two people lying crying in the field when we rode out one evening. They are a couple, lying in the field hugging each other and snuggling up for warmth. I know that they are dying, and I can't stop; but in my opinion, facing the cold wind and the cold world, he and his wife curled up together on the hard snow when they were dying, which was a tragic scene, but they loved each other deeply and deeply.

  ——《探索历史》,北京:三联书店,1987年版

-- exploring history, Beijing: Sanlian bookstore, 1987 Edition

  深受费正清影响对华产生兴趣

Deeply influenced by Fei Zhengqing and interested in China

  白修德是美国著名记者西奥多·哈罗德·怀特(TheodoreHarold White,1915.5.6-1986.5.15)的中文名字。这位二战时期美国驻华记者的代表人物之一对中国这个东方国家充满兴趣,曾深入报道了二战时期的中国。作为熟练的政治新闻报道记者和小说家,他又在上世纪60年代到80年代期间记录和分析了不同选期内美国总统大选的进程,从而进一步为人熟知,并获得普利策新闻奖。

Baishoude is the Chinese name of Theodore Harold white (1915.5.6-1986.5.15), a famous American journalist. One of the representatives of the American journalists in China during the World War II was interested in China, an oriental country, and had made in-depth reports on China during the World War II. As a skilled political news reporter and novelist, he also recorded and analyzed the process of American presidential election in different election periods from 1960s to 1980s, so as to be better known and won the Pulitzer Prize for news.

  1915年5月,白修德出生于美国波士顿一个犹太人家庭,他的父亲大卫·怀特(David White)是当地的一名律师。根据白修德后来在《探索历史》中所描述的成长经历:他在波士顿的犹太人聚居区长大,进入希伯来语授课的学校上学,并在那里对犹太教圣书塔纳赫产生兴趣,甚至在几十年后,他还能回忆起一些希伯来语的圣书内容。白修德的父亲在他很小的时候就去世了,16岁时,他不得不中断学业,到街头卖报维持家计,饱尝了30年代的经济大萧条给穷人带来的痛苦和辛酸。

In May 1915, he was born into a Jewish family in Boston. His father, David white, was a local lawyer. According to his later growing up experience described in the history of exploration, he grew up in a Jewish community in Boston, went to a Hebrew teaching school, and became interested in the Jewish holy book Tanah there. Even decades later, he could recall some Hebrew holy books. His father died when he was very young. When he was 16, he had to stop studying and sell newspapers on the street to support his family. He suffered from the pain and bitterness of the great depression in the 1930s.

  在早年读书的时候,白修德还参与组织了一个早期的犹太复国主义学校协会。1932年,白修德从免费的波士顿公立拉丁文学校毕业,由于在校期间表现优异,他在1924年获得了220美元的哈佛大学奖学金。当时,他还获得一笔180美元的报童基金。这两笔钱加起来正好可以支付他在哈佛大学的一个学期学费,因此,他进入哈佛大学历史系读书,以后又转入该校的东方研究所学习中国历史。

In his early years of study, he also participated in the organization of an early Zionist School Association. In 1932, he graduated from the free Boston Public Latin School. Because of his outstanding performance, he won a Harvard Scholarship of $220 in 1924. At that time, he also received a $180 Newsboy fund. These two sums of money can pay his tuition fee for a semester in Harvard University. Therefore, he entered the History Department of Harvard University and later transferred to the Oriental Institute of the university to study Chinese history.

  乔伊斯·霍夫曼(Joyce Hoffman)在《新闻与幻象——白修德传》(The odore H.White and Journalism As Illusion)中这样描述白修德的哈佛生涯:他在哈佛读书时候,发现“哈佛的共产主义者多如虱子”,他曾站在图书馆宽阔的阶梯上,将一只拳头挥向天空,宣称道:“我主修历史!我要领导一次革命!”他将自己描述为“温和的主义者”。

Joyce Hoffman described his Harvard career in the story of the odore h. white and journal as illumination. When he was studying at Harvard, he found that "Harvard Communists are more than lice." he stood on the broad steps of the library, waved a fist to the sky and declared: "my lord practices the calendar Shi! I want to lead a revolution! "He described himself as a" moderate. ".

  在哈佛大学期间,白修德是后来成为著名汉学家和历史学家的费正清(JohnK.Fairbank)的第一位弟子。白修德很早就对中国这个东方国家充满兴趣,他在哈佛期间修读了中国历史。在费正清的影响下,他开始尝试着以政治化的眼光看待中国。在师生关系之外,两人也是毕生挚友,白修德离开哈佛后一直与费正清保持紧密关系。他甚至以费正清的姓Fairbank为儿子大卫·费尔班克·怀特(David Fairbank White)命名。

During his time at Harvard, he was the first disciple of John K. Fairbank, who later became a famous Sinologist and historian. Bai Xiude was very interested in China, an oriental country. He studied Chinese history during his time at Harvard. Under the influence of Fei Zhengqing, he began to try to see China from a political perspective. Besides the relationship between teachers and students, they are also lifelong friends. After leaving Harvard, Bai Xiude has kept close relationship with Fei Zhengqing. He even named his son David Fairbank white after Fei Zhengqing's family name Fairbank.

