曹雪芹传说:去世后刘姥姥第一个来奔丧-看世界

曹雪芹传说:去世后刘姥姥第一个来奔丧

  代代人 口耳相传

  纪念馆位于海淀区香山一带的正白旗村,是一个幽静的四合院。记者采访时,由于前几天刚下过雪,没化的积雪伴着安静的环境,不免让人感受到文人的气息,心也随之静了下来。这个纪念馆的所在地正是曹雪芹晚年居住的地方,也正因为曹雪芹曾住在这里,并在此修改了闻名遐迩的著作《》,让这一带的老百姓都对曹雪芹既有欣赏又有崇敬,于是便把他的故事进行了再加工、演变,形成了国家级非物质文化遗产——曹雪芹的传说。

The memorial hall is located in zhengbaiqi village, Xiangshan District, Haidian District. It is a quiet quadrangle. During the reporter's interview, as it had just snowed a few days ago, the snow was not melted and accompanied by a quiet environment, which inevitably made people feel the literati's breath, and their hearts also calmed down. The location of this memorial hall is exactly where Cao Xueqin lived in his later years. Because Cao Xueqin once lived here, he revised the famous book "Cao Xueqin", which made the people in this area have both appreciation and respect for Cao Xueqin. So he reprocessed and evolved his story, forming the national intangible cultural heritage - the legend of Cao Xueqin.

  代代人 口耳相传

From generation to generation

  与其他非物质文化遗产不同的是,曹雪芹的传说并没有明确的传承人,传承的方式也有明显的区别,并非像老手艺人那样,父传子、师带徒,它是集体传承的,即父亲讲故事给儿子、孙子听,村里人说给亲戚、朋友知道。这样一代代传下来,虽不能说是具体哪一年开始流传的,但至少可以确定的起始时间是清晚期,距今也已有140多年了。

Different from other intangible cultural heritages, Cao Xueqin's legend does not have a clear inheritor, and there are obvious differences in the way of inheritance. It is not the same as the veteran artists. It is a collective inheritance, that is, the father tells stories to his son and grandson, and the villagers tell them to their relatives and friends. Although it can't be said which year it began to spread from generation to generation, at least it can be determined that the starting time is the late Qing Dynasty, which is more than 140 years ago.

  海淀区香山一带关于曹雪芹的故事和传说涉及面很广,包含有曹雪芹的个性、身世、经历、亲戚、朋友、曹雪芹如何写作《红楼梦》,曹雪芹的居所,曹雪芹如何扶危济困等。百姓口耳相传不仅保存了他的传说故事,在曹雪芹相关文献资料较少的情况下更加显得宝贵与重要。

The stories and legends about Cao Xueqin in Xiangshan area of Haidian District cover a wide range, including Cao Xueqin's personality, life experience, experience, relatives, friends, how Cao Xueqin wrote a dream of Red Mansions, Cao Xueqin's residence, and how Cao Xueqin helped the poor. People's oral transmission not only preserved his legend, but also became more valuable and important when Cao Xueqin had few related documents.

  曹雪芹常听“”讲故事

Cao Xueqin often listens to stories

  樊志斌是北京曹雪芹学会成员,同时也是《曹雪芹西山传说》的编辑。他介绍说,目前现知的曹雪芹传说有100多个,而《红楼梦》中也能发现不少传说的影子。

Fan Zhibin is a member of Beijing Cao Xueqin society, and also the editor of Cao Xueqin's legend of western mountain. He said that at present, there are more than 100 known legends of Cao Xueqin, and many legends can be found in a dream of Red Mansions.

  “红楼梦中的刘姥姥大家一定不陌生,这是一个很出彩儿的角色。寥寥几笔,曹雪芹就把乡下人那种朴实无华描写得非常到位。而这个刘姥姥就很可能出自香山。”樊志斌说,当时刘姥姥住在地藏沟,她家从就居住于此。当曹雪芹搬到正白旗村后,因为两家离的近,所以两人不时能碰面。曹雪芹好聊天,刘姥姥又有一肚子故事,于是曹雪芹没事就找刘姥姥听故事。曹雪芹去世的年初一,第一个奔丧的就是刘姥姥,在讨论把曹雪芹葬在何处时,也是刘姥姥第一个提议把他葬在地藏沟,因为那里是刘姥姥自家开的山地。

"You must be familiar with grandma Liu in the dream of Red Mansions. This is a very brilliant role. With only a few strokes, Cao Xueqin described the rustic simplicity in a very proper way. And grandma Liu probably came from Xiangshan. " Fan Zhibin said that at that time, grandma Liu lived in the dibanggou, where her family has lived ever since. When Cao Xueqin moved to zhengbaiqi village, because the two families were close, the two met from time to time. Cao Xueqin is good at chatting, and grandma Liu has a lot of stories, so Cao Xueqin will listen to grandma Liu if she is OK. On the first day of the first year of Cao Xueqin's death, grandma Liu was the first to mourn. When discussing where to bury Cao Xueqin, grandma Liu was the first to propose to bury him in the underground ditch, because it was the mountain where Grandma Liu owned her own home.

