忠烈杨业究竟死于何人之手?潘仁美并非真凶-看世界

忠烈杨业究竟死于何人之手?潘仁美并非真凶

  潘美并非害死杨业的真凶

  关于北宋杨业之死,真实的历载与小说戏文里的描述几乎截然相反。潘美果真是谋害杨业的元凶吗?杨业战死何地,是金沙滩还是陈家谷?辽宋两国间爆发的惨烈无比的幽燕之战,究竟有何鲜为人知的缘由始末?求索这扑朔迷离的历史谜底,便走进一段令人感慨万千的风云往事。

As for the death of Yang Ye in the Northern Song Dynasty, the real history is almost the opposite of the description in the novel. Is Pan meiguo really the culprit of Yang Ye's murder? Where did Yang ye die in the war, the golden beach or chenjiagu? What is the unknown cause of the fierce battle between Liao and Song Dynasties? To search for the complicated historical mystery, we will enter into a touching history.

  潘美并非害死杨业的真凶

Pan Mei is not the real killer of Yang Ye

  在小说《》里,潘仁美(潘美)是谋害杨继业(杨业)父子的主谋。他嫉妒杨业的战功,又因儿子潘豹设擂台被杨七郎打死,故而怀恨在心图谋报复。小说里的潘仁美勾结契丹,逼杨继业冒险出征,又违背与杨业的约定,不设伏兵接应,反而将杀出重围求援兵的杨七郎捆在树上乱箭射死……因这部小说的流传,潘美与一道被打入中国历史的顶级“奸臣册”。但查阅史书却令人心生疑惑,潘美真的是勾结契丹陷害忠良的元凶吗?

In the novel, pan Renmei (Pan Mei) is the mastermind of murdering Yang Jiye's father and son. He was envious of Yang Ye's achievements in the war, and was killed by Yang Qilang because his son pan Bao set up a challenge arena, so he had a grudge and planned revenge. In the novel, pan Renmei colludes with Khitan to force Yang Jiye to venture out and violate the agreement with Yang Ye. Instead of setting up an ambush, he ties Yang Qilang, who has been killed for help, to the tree and shoots at random Because of the spread of the novel, pan Mei and her husband were included in the top "traitor book" in Chinese history. But looking up historical books makes people wonder. Is Pan Meizhen the culprit of colluding with Khitan to frame loyalty?

  当世人将攻击矛头纷纷指向潘美时,却忽略了一个重要责任人的存在――监军王(shēn)。在北宋,监军权力往往高于主帅。潘美虽是名义上的主帅,但真到了拍板时刻,对代监军的王 之言却不得不“俯耳恭听”。

When the world points its attacks at Pan Mei, it ignores the existence of an important responsible person, the overseer king. In the Northern Song Dynasty, the power of supervising the army was often higher than that of the commander in chief. Although pan Mei is the nominal commander-in-chief, she has to listen to Wang's words when it's time to make a decision.

  在第二次辽宋幽燕之战中,宋兵中路兵溃,辽国主力扑向潘美、杨业统率的西路军。杨业提出避敌锋芒、诱敌设伏的正确意见。却被王 讥讽为“领数万精兵,而怯懦如此!”逼得杨业不得不铤而走险。在这个决定杨业生死、宋军安危的危急关口,深知兵略的潘美不得已,选择了“沉默不语”。

In the second battle of Youyan in the Liao and Song Dynasties, the army in the middle of the Song Dynasty collapsed, and the main force of the Liao state rushed to the West army under the command of Pan Mei and Yang Ye. Yang ye put forward the correct opinions of avoiding the enemy's sharp edge and luring the enemy to ambush. However, he was ridiculed by Wang as "leading tens of thousands of elite soldiers, and cowardly like this!" forcing Yang Ye to take risks. At this critical juncture, which determined the life and death of Yang Ye and the safety of the song army, pan Mei, who knew that binglue was forced to do so, chose to be silent.

