书法家颜真卿的另一面:曾统帅20万大军平乱-看世界

书法家颜真卿的另一面:曾统帅20万大军平乱

  颜鲁公祠

  颜真卿是唐代著名书法家,和赵孟頫、柳公权、欧阳询并称为“楷书四大家”。其实颜真卿不仅是书法家,还是著名的政治家、军事家。唐玄宗天宝年间,、史思明发动,颜真卿曾统帅20万大军,横扫燕赵之地。颜真卿曾任升州(今南京)刺史。在其任上,颜真卿上书,在全国设放生池81处,现在南京乌龙潭公园便是现存的一处。1982年,乌龙潭内的颜鲁公祠(颜真卿受封鲁郡公)列入南京市文物保护单位

Yan Zhenqing is a famous calligrapher in Tang Dynasty. He is also known as "four masters of regular script" together with Zhao Mengfu, Liu Gongquan and Ouyang Xun. In fact, Yan Zhenqing is not only a calligrapher, but also a famous politician and strategist. In the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty, Shi Siming launched the campaign. Yan Zhenqing once commanded 200000 troops and swept the land of Yanzhao. Yan Zhenqing was appointed governor of the state (now Nanjing). In his term of office, Yan Zhenqing wrote that there are 81 release pools in the country, and now Nanjing Wulongtan park is the existing one. In 1982, the ancestral hall of Yan Lu in Wulongtan (Yan Zhenqing was granted the title of Lu Jungong) was listed as a cultural relic protection unit in Nanjing.

  颜鲁公祠

Yanlu Temple

  近日,记者来到广州路走进乌龙潭公园,看到一座青砖黑瓦的中国传统建筑,掩映在一片绿树之中。方方正正的门框上方,镶着一块石碑,上书“顏魯公祠”四个绿色颜体大字,书写者是清年间担任江宁知府的涂宗瀛。大门东侧的墙角,立着南京市文物保护单位的石碑。

Recently, the reporter came to Guangzhou road and walked into Wulongtan park. He saw a traditional Chinese building with green bricks and black tiles, which was hidden in a green tree. On the top of Fang Fangzheng's doorframe is a stone tablet with four big green characters of Yan Lu Temple written by Tu Zongying, the governor of Jiangning in the Qing Dynasty. In the corner of the east side of the gate stands the stone tablet of Nanjing cultural relics protection unit.

  祠堂共有两进12间。大殿正中间,悬挂着中国当代画家王宏喜先生绘制的《顏真卿造像》,画像之上,悬挂着中国著名书法家赵朴初书写的“書壇泰斗”四个烫金大字,遒劲有力。画像两侧的楹联为曾任全国书法家协会主席的沈鹏先生所书,内容为:“翰墨見精神兩間三塊帖功名垂竹帛千古一清臣”。

There are 12 ancestral halls in total. In the middle of the main hall, there is a picture of Yan Zhenqing painted by Wang Hongxi, a contemporary Chinese painter. On the picture, there are four gilded characters written by Zhao Puchu, a famous Chinese calligrapher. They are powerful. The couplets on both sides of the portrait were written by Mr. Shen Peng, who was once the chairman of the national Calligrapher Association. The contents are: "the calligraphy shows the spirit of two rooms with three pieces of calligraphy, which is famous for its bamboo and silk, and a Qing official for thousands of years".

  颜真卿曾统帅20万大军

Yan Zhenqing once commanded 200000 troops

  《旧唐书·颜真卿传》记载,颜真卿,唐玄宗开元二十二年(公元734年)中进士,曾4次被任命为御史。天宝八年(公元750年),颜真卿得罪权臣被调离出京,降为平原郡(今山东陵县)太守。谁想到,这一调动成就了颜真卿的千古功绩。平原郡属于权臣安禄山管辖范围,颜真卿到任后,眼见安禄山有谋反之意,便私下整修城池、囤积粮食。天宝十四年十一月初九(公元前755年12月16日),安禄山果然叛乱,河北二十四郡除了平原郡守备很好外,其他城池均失守。唐玄宗听闻安禄山叛乱,叹曰:“河北二十四郡,岂无一忠臣乎!”之后又听闻颜真卿独自坚守,又叹曰:“朕不识颜真卿形状何如,所为得如此!”