  1938年,白修德以优异的成绩从哈佛大学毕业。与他同期毕业的同学中还包括小约瑟夫·(Joseph P.Kennedy,Jr。),即后来的美国总统约翰·肯尼迪的哥哥。毕业后,白修德申请到一笔海外旅行奖金,他带着这笔钱和费正清的介绍信踏上中国的土地,来到了当时国民党所在地——“陪都”重庆。

In 1938, he graduated from Harvard University with outstanding achievements. Among his classmates who graduated at the same time were Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. )The brother of John Kennedy, the later president of the United States. After graduation, Bai Xiude applied for an overseas travel bonus. With the money and Fei Zhengqing's letter of introduction, he set foot on the land of China and came to Chongqing, the capital of the Kuomintang at that time.

  二战时期的驻华记者生涯

Journalists' career in China during the Second World War

  白修德是二战时期西方记者进入中国活动的一个缩影。他1939年就来到了重庆,开始向西方报道中国的情况。最初,白修德在重庆的工作是国民党宣传部门的顾问,随着对中国的了解不断加深,他逐渐成为了一名中国战局和政局的自由报道者。白修德从1939年开始就跟随国民政府,深入观察了中国的政治情况变化,经历了重庆国民政府一系列重大事件。因此,从时间上而言,他比一般西方记者到中国报道二战战况和国共角力都要更早。

Baishoude is a miniature of Western journalists' activities in China during the Second World War. He came to Chongqing in 1939 and began to report on China to the West. At first, Bai Xiude worked as a consultant in the Propaganda Department of the Kuomintang in Chongqing. With the deepening of his understanding of China, he gradually became a free reporter of China's war situation and political situation. Bai Xiude has been following the national government since 1939, observing the changes of China's political situation and experiencing a series of major events of Chongqing national government. Therefore, in terms of time, he went to China earlier than other Western journalists to report on World War II and the struggle between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party.

  后来,另一位对中国充满兴趣的美国人——美国《时代》杂志的创立者和出版人亨利·卢斯(HenryR.Luce)了解到了白修德的新闻视野和敏锐的捕捉能力,于是邀请他为《时代》杂志供稿。于是,白修德成为了二战时期《时代》杂志在中国的通讯员。

Later, another American who was interested in China, Henry R. Luce, the founder and publisher of time magazine in the United States, learned about the news vision and keen catching ability of Whitehead and invited him to contribute to time magazine. As a result, he became a correspondent of time magazine in China during the Second World War.

  1942年,白修德冲破重重阻挠报道了河南省的大饥荒情况。这段报道经历大大增加了他的影响力,也使他对于国民政府的失望与日俱增。在他看来,这场大饥荒虽然有“1893年皇帝统治以来最严重的旱灾”这样的自然因素,也有日本侵华的外部因素,但是令他“最为愤慨”的是,当时中国的无政府状态导致了这场人祸。

In 1942, Bai Xiude broke through many obstacles to report the great famine in Henan Province. This experience greatly increased his influence and his disappointment with the national government. In his opinion, although there were natural factors such as "the most serious drought since the emperor ruled in 1893" and external factors such as Japanese invasion of China, what made him "most indignant" was that the anarchy in China at that time led to the man-made disaster.

  他后来在《探索历史》中记录:“如果政府采取行动的话,则不致于有这么多的人死于饥馑,这种死亡是人为的”,“中国‘政府’在听任这些人死去,或者说是无意中把他们活活饿死。这个政府正在同日本打仗,为了战争,它横征暴敛。可是,它又不信任自己的货币,战场上的军队奉命可以征收粮食和实物来维持给养。军队在河南干的勾当就是大量征收军粮,数额超过了土地的产量。他们弄光了农村的粮食;他们又不从有余粮的地区运进粮食来;他们根本不顾老百姓的死活。”(《探索历史》,北京:三联书店,1987年版)

"If the government takes action, it will not cause so many people to die of starvation. This kind of death is man-made," he later wrote in the history of exploration. "The Chinese 'government' is letting these people die, or inadvertently starving them to death. The government is at war with Japan. For the sake of war, it has collected money. However, it did not trust its own currency. The army on the battlefield was ordered to collect food and materials to maintain supplies. What the army does in Henan is to collect a large amount of grain, which exceeds the output of the land. They run out of food in the countryside; they do not bring in food from areas where there is surplus food; they do not care about the lives of the people at all. " (exploring history, Beijing: Sanlian bookstore, 1987)

  当时国民党政府的新闻审查很严格,而《时代》杂志的编辑也常常因为观点和报道角度上与白修德的分歧,不断要求他修改稿件。这些都令白修德感到烦恼。尽管他仍然怀有对卢斯的极大尊敬,但他还是辞去了《时代》杂志通讯员的职务,并回归到自由写作和报道的状态中。

At that time, the Kuomintang government had strict censorship of the news, and the editors of time magazine often asked him to revise his manuscripts because of their differences of views and reporting angles. All this bothered Bethune. Although he still has great respect for Luce, he resigned as a correspondent for Time magazine and returned to a state of free writing and reporting.