  按事前约定,王 应带兵在陈家谷接应杨业。结果到了中午,王 见杨业所部未归,以为杨业得胜追击辽兵去了,便擅自撤退。等杨业率残部退到陈家谷时,已无人救应,最终重伤被俘绝食身死。潘美并不同意王 的撤退部署,但对这位备受皇帝信任的监军却无可奈何。史载,潘美对王 “擅离谷口不能制”。杨业之死,究其实质,实乃与王 共同造成的。但论责定罪,却由潘美一肩承担。《杨家将演义》里,还让潘仁美死于开封府尹的铡刀下。殊不知,潘美死于公元991年,而寇准升任开封府尹则在公元1002年。寇准居然可以“穿越”杀人,这玩笑未免开大了。

According to the prior agreement, Wang should lead the troops to take over Yang Ye in chenjiagu. As a result, at noon, Wang saw that Yang's Department was not returned. He thought that Yang's victory had led to the pursuit of Liao's soldiers, so he withdrew without permission. When Yang Yicheng and the rest of Yang Yicheng retreated to chenjiagu, there was no one to rescue them. Finally, Yang Yicheng was seriously injured and killed. Pan Mei did not agree with the king's retreat, but she had no choice but to supervise the army, which was trusted by the emperor. According to history, pan Mei was "unable to make it without permission" to Wang. Yang Ye's death, in fact, was jointly caused by Wang. But on the responsibility of conviction, but by Pan Mei shoulder. In the story of Yang Jiajiang, pan Renmei was also killed by the guillotine of Kaifeng Fuyin. However, pan Mei died in 991 A.D., while Kou Zhun was promoted to Kaifeng Fu Yin in 1002 A.D. It's a big joke that Kou Zhun can actually "cross" and kill people.

  对杨业之死的惨剧内因,宋太宗其实是心知肚明的。所以,论处战败责任时,潘美只是被贬官三级,而王 和刘文裕则被除名发配。不过很快,身为皇帝亲信的王 便被赦免回京了,杨业白白搭送了性命。

In fact, Emperor Taizong knew the tragedy of Yang Ye's death. Therefore, when dealing with the responsibility of defeat, pan Mei was demoted to three levels, while Wang and Liu Wenyu were removed from their posts. But soon, as the emperor's trusted king was pardoned and returned to Beijing, Yang yibaita died.

  潘美是北宋开国功臣,为大宋王朝的创建曾立下盖世功勋。驻守雁门边疆时,屡挫进犯辽军。本来是抗辽功臣,不料却因杨业兵败而尽毁美誉,不久即郁郁而终。再加上后世小说的渲染夸张,竟沦为与秦桧齐名的大奸臣!评点这桩历史悬案,在杨家祠堂工作的胡孝华表示:“杨业是北汉降将,本来就不是宋太宗的嫡系,与潘美很难将心比心。另外,杨业身为降将却屡立战功,抢了很多北宋旧臣的风头,难免遭同行嫉妒。说潘美、王 故意陷害杨业,未必是真,要说他死于复杂的人际关系,倒是合情合理的。”

Pan Mei was the founder of the Northern Song Dynasty, who made great contributions to the founding of the great song dynasty. When stationed in Yanmen border area, he repeatedly fell and invaded the Liao army. Originally a meritocracy in fighting against Liao Dynasty, he destroyed his reputation due to Yang Ye's defeat, which soon ended in depression. In addition, the exaggeration of later novels reduced him to a traitor as well as Qin Hui! Commenting on this historical case, Hu Xiaohua, who worked in Yang's ancestral hall, said: "Yang Ye was the general of the northern Han Dynasty, not the lineage of Emperor Taizong of Song Dynasty, so it's hard to compare with Pan Mei. In addition, Yang Ye, as a general who had been demoted, made great contributions and robbed many of the old ministers of the Northern Song Dynasty. He was inevitably envied by his peers. It is not necessarily true that Pan Mei and Wang deliberately framed Yang Ye. It is reasonable to say that he died of complicated interpersonal relationship. "