According to the biography of Yan Zhenqing in the old book of the Tang Dynasty, Yan Zhenqing, a Jinshi in the 22nd year of the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 734), has been appointed as the Royal historian four times. In the eighth year of Tianbao (A.D. 750), Yan Zhenqing was transferred out of the capital to be the chief of Pingyuan county (now Dongling County of the mountain) after offending the officials. Who would have thought that this mobilization has achieved Yan Zhenqing's eternal achievements. Pingyuan county is under the jurisdiction of Anlu mountain, a powerful official. When Yan Zhenqing came to office, he saw that Anlu mountain was rebellious, so he privately renovated the city and hoarded food. On November 9, 2014 (December 16, 755 BC), Anlu mountain rebelled. Except for Pingyuan County, all the other cities in Hebei were lost. When Emperor Xuanzong heard about the rebellion of Anlu mountain, he sighed and said, "there are no loyal officials in the twenty-four counties of Hebei Province!" later, he heard that Yan Zhenqing stood by himself and sighed and said, "I don't know the shape of Yan Zhenqing and what he did!"

  仅仅33天后,安、史叛军攻破东都洛阳,屯兵于潼关,意图直捣长安。颜真卿趁机说服河北一十七郡归顺朝廷,颜真卿被推为联军盟主,统领20万大军,横扫燕赵之地,使得叛军不能急攻潼关。第二年,唐玄宗之子李亨即位,为肃宗。颜真卿受封为河北招讨使,在河北平乱。至德二年(公元757年),颜真卿在凤翔见到了李亨,被授予宪部(即刑部)尚书之职,后加升为御史大夫。

Only 33 days later, the rebels of an and Shi conquered Luoyang, the eastern capital, and stationed troops in Tongguan, intending to attack Chang'an directly. Yan Zhenqing took the opportunity to persuade the 117 counties of Hebei Province to submit to the court. Yan Zhenqing was pushed to be the leader of the Allied forces, commanding 200000 troops and sweeping the land of yanzhao, so that the rebels could not rush to Tongguan. The next year, Li Heng, the son of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty, became emperor suzong. Yan Zhenqing was appointed as an emissary of Hebei to pacify the rebellion. In the second year of Zhide (757 A.D.), Yan Zhenqing met Li Heng in Fengxiang, and was granted the post of minister of the Ministry of constitution (i.e. the Ministry of punishment), and later promoted to the rank of Imperial officer.

  升州刺史任内设置放生池

Setting up a releasing pool under the leadership of the governor of Shengzhou

  乾元二年(公元759年),颜真卿调任浙西节度使兼升州刺史。此时安史之乱虽尚未平复,但长安、洛阳两京也已收复,为此颜真卿上书唐肃宗,请求设置放生池,以示贤明睿智、英明神武且广播慈爱。他在《天下放生池碑铭序》一文中称:“始于洋州之兴道,洎山南、剑南、黔中、荆南、岭南、江西、浙西诸道,讫于升州之江宁秦淮太平桥。临江带郭,上下五里,各置放生池,凡81所。”现如今,1200多年过去了,这81处放生池,可以考证的,也仅剩南京乌龙潭这一处。

In the second year of Qianyuan era (759 A.D.), Yan Zhenqing was transferred to the post of governor of Western Zhejiang Province and promoted to governor of the state. At this time, although the rebellion of an Shi has not been recovered, the two capitals of Chang'an and Luoyang have also been recovered. For this reason, Yan Zhenqing wrote to Emperor suzong of Tang Dynasty and asked to set up a release pool to show his wisdom, wisdom, martial arts and love. He said in the preface to the inscription of the world's free living pool: "it started from the road of Yangzhou, and ended at the Taiping Bridge of Jiangning, Qinhuai and Qinhuai in Shengzhou. Linjiang with Guo, up and down five li, each set free pool, where 81. " Now, more than 1200 years later, there are only 81 release pools in Nanjing, which can be verified.