  《红楼梦》中贾府来了几个清客,曹雪芹写到这里时,想在名字上讽刺他们,于是就把其中一个取名为“胡斯赖”。但这个“胡斯赖”是什么很多人都不知道。其实,这是香山地区的一种水果。这种水果是当地人用苹果和槟子嫁接而成,样子非常漂亮,可味道却很干涩,只适合在果盘里摆着装样子。樊志斌说:“传说中曹雪芹也是在香山知道这种水果的,给清客取这个名字就寓意他们是外表光鲜但没什么内在的人。”

In a dream of Red Mansions, several pilgrims came to Jia's house. When Cao Xueqin wrote here, he wanted to satirize them by name, so he named one of them "husley". But many people don't know what this husley is. In fact, this is a kind of fruit in Xiangshan area. This kind of fruit is grafted by local people with apple and betel. It looks very beautiful, but it tastes very dry. It is only suitable for dressing in the fruit plate. Fan Zhibin said: "it is said that Cao Xueqin also knows this kind of fruit in Xiangshan. To give this name to the pilgrims means that they are people with bright appearance but no inner part."

  口传故事采集难

Hard to collect oral stories

  这些涉及曹雪芹的故事非常生动,可要想整理却并不简单。樊志斌等人在采风的过程中,几乎走遍了附近的村子,询问了十多个村民。作为民间文学,传说有它独特的特点。樊志斌称,同一个人5年前讲的内容,现在讲肯定会不一样,故事的主体虽然一样但细节会发生变化。“传说不等于历史或真实,我们在这次采风的时候,发现了很多以前没有的传说,可能是村民在这个村讲,但是在那个村就没有,给这个亲戚讲,给朋友就没讲过。还有一些老人去世了,儿子可能不会讲了,有些老人搬到城里去了,附近又没人知道。”

These stories about Cao Xueqin are very vivid, but they are not easy to arrange. Fan Zhibin and others, in the process of collecting wind, went almost all over the nearby villages and asked about more than ten villagers. As folk literature, legend has its unique characteristics. Fan Zhibin said that what the same person said five years ago will definitely be different now. Although the main body of the story is the same, the details will change. "Legends are not equal to history or reality. When we gather wind this time, we found many legends that we didn't have before. Maybe the villagers told them in this village, but they didn't in that village. They told them to relatives and friends. There are some old people who have passed away, and their sons may not be able to talk about it. Some old people have moved to the city, and no one knows about it. "

  如今百姓的娱乐生活大大丰富了,香山一带也是如此,早已不是当年“听妈妈讲述过去的事情”的年代了。因此,很多传说年轻人很少知道,只能找当地的老一辈打听。樊志斌回忆,香山山顶有一位90多岁的老人,他讲出了夸是“公道老儿”的由来。

Nowadays, people's entertainment life is greatly enriched, and so is Xiangshan. It's not the time of "listening to my mother tell me about the past" for a long time. Therefore, many legend young people seldom know, can only find the local older generation to inquire. Fan Zhibin recalled that there was an old man in his 90s at the top of Xiangshan mountain. He said that boasting was the origin of "fair old man".

  “公道老儿”其实是一种植物,香山地区的人都喜欢种它。不过种它不为收获,为的是划清地界。有些人喜欢贪便宜,每年耕地的时候都往别人家多刨一点,被发现的时候还不承认。可有了“公道老儿”,一看便知道界限在哪,这块地应该是谁的。因为它的根很深,所以爱贪小便宜的人想刨走很不容易。所以当地人就称这种植物最“公道”。“曹雪芹当年在山顶住过,所以他很可能是当时知道的‘公道老儿’。只可惜我们第二年想再去找这位老人,却得知他已经去世了。”

"Fair old man" is actually a kind of plant. People in Xiangshan area like to plant it. However, planting it is not for harvest, but for delimiting the boundary. Some people like to be greedy and cheap. They plow a little bit more every year, but they still don't admit it when they are found. But with "fair old man", we can see where the boundary is and whose land should be. Because of its deep roots, it's not easy for people who love small and cheap to dig away. So locals call this plant the most "fair.". "Cao Xueqin lived at the top of the mountain, so he was probably the" fair old man "he knew at that time. It's a pity that we want to go to the old man again the next year, only to learn that he has passed away. "

  “很多人认为曹雪芹没在白家滩待过,但山(泛指香山一带)后有一个传说,是一位九旬老人曾经讲过的。他称自己家里三代都是给关帝庙看门的。当年他想把庙门口铲平,种点东西。结果他姥爷说了句‘你知道么你铲的就是当年曹雪芹住过的房子吗’。”樊志斌称,这其实是一个很好的传说,但可惜采风时老爷子已经去世了,他们只能从女婿那得知二手版本。