  陈家谷,杨业被俘罹难地

Chen Jiagu, where Yang Ye was captured and killed

  杨业战死于何地?小说、戏文里的版本是金沙滩,史书上的记载是陈家谷。金沙滩相对好找,那里有一座“日中落”村。当地政府开发了一个金沙滩生态旅游区,旅游区里有一条直道,道两侧立起了杨家将、杨门女将石雕,还建了一座仁和殿。殿中左侧是杨家将群像,中间是高居宝座的宋太宗,右侧是潘美、王 等人的塑像。

Where did Yang ye die in the war? The version in novels and plays is golden beach, and the historical records are Chen Jiagu. Golden beach is relatively easy to find, where there is a "sunset" village. The local government has developed a golden beach ecotourism area. There is a straight road in the tourism area. On both sides of the road, there are stone carvings of generals Yang Jiajiang and female generals Yang men, as well as a hall of benevolence and harmony. On the left side of the palace is a group of statues of Yang Jiajiang, in the middle is Emperor Taizong of Song Dynasty, and on the right side are statues of Pan Mei, Wang and others.

  在小说里,辽主设下“双龙会”陷阱,诱骗宋国君臣。大郎自愿顶替宋太宗赴险,众兄弟保护杨延平来到金沙滩。辽国天庆王在酒中下毒,杨延平饮下毒酒自觉不适,突发袖箭杀死了天庆王。辽军蜂拥而上,四郎、八郎被俘,大郎、二郎、三郎战死,三郎死得最惨,在荒草滩被乱马踏成肉泥。七郎杀出重围后,又被潘仁美乱箭射死……而杨继业最后因无后援,兵困两狼山,血染碑!

In the novel, the Liao Lord set the trap of "double dragon meeting" to lure the emperors and ministers of the Song Dynasty. Dalang volunteered to take the place of Emperor Taizong to go to the risk, and the brothers protected Yang Yanping to the golden beach. The king of Tianqing poisoned the wine. Yang Yanping felt uncomfortable and killed the king suddenly. The Liao army swarmed in. The four and eight Langs were captured, and the three Langs, the two Langs and the three Langs died in battle. The three Langs died the most miserably. They were trampled into flesh and mud by wild horses on the wasteland. Qilang was killed by Pan Renmei's disorderly arrow And Yang Jiye finally because of no backup, soldiers trapped two wolf mountain, blood stained monument!

  我们驱车前往怀仁县金沙滩,入眼的不过是一块块再普通不过的庄稼地。在日中落村路边宅院的一块墙壁上,绘有一幅杨家将旌旗招展、盔明甲亮的墙画,技法粗糙。与村民唠过往的历史,当地人的话我们几乎听不懂。大体的意思是,这里过去是荒草滩,风沙弥漫,后经改造才重现绿色。这一带是辽宋古战场不假,但若想寻找杨家将遗迹,却是“啥也没有了!”

We drove to the golden sand beach of Huairen County, and what we saw was nothing but ordinary crops. On a wall of a roadside house in rizhongluo village, there is a wall painting of Yang Jiajiang waving flags and bright helmets with rough techniques. We can hardly understand the local people's words when we talk about the past history with the villagers. In general, it means that this place used to be a wasteland with sand and wind. It was rebuilt to be green. This area is the ancient battlefield of Liao and Song Dynasties, but if you want to find the remains of Yang family generals, it is "nothing!"

  实际上,山西怀仁县的金沙滩并非杨业的殉难地。杨业死于山西朔州的陈家谷,但那块荒凉之地已快被人遗忘了。据说2004年时,那里的常住居民只剩下两个人,成了“空壳村”。居民之所以纷纷外迁,一是陈家谷位置偏僻交通不便;二是那里经常莫名其妙地死人、死牲口。

In fact, the golden beach in Huairen County, Shanxi Province is not Yang Ye's martyrdom. Yang Ye died in chenjiagu, Shuozhou, Shanxi Province, but the desolate land was almost forgotten. It is said that in 2004, there were only two permanent residents and they became "empty shell village". The reason why the residents moved out one after another is that the location of chenjiagu is remote and the traffic is inconvenient, and that there are often inexplicably dead people and animals there.