  建中四年(公元783年),淮西节度使李希烈叛乱。唐德宗派时任太子太师,已经74岁高龄的颜真卿作为使臣,前往淮西劝降李希烈。

In the fourth year of Jianzhong (783 A.D.), Li xilie, the governor of Huaixi, rebelled. Emperor Dezong of Tang Dynasty sent Yan Zhenqing, a 74 year old prince at that time, as his emissary, to Huaixi to persuade Li xilie to surrender.

  颜真卿刚到淮西,便被李希烈囚禁。李希烈软硬兼施,试图劝降颜真卿,未果。唐德宗兴元元年(公元785年),李希烈之弟李希倩被朝廷处死,李希烈大为恼怒,将颜真卿缢死于龙兴寺柏树下,终年76岁。第二年叛乱平定,颜真卿的灵柩护送回京,葬于京兆万年颜氏祖坟。德宗诏文曰:“器质天资,公忠杰出,出入四朝,坚贞一志。”并为此废朝八日。

As soon as Yan Zhenqing arrived in Huaixi, he was imprisoned by Li xilie. Li xilie tried to persuade Yan Zhenqing to surrender, but failed. In the first year of emperor Dezong's reign (785 A.D.), Li xiqian, the younger brother of Li xilie, was executed by the court. Li xilie was very angry and hanged Yan Zhenqing under the cypress of Longxing Temple. He was 76 years old. In the second year, the rebellion was brought to an end, and Yan Zhenqing's coffin was escorted back to Beijing and buried in Yan's ancestral Tomb of ten thousand years in Beijing. Dezong Zhaowen said: "the quality of the utensils is talent, the loyalty is outstanding, going in and out of the four dynasties, and being faithful." For this reason, the dynasty was abolished for eight days.

  20年后,李纯即位,逐渐从接连战乱所造成的破坏中恢复过来,史称“元和中兴”。为纪念颜真卿平定叛乱、设置放生池的功绩,南京人民在乌龙潭内建起放生庵。放生庵历经宋、元、明、清诸朝,历代均有修葺。清三年(公元1853年),太平军攻陷南京,乌龙潭内的放生庵也毁于战火。同治六年(公元1867年),的门生涂宗瀛升任江宁知府。此时的南京城刚刚经历一场大浩劫,可谓百废待兴。涂宗瀛为显示自己慈仁且不忍杀生,在放生庵的旧址上建起祠堂,并亲题牌匾,纪念颜真卿。因颜真卿曾被封为鲁郡公,祠堂也被命名为颜鲁公祠,并保留至今。1982年,颜鲁公祠列入南京市文物保护单位。

Twenty years later, Li Chun ascended the throne and gradually recovered from the damage caused by successive wars, which was known as "Yuanhe Zhongxing". In order to commemorate Yan Zhenqing's success in pacifying the rebellion and setting up a releasing pool, Nanjing people built a releasing nunnery in Wulongtan. After song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, Fangsheng temple has been repaired in all previous dynasties. In the third year of the Qing Dynasty (1853 A.D.), Taiping army captured Nanjing, and the laissez faire in Wulongtan was destroyed in the war. In the sixth year of tongzhi (1867 A.D.), Tu Zongying, a student, was promoted to Jiangning Prefecture magistrate. At this time, Nanjing has just experienced a catastrophe, which can be described as a waste waiting for prosperity. In order to show his benevolence and intolerant of killing, Tu Zongying built a ancestral hall on the former site of the laissez faire and inscribed a plaque to commemorate Yan Zhenqing. Since Yan Zhenqing was once named Duke of Lu, the ancestral hall was also named Prince of Yan Lu, and it has been preserved up to now. In 1982, Yanlu temple was listed as a cultural relics protection unit in Nanjing.

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