"Many people think Cao Xueqin didn't stay in Baijiatan, but there is a legend behind the mountain (generally referring to Xiangshan area), which was once said by an old man in his nineties. He said that three generations of his family were gatekeepers to Guandi temple. At that time, he wanted to level the gate of the temple and plant something. As a result, his grandfather said, "you know what you shovel is the house Cao Xueqin lived in." Fan Zhibin said that this is actually a good legend, but it's a pity that the old man died when he was collecting wind. They can only learn the second-hand version from their son-in-law.

  采风中不免遇到嘴拙唇笨的村民,明明知道却讲不出来,或讲得都七零八落,很多细节都没了,只有几句硬邦邦的话。此外,由于拆迁,村里人一下子激增,原来只有几十人、几百人的村子,一下变成了几万人的大村。“原来一进村子打听你们村儿岁数最大的就行了,但现在进村一问,人家都说‘我不是本村人,不知道’。这样也给我们找人造成了很大的困难。”

In the gathering wind, we can't help but meet the villagers with clumsy lips. They know but they can't speak, or they can't speak. Many details are gone, only a few hard words. In addition, as a result of the demolition, the number of people in the village suddenly increased. The village with only dozens or hundreds of people turned into a large village with tens of thousands of people. "I used to ask about the oldest one in your village, but now when I go to the village, people say," I'm not from my village, I don't know. ". It also makes it very difficult for us to find people. "

  保护非遗从孩子抓起

Protect intangible cultural heritage from children

  正如《传》是由山东地区造反的传说而来一样,传说本身为文学创作提供了财富,为精英文化提供了基础。

Just like the legend of revolt in Shandong, the legend itself provides wealth for literary creation and foundation for elite culture.

  曹雪芹的传说流传面很广,、颐和园、香山、门头村等地均有,而这些地区的老百姓对它的认知度也很高。曹雪芹的传说不仅表达了老百姓对他的认知和怀念,也反映了老百姓对真善美的追求。可以说曹雪芹传说是“红学”研究的重要参考资料,不论是从学术研究,还是从非物质文化遗产保护和建设等方面,都是重要的文化遗产。

Cao Xueqin's legend has a wide spread, such as the summer palace, Xiangshan, Mentou village, etc., and people in these areas have a high awareness of it. Cao Xueqin's legend not only expresses the common people's recognition and nostalgia for him, but also reflects the common people's pursuit of truth, goodness and beauty. It can be said that the legend of Cao Xueqin is an important reference material for the study of "Hongxue". It is an important cultural heritage both in academic research and in the protection and construction of intangible cultural heritage.

  为了宣传、保护曹雪芹的传说,在曹雪芹纪念馆设有展板,介绍曹雪芹的传说。而在曹雪芹文化艺术节上,纪念馆则邀请小学生参加曹雪芹故事会,通过让小学生讲曹雪芹的传说的方式,让学生们从小就对曹雪芹的传说有所了解。同时,纪念馆联合皮影剧团演出了曹雪芹的传说故事,用这样生动的形式,传播非遗。此外纪念馆还出版了《曹雪芹西山传说》的书及光盘。

In order to publicize and protect the legend of Cao Xueqin, an exhibition board is set up in the memorial hall of Cao Xueqin to introduce the legend of Cao Xueqin. At Cao Xueqin culture and Art Festival, the memorial hall invited pupils to participate in Cao Xueqin's story meeting. By telling pupils about Cao Xueqin's legend, students can learn about Cao Xueqin's legend from an early age. At the same time, the memorial hall, together with Shadow Puppet Troupe, performed Cao Xueqin's legend and story, spreading intangible cultural heritage in such a vivid form. In addition, the museum also published the book and CD-ROM of Cao Xueqin's legend of western mountain.

  樊志斌称,自己正在计划将曹雪芹的传说变成动画。“很多孩子都爱看动画片《莫扎特的故事》,它就是从莫扎特小时候的故事取材而来的。可这是一个外国人的故事,其实咱们中国也有曹雪芹的传说,如果同样能编成动画片,让孩子们从小就接受这种真善美的教育,不仅对传说的传承起到了重要的作用,对孩子也是一种有效的蒙教育。”

Fan Zhibin said he was planning to turn Cao Xueqin's legend into an animation. "Many children love watching the cartoon" Mozart's story ", which is based on the story of Mozart when he was a child. But this is a story of a foreigner. In fact, we have Cao Xueqin's legend in China. If we can also make cartoons and let children receive this kind of education of truth, goodness and beauty from an early age, it will not only play an important role in the inheritance of the legend, but also be an effective Mongolian education for children. "

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