李白从政非一步登天:曾遵循潜规则参加科考-看世界

李白从政非一步登天:曾遵循潜规则参加科考

  其实,据《唐摭言》、《唐音癸签》等许多唐代典章记载,当时的科举考试实行的“两条腿”走路,一是人们熟知的“常科”,即每年由县、州(府)、道至中央礼部层层考试,有时由皇帝拍板。这种考试虽显得有一点公开、公平,但内容繁杂,关卡多多,录取的人数极少(每年能进京参考的有七八百人,被录取者仅20人左右),远不能满足泱泱大唐治理国家的需要,才能出众的士子不愿在此蹉跎岁月,而是选择“制举”的形式作为入仕的捷径。制举,是唐代主要的科举考试形式,由皇帝不定期下诏考取非常人才,参考者由名人高官直接推荐给皇帝,由皇帝面试后一锤定音。一年可开考数次,人数不限,曾出现万人参加制举考试的盛况。参加制举须有三个重要条件:一是有特别才能,二是有重要人物推荐,三是所具备的特长适合皇帝的口味喜好。李白正是具备了这三点并按章循制、身体力行而一登“龙门”的。

  唐代大诗人才高八斗,壮志凌云,要么当高官做大事,不然就从道参禅,浪迹山水。由是,不少人(包括研究他的专家学者)都认为:李白从政是一步登天,没有参加过当时比较完备的考试。

In the Tang Dynasty, there were eight great poets with lofty ideals. They either worked as senior officials to do great things, or they would take part in Zen from the Tao and roam the mountains and rivers. Therefore, many people (including experts and scholars studying him) think that Li Bai's political career was a step-by-step success, and he didn't take the relatively complete examination at that time.

  其实,据《唐摭言》、《唐音癸签》等许多唐代典章记载,当时的科举考试实行的“两条腿”走路,一是人们熟知的“常科”,即每年由县、州(府)、道至中央礼部层层考试,有时由拍板。这种考试虽显得有一点公开、公平,但内容繁杂,关卡多多,录取的人数极少(每年能进京参考的有七八百人,被录取者仅20人左右),远不能满足泱泱大唐治理国家的需要,才能出众的士子不愿在此蹉跎岁月,而是选择“制举”的形式作为入仕的捷径。制举,是唐代主要的科举考试形式,由皇帝不定期下诏考取非常人才,参考者由名人高官直接推荐给皇帝,由皇帝面试后一锤定音。一年可开考数次,人数不限,曾出现万人参加制举考试的盛况。参加制举须有三个重要条件:一是有特别才能,二是有重要人物推荐,三是所具备的特长适合皇帝的口味喜好。李白正是具备了这三点并按章循制、身体力行而一登“龙门”的。

In fact, according to many Tang Dynasty laws and regulations, such as Tang Zhiyan and Tang Yingui signature, the "two legged" walk in the imperial examination at that time was known as the "regular subject", that is, every year from county, state (government), road to the central ritual department, sometimes by clapping. Although this kind of examination appears to be a little open and fair, it has a lot of complicated contents, a lot of checkpoints, and a small number of people are admitted (there are 700 or 800 people who can go to Beijing for reference every year, only about 20 people are admitted). It is far from meeting the needs of the great Tang Dynasty to govern the country, and the outstanding people are not willing to waste their time here, but choose the form of "system" as a shortcut to enter the government. The imperial examination system was the main form of imperial examination in Tang Dynasty. From time to time, the emperor issued an imperial edict to select extraordinary talents. The references were directly recommended to the emperor by famous and high-ranking officials. After the interview, the emperor made a final decision. The examination can be held several times a year, with an unlimited number of people. There are three important conditions for taking part in the examination system: first, there are special talents; second, there are important people to recommend; third, the special abilities that are suitable for the taste and preference of the emperor. Li Bai had these three points, followed the rules and regulations, and tried his best to climb the dragon's gate.

  首先,李白在老家四川江油“五岁诵六甲,十岁观百家”、“十五好剑术”、“作赋凌相如”。20岁前,还读了许多道书、佛经、并师从附近的盐亭县人、著名纵横术大师赵蕤,钻研了安邦定国之术《长短经》。他知识的广度、深度,以及对前人的经典古籍超常的理解,是那些一步一个阶梯埋头参加常科考试的儒林士子们不可望其项背的。另外,李白的诗坦白直率,民歌气息较浓,他青少年时在家乡又学习了“番文”(江油在唐代为少数民族氐人居住地),这两大特长更是其他士子无法想到或去学习的,也歪打正着,后来客观上受到唐玄宗赏识。