  1947年,白修德和另一位美国驻华记者贾安娜(Annalee Jacoby)合作撰写出版了《中国的惊雷》(Thunder Out of China)一书,记录了他们眼中处于战争年代和危急时刻的中国,包括国民党政府的无能和腐化以及共产党力量的逐步兴起。作者还呼吁美国重视中国国内政治力量的变化。在这本书的引言中,作者告诫:“在亚洲,10亿人对世界的现状感到厌倦,他们生活在情况如此恶劣的奴役中,除了身上的枷锁,已经无所可失去……不到一千年前,欧洲也经历了这样的过程并走向反抗……今天的亚洲人民也走在同样的道路上。”

In 1947, Bai Xiude and another American journalist in China, Annale Jacoby, CO authored and published the book thunder out of China, recording what they saw as China in the era of war and crisis, including the incompetence and corruption of the Kuomintang government and the gradual rise of the Communist Party. The author also calls on the United States to pay attention to the changes in China's domestic political power. In the introduction of the book, the author cautions: "in Asia, 1 billion people are tired of the status quo of the world. They live in such a terrible slavery, and have nothing to lose but their shackles Less than a thousand years ago, Europe also experienced such a process and went to revolt Today's Asian people are on the same path. "

  “总统的诞生”系列作品和美国大选

"The birth of the president" series and American election

  《中国的惊雷》虽然反响很大,但也影响到白修德的新闻事业。美国作家彼得·兰德后来在反映驻华记者生态的作品《走进中国:美国记者的冒险与磨难》中分析:“白修德的《中国的惊雷》出版后,就完全抛弃了中国。虽然避免了同谋罪的灾难,但纽约也抛弃了他。”

Although "China's thunder" has great repercussions, it also affects the journalism of baishoude. Peter Rand, an American writer, later analyzed in his work "into China: Adventures and tribulations of American journalists", which reflected the ecology of journalists in China: "after the publication of" China's thunder ", he completely abandoned China. Although the catastrophe of complicity was avoided, New York abandoned him

  此后,白修德担任了海外通讯社(Overseas News Agency)的欧洲通讯员。1948年,他举家迁居巴黎,报道马歇尔计划的执行情况。他在这个时期的著作有描写战后西欧的《灰烬中的火焰》(Firein the Ashes)。

Since then, he has served as a European correspondent for the overseas news agency. In 1948, his family moved to Paris to report on the implementation of the Marshall Plan. His works in this period include "fire in the ashes", which describes Post-war Western Europe.

  1953年,这位在海外漂泊了十多年的游子回到了美国,但回国后的生活却不如人意。他与很多替中国共产党说过公道话的美国进步人士一样,受到麦卡锡主义的迫害,被吊销了护照;雇佣他的一家杂志社也破产倒闭,他成为一名无办公室可去的失业者。于是,他花费了一年时间,撰写了一部以中国为题材的小说《山路》(TheMountain Road),回顾了他的二战报道生涯。这部作品记述了面对日本人的进攻时在华美军撤退的往事,也坦陈了当时美军内部的冲突,以及对中国的消极态度。这本小说出版后受到好评,并于1960年被拍成了反战主题的电影,也让白修德赚够了足够全家维持几年开支的稿费。

In 1953, he returned to the United States after more than ten years of wandering abroad, but his life after returning home was not satisfactory. He was persecuted by McCarthyism and his passport was revoked, like many progressive Americans who spoke Fair for the Communist Party of China. A magazine that hired him went bankrupt, and he became an unemployed man without an office. So he spent a year writing the mountain road, a novel about China, and reviewed his World War II reporting career. This work recounts the past of the retreat of US troops in China in the face of the Japanese attack, as well as the internal conflicts of the US troops at that time, as well as the negative attitude towards China. The novel was well received after its publication, and was made into an anti war movie in 1960. It also earned enough money for the whole family to keep spending for several years.

  在经历了回国后的挫折和成功后,白修德决定实现一生职业的重大转变,投身专业写作。他开美国新闻史上的先河,单枪匹马地投入美国总统选举的专业报道。美国每四年举行一次大选,产生一位总统,他也打算每四年写一本《总统的诞生》的专著。

After experiencing the setbacks and success after returning home, Bai Xiude decided to realize a major career change in his life and devote himself to professional writing. He pioneered in the history of American journalism and devoted himself to the professional coverage of American presidential election. The United States holds an election every four years to produce a president. He also plans to write a monograph on the birth of the president every four years.

  从上世纪60年代开始,白修德陆续推出了他的“总统的诞生”系列,分别观察和分析了1960年、1964年、1968年、1972年和1980年的美国总统选举,丰富的海外经历和敏锐的分析能力使他在这段时期的政治写作中得心应手。该系列

Since the 1960s, Whitehead has successively launched his series of "the birth of the president", observing and analyzing the American presidential elections in 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972 and 1980 respectively. His rich overseas experience and keen analytical ability made him handy in his political writing in this period. The series

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