  据去过那里的人描述,陈家谷口阴气逼人,幽深的山沟深得望不到尽头。靠着崖头,早已废弃的土窑洞像一个个凶神恶煞,张开黑洞洞的大口,被风吹得呼呼作响。没有人声,偶尔几声鸟叫,更显这里的神秘和恐怖。这里,便是杨业当年的战死之地。

According to the description of those who have been there, Chen Jiagu's mouth is gloomy, and the deep gully is too deep to see the end. Relying on the cliff head, the abandoned Tuyao cave looks like a vicious one. It opens the big mouth of the black cave and is howled by the wind. No one's voice, occasionally a few bird calls, more show the mystery and terror here. Here is the place where Yang Ye died in the war.

  陈家谷附近的上、下狼儿村,就是被戏文传唱至今的“两狼山”所在地。附近早年有块石碑,是一块字迹模糊、快被风化的石碑,根本不是小说戏文里讲的“李陵碑”。

The village of shanglang'er and xialang'er near chenjiagu is the place where "lianglang mountain" has been sung so far. There was a stone tablet nearby in the early years. It was a stone tablet with vague handwriting and was soon weathered. It was not the "Li Ling tablet" mentioned in the novel.

  据说,杨业的指挥部,就设在这条深谷里的陈家窑。站在村口,其他地方一目了然,唯独看不到这个藏于谷中的陈家窑。人们猜测,当年杨业将“司令部”设在这里,就是看中了这里的隐蔽地形。以陈家窑的奇特地貌,王 若按约定预设伏兵,肯定能打追击至此的辽军一个措手不及,倾斜的战局就有望改写。可惜,王 没有听杨业的话。

It is said that the headquarters of Yang Ye is located in chenjiayao in this deep valley. Standing at the entrance of the village, other places can be seen at a glance, except for the chenjiayao hidden in the valley. People speculate that Yang ye set up "headquarters" here in those days, which is to see the hidden terrain here. With the unique landform of chenjiayao, if Wang preset the ambush according to the agreement, he would surely catch the Liao army by surprise, and the inclined war situation would be expected to be rewritten. Unfortunately, Wang didn't listen to Yang Ye.

  陈家窑村的山坡上有座用石头垒砌的方形石堆,当年这里有座小庙,杨业被俘后就被关在这里。大辽名将耶律斜轸质问杨业,你与我国交锋三十年,今日被俘,有何话讲?杨业但称“死罪”。但这一记述被后人驳斥,认为一个赤心为国、英勇捐躯之人,怎么可能临死前却向敌人低头呢?小说、戏文觉得不过瘾,对杨业被俘的事实视而不顾,一厢情愿地编撰出杨业头碰李陵碑殉国的悲壮场景。似乎只有这样,才贴近杨业为世人敬仰的英雄形象。

On the hillside of chenjiayao village, there is a square stone pile built of stone. There was a small temple here in those days. Yang Ye was locked here after he was captured. Ye lvxiehu, a famous general in the Liao Dynasty, questioned Yang Ye. You have been fighting with our country for 30 years. Today you are captured. What do you say? Yang Ye is called "capital crime". However, this account was refuted by later generations. They thought that how could a man who died for his country and bravely bow his head to the enemy before he died? Novels and dramas were not addictive, and they ignored the fact that Yang Ye was captured, and they compiled the sad and strong scene of Yang Ye's death when he touched the monument of Li Ling. It seems that only in this way can we get close to Yang Ye's hero image which is respected by the world.

