林则徐:从争议人物到全民偶像-看世界

林则徐:从争议人物到全民偶像

  清代终结后,两极化的林则徐形象再度演变,民国时期的历史书对其多有反思乃至批评。而1949年后对林的评价以褒为主,在不同的历史背景下,有清官情结;有阶级斗争思维;有群众路线;有反帝爱国的主题;甚至有“改革开放”。林则徐就这样走上了历史神坛。

  在这些历史叙述中,为了衬托,琦善等人甚至都成了反动派、昏君、卖国贼。如果不是他们的捣乱与破坏,广大人民群众在林则徐的领导下,肯定会从一个胜利走向另一个胜利。

In these historical narratives, in order to set off, Qi Shan and others even became reactionaries, faint monarchs and traitors. If it wasn't for their disturbance and destruction, the masses would surely move from one victory to another under the leadership of Lin Zexu.

  清代终结后,两极化的林则徐形象再度演变,时期的历史书对其多有反思乃至批评。而1949年后对林的评价以褒为主,在不同的历史背景下,有清官情结;有阶级斗争思维;有群众路线;有反帝爱国的主题;甚至有“改革开放”。林则徐就这样走上了历史神坛。

After the end of the Qing Dynasty, the image of Lin Zexu changed again. The historical books of the period reflected and even criticized it. After 1949, the evaluation of Lin was mainly based on praise. Under different historical background, there were the feelings of honest officials, the thinking of class struggle, the mass line, the theme of anti imperialism and patriotism, and even "reform and opening up". So Lin Zexu went to the altar of history.

  民国时期,具体来讲是在20世纪30至40年代,出现了几部影响较大的中国近代史教科书,对林则徐的评价还是有好有坏。

During the period of the Republic of China, especially from the 1930s to the 1940s, there were several textbooks of modern Chinese history with great influence.

  1934年商务印书馆出版陈恭禄的《中国近代史》,虽然肯定林则徐“不顾一切,毅然禁烟”的行为乃“民族之光也”,但却同时批评“其失败之主因,多由于对外知识之浅陋”。

In 1934, the Commercial Press published Chen gonglu's "modern history of China". Although it was affirmed that Lin Zexu's "reckless and resolute prohibition of smoking" was "the light of the nation", it criticized "the main cause of his failure, mostly due to the superficial foreign knowledge".

  1938年商务印书馆出版蒋廷黼的《中国近代史》,批评明显多了:“中国士大夫阶级(知识阶级和官僚阶级)最缺乏独立的、大无畏的精神。无论在哪个时代,总有少数人看事较远较清,但是他们怕清议的指摘,默而不言,林则徐就是个好例子。”

In 1938, the Commercial Press published Jiang Tingfu's modern history of China. The criticism was much more obvious: "the Chinese literati class (the intellectual class and the bureaucratic class) lacked the most independent and fearless spirit. No matter in which era, there are always a few people who look at things far away and are more clear, but they are afraid of the criticism of the Qing Dynasty, silent and silent. Lin Zexu is a good example. "

  作者举证认为,林则徐在私函中言及中西技术差距,十分透彻,但他虽有此认识,却碍于名誉,不敢提倡改革。

The author points out that Lin Zexu's private letter about the technological gap between China and the west is very thorough, but although he has this understanding, he is in the way of reputation and dare not advocate reform.

  1949年后,近代史教科书及相关著作以崭新的面貌出现,林则徐的历史形象也发生了翻天覆地的变化。

After 1949, modern history textbooks and related works appeared with a new look, and Lin Zexu's historical image also changed dramatically.

  1954年人民出版社出版范文澜的《中国近代史》,说林则徐是少数进步人士的代表者,这种进步性主要表现在依靠人民的力量云云。1958年湖南人民出版社出版林增平的《中国近代史》,说林则徐自到广东以后,就着手整顿广东海防,并开始了解国外情况;特别是林则徐有依靠民众的思想,深信“民心可用”,确认民众“必能自保身家,团结御侮”。1981年上海人民出版社出版来新夏的《林则徐年谱》,给林则徐定位如下:坚决维护民族利益的爱国者和中国近代史上具有远见卓识的政治家。1981年人民出版社出版杨国桢的《林则徐传》,1995年又出版了其修订本,给林则徐的定位是:杰出的政治家与民族英雄,领导禁烟抗英斗争和探求西方知识的努力,在近代历史上起了先驱者的作用。1993年天津人民出版社出版傅美林、陈文蔚的《新编中国近代史》,说林则徐厉行禁烟政策,但并不反对正常的中外贸易;提出“奉法者来之,抗法者去之”的主张;林则徐用心研究国际形势,派人翻译外国书报了解情况。1994年北京师范大学出版社出版郑师渠的《中国近代史》,书中说:虎门销烟后,林则徐宣布开放中英贸易,但要求进口商船出具甘结,保证永不夹带鸦片;林则徐反对西方殖民者的侵略行径,但是并不禁止外商进行正当贸易;林则徐还不顾清政府高级官员不得与外国人往来的惯例,向他们宣讲清政府的禁烟政策,沟通了中外之间的必要联系。

In 1954, people's Publishing House published Fan Wenlan's "modern history of China", saying that Lin Zexu was the representative of a few progressive people, which mainly reflected in relying on the power of the people. In 1958, Hunan people's Publishing House published Lin zengping's "modern history of China", saying that since Lin Zexu arrived in Guangdong, he began to rectify Guangdong's coastal defense and began to understand the situation abroad; in particular, Lin Zexu had the idea of relying on the people, believing that "the people's heart can be used", and confirmed that the people "must be able to protect themselves and unite against aggression". In 1981, Shanghai People's Publishing House published the chronicles of Lin Zexu in the new Xia Dynasty, which positioned Lin Zexu as follows: a patriot who resolutely safeguarded national interests and a statesman with vision and insight in modern Chinese history. In 1981, the people's Publishing House published the biography of Lin Zexu by Yang Guozhen, and in 1995, it also published its revised edition, which positioned Lin Zexu as an outstanding statesman and national hero, leading the struggle against smoking and Britain, and seeking for Western knowledge, which played a pioneering role in modern history. In 1993, Tianjin People's Publishing House published a new edition of modern Chinese history by Fu Meilin and Chen Wenwei, saying that Lin Zexu strictly implemented the policy of banning smoking, but did not oppose the normal Chinese and foreign trade; he proposed the idea that "those who obey the law will come, and those who resist the law will go"; Lin Zexu studied the international situation carefully and sent people to translate foreign books and newspapers to understand the situation. In 1994, Beijing Normal University Press published Zheng Shiqu's "modern history of China", which said: after Humen sold cigarettes, Lin Zexu announced the opening of Sino British trade, but asked the import merchant ship to issue a knot to ensure that opium would never be brought; Lin Zexu opposed the aggression of western colonists, but did not prohibit foreign businessmen from carrying out legitimate trade; Lin Zexu did not care about the fact that senior government officials were not allowed to work with foreign countries The customs of people to people exchanges, the anti smoking policy of the Qing government, and the necessary links between China and foreign countries.

  在这些历史叙述中,为了衬托林则徐,琦善等人甚至道光都成了反动派、昏君、卖国贼。如果不是他们的捣乱与破坏,广大人民群众在林则徐的领导下,肯定会从一个胜利走向另一个胜利。

In these historical narratives, in order to set off Lin Zexu, Qi Shan and others even Daoguang became reactionaries, faint monarchs and traitors. If it wasn't for their disturbance and destruction, the masses would surely move from one victory to another under the leadership of Lin Zexu.

  林则徐就这样走上了历史神坛。

So Lin Zexu went to the altar of history.

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