The memorial hall is located in zhengbaiqi village, Xiangshan District, Haidian District. It is a quiet quadrangle. During the reporter's interview, as it had just snowed a few days ago, the snow was not melted and accompanied by a quiet environment, which inevitably made people feel the literati's breath, and their hearts also calmed down. The location of this memorial hall is exactly where Cao Xueqin lived in his later years. Because Cao Xueqin once lived here, he revised the famous book "Cao Xueqin", which made the people in this area have both appreciation and respect for Cao Xueqin. So he reprocessed and evolved his story, forming the national intangible cultural heritage - the legend of Cao Xueqin.
From generation to generation
Different from other intangible cultural heritages, Cao Xueqin's legend does not have a clear inheritor, and there are obvious differences in the way of inheritance. It is not the same as the veteran artists. It is a collective inheritance, that is, the father tells stories to his son and grandson, and the villagers tell them to their relatives and friends. Although it can't be said which year it began to spread from generation to generation, at least it can be determined that the starting time is the late Qing Dynasty, which is more than 140 years ago.
The stories and legends about Cao Xueqin in Xiangshan area of Haidian District cover a wide range, including Cao Xueqin's personality, life experience, experience, relatives, friends, how Cao Xueqin wrote a dream of Red Mansions, Cao Xueqin's residence, and how Cao Xueqin helped the poor. People's oral transmission not only preserved his legend, but also became more valuable and important when Cao Xueqin had few related documents.
Cao Xueqin often listens to stories
Fan Zhibin is a member of Beijing Cao Xueqin society, and also the editor of Cao Xueqin's legend of western mountain. He said that at present, there are more than 100 known legends of Cao Xueqin, and many legends can be found in a dream of Red Mansions.
"You must be familiar with grandma Liu in the dream of Red Mansions. This is a very brilliant role. With only a few strokes, Cao Xueqin described the rustic simplicity in a very proper way. And grandma Liu probably came from Xiangshan. " Fan Zhibin said that at that time, grandma Liu lived in the dibanggou, where her family has lived ever since. When Cao Xueqin moved to zhengbaiqi village, because the two families were close, the two met from time to time. Cao Xueqin is good at chatting, and grandma Liu has a lot of stories, so Cao Xueqin will listen to grandma Liu if she is OK. On the first day of the first year of Cao Xueqin's death, grandma Liu was the first to mourn. When discussing where to bury Cao Xueqin, grandma Liu was the first to propose to bury him in the underground ditch, because it was the mountain where Grandma Liu owned her own home.
In a dream of Red Mansions, several pilgrims came to Jia's house. When Cao Xueqin wrote here, he wanted to satirize them by name, so he named one of them "husley". But many people don't know what this husley is. In fact, this is a kind of fruit in Xiangshan area. This kind of fruit is grafted by local people with apple and betel. It looks very beautiful, but it tastes very dry. It is only suitable for dressing in the fruit plate. Fan Zhibin said: "it is said that Cao Xueqin also knows this kind of fruit in Xiangshan. To give this name to the pilgrims means that they are people with bright appearance but no inner part."
Hard to collect oral stories
These stories about Cao Xueqin are very vivid, but they are not easy to arrange. Fan Zhibin and others, in the process of collecting wind, went almost all over the nearby villages and asked about more than ten villagers. As folk literature, legend has its unique characteristics. Fan Zhibin said that what the same person said five years ago will definitely be different now. Although the main body of the story is the same, the details will change. "Legends are not equal to history or reality. When we gather wind this time, we found many legends that we didn't have before. Maybe the villagers told them in this village, but they didn't in that village. They told them to relatives and friends. There are some old people who have passed away, and their sons may not be able to talk about it. Some old people have moved to the city, and no one knows about it. "
Nowadays, people's entertainment life is greatly enriched, and so is Xiangshan. It's not the time of "listening to my mother tell me about the past" for a long time. Therefore, many legend young people seldom know, can only find the local older generation to inquire. Fan Zhibin recalled that there was an old man in his 90s at the top of Xiangshan mountain. He said that boasting was the origin of "fair old man".
"Fair old man" is actually a kind of plant. People in Xiangshan area like to plant it. However, planting it is not for harvest, but for delimiting the boundary. Some people like to be greedy and cheap. They plow a little bit more every year, but they still don't admit it when they are found. But with "fair old man", we can see where the boundary is and whose land should be. Because of its deep roots, it's not easy for people who love small and cheap to dig away. So locals call this plant the most "fair.". "Cao Xueqin lived at the top of the mountain, so he was probably the" fair old man "he knew at that time. It's a pity that we want to go to the old man again the next year, only to learn that he has passed away. "
"Many people think Cao Xueqin didn't stay in Baijiatan, but there is a legend behind the mountain (generally referring to Xiangshan area), which was once said by an old man in his nineties. He said that three generations of his family were gatekeepers to Guandi temple. At that time, he wanted to level the gate of the temple and plant something. As a result, his grandfather said, "you know what you shovel is the house Cao Xueqin lived in." Fan Zhibin said that this is actually a good legend, but it's a pity that the old man died when he was collecting wind. They can only learn the second-hand version from their son-in-law.
In the gathering wind, we can't help but meet the villagers with clumsy lips. They know but they can't speak, or they can't speak. Many details are gone, only a few hard words. In addition, as a result of the demolition, the number of people in the village suddenly increased. The village with only dozens or hundreds of people turned into a large village with tens of thousands of people. "I used to ask about the oldest one in your village, but now when I go to the village, people say," I'm not from my village, I don't know. ". It also makes it very difficult for us to find people. "
Protect intangible cultural heritage from children
Just like the legend of revolt in Shandong, the legend itself provides wealth for literary creation and foundation for elite culture.
Cao Xueqin's legend has a wide spread, such as the summer palace, Xiangshan, Mentou village, etc., and people in these areas have a high awareness of it. Cao Xueqin's legend not only expresses the common people's recognition and nostalgia for him, but also reflects the common people's pursuit of truth, goodness and beauty. It can be said that the legend of Cao Xueqin is an important reference material for the study of "Hongxue". It is an important cultural heritage both in academic research and in the protection and construction of intangible cultural heritage.
In order to publicize and protect the legend of Cao Xueqin, an exhibition board is set up in the memorial hall of Cao Xueqin to introduce the legend of Cao Xueqin. At Cao Xueqin culture and Art Festival, the memorial hall invited pupils to participate in Cao Xueqin's story meeting. By telling pupils about Cao Xueqin's legend, students can learn about Cao Xueqin's legend from an early age. At the same time, the memorial hall, together with Shadow Puppet Troupe, performed Cao Xueqin's legend and story, spreading intangible cultural heritage in such a vivid form. In addition, the museum also published the book and CD-ROM of Cao Xueqin's legend of western mountain.
Fan Zhibin said he was planning to turn Cao Xueqin's legend into an animation. "Many children love watching the cartoon" Mozart's story ", which is based on the story of Mozart when he was a child. But this is a story of a foreigner. In fact, we have Cao Xueqin's legend in China. If we can also make cartoons and let children receive this kind of education of truth, goodness and beauty from an early age, it will not only play an important role in the inheritance of the legend, but also be an effective Mongolian education for children. "
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