First of all, Li Bai "recites six Jias at the age of five, watches hundreds at the age of ten", "fifteen good swordsmanship" and "makes Fu congruous". Before the age of 20, he also read many Taoist books, Buddhist scriptures, and studied the long and short sutras, the art of establishing the country by Anbang, under the guidance of Zhao Rui, a famous master of vertical and horizontal Arts in Yanting County nearby. The breadth and depth of his knowledge, as well as his extraordinary understanding of his predecessors' classic ancient books, are beyond the reach of those scholars who step by step attend the regular subject examination. In addition, Li Bai's poems are frank and frank, and his folk songs are full of flavor. When he was a teenager, he learned "Fanwen" in his hometown (Jiangyou lived in the Tang Dynasty for the Di people of ethnic minorities). These two advantages are beyond other scholars' imagination or learning, and they are also biased. Later, they were objectively appreciated by the Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty.

  二是李白受到诸多要人的宣传和推荐。他十六七岁时向赵蕤学习《长短经》时,“广汉太守闻而异之,因举二人以有道,并不起”;他21岁时,带着自己的诗文向益州刺史苏颋自我举荐,苏曾说他“此子天才英丽,下笔不休……,可以相如比肩也”,即可与西汉大辞赋家一个档次;他三四十岁时,曾拜谒过荆州韩长史、安州李长史、裴长史、邠州郑长史、皇帝的女儿、女婿张垍、与皇帝有往来的道士吴筠等……所交朋友北至雁门,南达湘沅,东临越中,西届武功不下百人,虽然他42岁被皇帝直接召见,是玉真公主、道士吴筠和太子宾客(皇帝的家庭教师)贺知章等三人先后举荐,然冰冻三尺,非一日之寒,其他人也起了很大助推作用,因为皇帝接见他时曾说过“卿是布衣,名为联知,非素蓄道义,何以得此”。可见李白参加“制举”中公关这一科是得了满分的。

Secondly, Li Bai was publicized and recommended by many important people. When he was 16 or 17 years old, he learned from Zhao Rui about the long and short sutras, "it's different from the news of the Guanghan Dynasty's eunuch, because he raised two people to be virtuous, but he didn't rise to it"; when he was 21 years old, he brought his own poems to Su Yu, the governor of Yizhou, to recommend himself. Su once said that he "this son is talented, brilliant, and never stops writing When he was thirty or forty years old, he had paid a visit to Han Changshi of Jingzhou, Li Changshi of Anzhou, Pei Changshi, Zheng Changshi of Yingzhou, the daughter of the emperor, Zhang Xun, his son-in-law, and Wu Yun, a Taoist who had contacts with the emperor His friends reached Yanmen in the north, Xiangyuan in the south, Yuezhong in the East, and no less than 100 people had martial arts in the West. Although he was directly summoned by the emperor at the age of 42, and was recommended by Princess Yuzhen, Taoist Wu Yun and Prince guest he Zhizhang, who was the Emperor's tutor. However, it was not cold for a day. Other people also played a great role in promoting him. When the emperor met him, he said, "Qing is cloth clothes, It's called Lianzhi. It's not a matter of morality. How can we get it? ". It can be seen that Li Bai's participation in the public relations section of the "examination system" scored full marks.

  三是李白的特长适应了皇帝的需求。李白友人之子、宣歙(今安徽省)观察使范传正为他撰写的新墓志,说他曾“草答番书,解若悬河,笔不停辍”。明代文人由此编写出《李谪仙醉草吓蛮书》,后者虽为小说家之言,但李白懂番文,在翰林院处理过一些外事文书是可信的。唐王朝疆域广大,西至今中亚地区,急需大批“双语”人才。再是李白才思敏捷,作诗立马可就,语言通俗流畅,用典丰富,贴切,随手拈来,这对听厌了宫廷传统诗歌的唐明皇来说,犹如股股新风扑面而来。

Thirdly, Li Bai's specialty adapted to the needs of the emperor. The new epitaph written for him by fan chuanzheng, the son of Li Bai's friend, Xuanshe (now Anhui Province), an observer, said that he had written "cursive answers to some books, which could be interpreted as if they were suspended in the river, and kept writing". The literati of Ming Dynasty compiled the book of Li lilililixianzui caohuman. Although the latter was the words of novelists, Li Bai understood the prose and handled some foreign affairs documents in the Imperial Academy. The territory of Tang Dynasty is vast. From west to Central Asia, a large number of bilingual talents are urgently needed. Li Bai is quick in thinking and can write poems at once. His language is popular and fluent, and his allusions are rich, appropriate and easy to pick up. For the emperor of Tang Dynasty who is tired of listening to the traditional palace poetry, this is like a new trend.

  综上所述,李白的确遵循当时的“潜规则”参加了科举考试。

To sum up, Li Bai did follow the "hidden rules" at that time to take the imperial examination.

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