  放冷箭将杨业射落马下的辽国大将,戏文里说是耶律奚底,其实是辽国名将萧达凛。在此后爆发的辽宋澶渊之战中,萧达凛被宋军威力巨大的床子弩给“钉”死了,萧为此痛哭失声罢朝五日。民间传言,这是杨业在天之灵来索萧达凛的魂魄。

Yang Ye was shot by a cold arrow at the general of the state of Liao. It is said in the script that he is Yelu Xidi. In fact, he is Xiao Dalin, a famous general of the state of Liao. In the battle of the liaosong Dynasty, Xiao Dalin was killed by the powerful bed crossbow of the song army. It's said that this is Yang Ye's spirit in the sky to seek Xiao Dalin's soul.

  辽人对杨业很钦佩,专门为他修造了金碧辉煌的祠堂庙宇,任由汉民祭祀,百年香火不绝。

The Liao people admire Yang Ye very much. They built a splendid temple for him, and let the Han people sacrifice. It has been fragrant for hundreds of years.

  杨业之死,宋太宗难逃其咎

Emperor Taizong of Song Dynasty could not escape the blame of Yang Ye's death

  北宋初年,辽宋两国间爆发了两次惨烈的“幽燕之战”。这是关乎辽宋两国势力消涨的国运之战,战争的焦点围绕后晋割让给契丹的“”展开,杨业就是在辽宋第二次幽燕之战中为国捐躯的。谈到杨业之死,就必须重新审思引发这两场辽宋大战的历史缘由与始末进程,这涉及后人对这段历史的反思与反省。

In the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty, there were two fierce battles between the two countries. This is about the war of national transportation between the Liao and Song dynasties. The focus of the war is around the "ceded to Qidan" by the later Jin Dynasty. Yang Ye died for his country in the second battle of Youyan in the Liao and Song dynasties. When it comes to the death of Yang Ye, it is necessary to rethink the historical causes and the process of the two wars, which involve the reflection and reflection of later generations.

  所谓的燕云十六州,又称“幽蓟十六州”,是指后晋天福三年石敬瑭割让给契丹的位于今天北京天津以及山西、河北北部的十六个州。这十六州分别为:幽州,今北京;顺州,今北京顺义;儒州,今北京延庆;檀州,今北京密云;蓟州,今天津蓟县;涿州,今河北涿州;瀛洲,今河北河间;莫州,今河北任丘北;新州,今河北涿鹿;妫(guī)州,今河北怀来;武州,今河北宣化;蔚州,今河北蔚县;应州,今山西应县;寰州,今山西朔州东;朔州,今山西朔州;云州,今山西大同。幽、蓟、瀛、莫、涿、檀、顺七州位于太行山北的东南方,其余九州在山的西北。燕云十六州东西宽约六百公里,南北长约二百公里,总面积约十二万平方公里。有宋一朝,燕云十六州始终牢牢掌握在辽国手中。燕云十六州的丧失,使中原的汉族政权受北方少数民族威胁持续长达四百年之久!

The so-called sixteen prefectures of Yanyun, also known as the sixteen prefectures of Youji, refer to the sixteen prefectures in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanxi and northern Hebei that Shi Jingtang ceded to Qidan in the third year of Tianfu in the later Jin Dynasty. The sixteen prefectures are Youzhou, now Beijing; shunzhou, now Shunyi; Ruzhou, now Yanqing; Tanzhou, now Miyun; Jizhou, now Jixian; Zhuozhou, now Zhuozhou; Yingzhou, now Hejian; mozhou, now Renqiu north; Xinzhou, now Zhuolu; Gupeng, now Huailai; Wuzhou, now Xuanhua; Yuzhou, now Weixian; Yingzhou, now Shanxi County; Huanzhou, now east of Shuozhou, Shanxi; Shuozhou, now Shuozhou, Shanxi; Yunzhou, now Datong, Shanxi. You, Ji, Ying, Mo, Zhuo, tan and Shun seven prefectures are located in the southeast of the north of Taihang Mountain, and the other nine prefectures are in the northwest of the mountain. Yanyun sixteen prefectures are about 600 kilometers wide from east to west, about 200 kilometers long from south to North and a total area of about 120000 square kilometers. In the Song Dynasty, the Sixteen States of Yanyun were firmly in the hands of the Liao state. The loss of sixteen Yanyun prefectures made the Han regime in the Central Plains threatened by the northern minorities for 400 years!

  将燕云十六州割让给契丹的后晋皇帝石敬瑭一直被视为“汉奸、卖国贼”。但据北宋大家考证,石敬瑭是沙陀族人。沙陀族是西突厥的一支,其祖为北匈奴。匈奴人的后裔与契丹做领土交易,“汉奸”的称谓是否准确呢?

Shi Jingtang, the Late Jin emperor who ceded the Sixteen States of Yanyun to Qidan, has always been regarded as a traitor and traitor. However, according to the textual research of the Northern Song Dynasty, Shi Jingtang was a member of the Shatuo people. The Shatuo nationality is a branch of the Western Turks, whose ancestor is the northern Huns. The descendants of Huns traded territory with Khitan. Is the title of "traitor" accurate?

  后世学者指出,欧阳修的考证不准。再者,石敬瑭说汉话、食汉禄,还留下“磨穿铁砚”这一励志。据说,当年石敬瑭考屡试不中,却屡败屡试。有人讥笑问他“何时中第?”,石敬瑭答曰:“直到我的毛笔磨穿铁砚为止!”。因此,即便石敬瑭是沙陀族人,也是“汉化了的沙陀族人”。他为了谋得皇权而勾结契丹出卖燕云十六州,一样是数典忘祖,一样是卖国行径!

Later scholars pointed out that Ouyang Xiu's research was not accurate. Moreover, Shi Jingtang spoke Han language, ate Han Lu, and left the inspiration of "grinding through iron inkstone". It is said that Shi Jingtang failed many times in the exam, but failed many times. Some people sneer at him and ask him "when is it in the first place?" Shi Jingtang replies, "until my brush wears through the iron inkstone!". Therefore, even if Shi Jingtang is a member of the shato people, he is also a "Han nationality of the shato people". He colluded with Khitan to sell the Sixteen States of Yanyun in order to gain the imperial power, which was just like the act of forgetting the ancestors and selling the country!

  到了宋太宗当政时期,由于北汉被灭,失去了这一战略缓冲带,宋辽两国国境接壤。已统一中国南方的宋太宗梦想做“统一之祖”,一举收复燕云十六州。客观而言,两次幽燕之战,都是宋太宗主动挑起来的。第一次幽燕之战打着“统一”的旗号尚且说得过去,第二次则是趁辽景宗去世,辽圣宗年幼、萧太后女人当朝的空当期,想占个便宜,道义上似乎站不住脚。据说,萧太后在上京点将台调遣精兵强将奔赴战场时,痛斥宋太宗谋害亲兄(太祖),又欺负大辽皇室“孤儿寡母”的不齿行径,激起大辽将士同仇敌忾的愤慨,誓与宋军决一死战!

In the reign of Emperor Taizong of Song Dynasty, because the northern Han Dynasty was destroyed, the strategic buffer zone was lost, and the borders of song and Liao were connected. Song Taizong, who had unified southern China, dreamed of being "the father of unification" and regaining sixteen states of Yanyun. Objectively speaking, the two battles of Youyan were both initiated by Emperor Taizong of Song Dynasty. The first battle between you and Yan was under the banner of "unity". The second was when the emperor died. The women of the emperor were young and the Empress Dowager Xiao, who wanted to take advantage of the empty period of the dynasty, seemed to be unable to stand morally. It is said that when empress dowager Xiao sent some elite soldiers to the battlefield, she denounced Song Taizong for murdering his brother (Taizu) and bullying the "orphans and widows" of the royal family of Liao Dynasty, which aroused the indignation of all the soldiers of Liao Dynasty and vowed to fight the song army to the death!

  后世对宋太宗的为人评价极低

Later generations have a very low evaluation of Song Taizong's conduct

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