明太祖铁腕整文风:大臣万言奏折换一顿板子-看世界

明太祖铁腕整文风:大臣万言奏折换一顿板子

  明代初年袭用宋朝以来的官场文风,醉心于词句修饰和卖弄学问,一件简单的事情,几百个字就可以说清楚的,非要从三皇五帝说起,让人读半天还不知所云。对于极其追求工作效率的皇帝朱元璋来说,这是一件痛苦又恼火的事情。他决定进行大力整顿。

  如今提倡改进文风,不由想起明初被当廷杖责的大臣茹太素。

Nowadays, we advocate to improve the style of writing. We can't help thinking of Ru Taisu, the minister who was held responsible by Ting Zhang in the early Ming Dynasty.

  明代初年袭用以来的官场文风,醉心于词句修饰和卖弄学问,一件简单的事情,几百个字就可以说清楚的,非要从说起,让人读半天还不知所云。对于极其追求工作效率的来说,这是一件痛苦又恼火的事情。他决定进行大力整顿。

Since the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the official style of writing has been absorbed in modifying words and sentences and showing off knowledge. A simple thing can be said clearly in hundreds of words. It has to be said from the beginning, so that people can't understand it for a long time. It's a painful and irritating thing for people who are eager to work efficiently. He decided to carry out a major reorganization.

  洪武九年(1376年)的一天凌晨,皇宫里灯火辉煌,殿外的丹墀下传来捶击与阵阵痛叫声。这是明太祖下令在杖责一个廷臣。挨打的人名叫茹太素,任刑部侍郎。当时,各地接连发生水灾、地震等自然灾害,太祖认为是上天对他的警告,所以下了一道诏令,让臣民上书评论朝廷政策的利弊,指出皇帝的过失。茹太素一向耿直,这天早朝便把奏折恭恭敬敬呈了上去。明太祖一见奏折很厚,心里就有点不高兴,叫人念给他听,读了许久,还没上正题,净是些冗长的空话套语。

In the early morning of the ninth year of Hongwu's reign (1376), the palace was ablaze with lights, and there were thumps and cries of pain coming from the Dancong outside the palace. This is the order of emperor Taizu of Ming Dynasty to punish a court official in the staff. The name of the person who was beaten was Ru Taisu, who served as a servant of the Ministry of punishment. At that time, there were floods, earthquakes and other natural disasters all over the country. Taizu thought it was God's warning to him, so he issued an imperial edict to let his subjects write to comment on the advantages and disadvantages of the imperial policy and point out the emperor's fault. Ru Taisu has always been upright, and this morning he presented the memorial respectfully. When Emperor Taizu saw that the memorial was thick, he was a little unhappy. He asked people to read it to him. After reading it for a long time, he didn't get to the point. It was just some long empty talk.

  当念到“有才能的人,这几年侥幸活下来的百无一二,现在任用的都是迂腐的儒生或庸俗的官吏”的时候,太祖按捺不住了,把茹太素叫到殿上,问道:“你是刑部侍郎,刑部官吏二百多人,你给我说哪些是腐儒,哪些是俗吏?”茹太素嗫嚅了半晌,才说:“臣只是笼统地说,其实刑部官吏,臣也并不全都认识。”明太祖勃然大怒,厉声说:“既然连人都不认识,你怎么知道全是腐儒俗吏呢?”他喝令杖打茹太素,直打得他皮开肉绽。

When he read that "talented people have survived in recent years, and now they are all pedantic Confucian scholars or vulgar officials", Taizu couldn't help but call Ru Taisu to the temple and ask, "you are the servant of the Ministry of punishment, more than 200 officials of the Ministry of punishment. Which are the corrupt scholars and which are the vulgar officials?" Ru Taisu murmured for a while, and then said, "I'm the official." But generally speaking, in fact, officials and officials of the Ministry of punishment do not all know each other. " In a rage, Emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty snapped, "since you don't even know people, how do you know that they are all corrupt and vulgar officials?" he ordered his staff to beat Ru Taisu, which made him flesh and blood.

  当天晚上,夜已经很深了,朱元璋躺在御榻上,翻来覆去睡不着,想起早朝时的情景,便叫宦官把茹太素的奏折取来,在灯下仔细翻看。奏折确实太长了,长达1.7万字,他耐着性子一直读到大约16500字以后,才接触到正题,一共写了5件事情。他思考了许久,觉得这5件事中,起码有4件是可以采纳实行的。这几件事儿,只要最后的500字就能够说明了。

That night, the night was already very deep. Zhu Yuanzhang was lying on the Royal couch and couldn't sleep. Remembering the scene in the early Dynasty, he asked the eunuch to take the Sutra of rutaisu and look carefully under the light. The memorial is indeed too long, as long as 17000 words. He read it patiently until about 16500 words later, and then came to the main point. He wrote five things in all. He thought for a long time and thought that at least four of these five things could be adopted and implemented. The last 500 words can explain these things.

  第二天,明太祖叫人把茹太素奏折中可采纳的4件事摘抄下来,并亲笔写了一篇序言加在前面,发给文武大臣。他还让中书省以这个例子,定了一个上书的格式,限制奏章字数,要求言简意赅,不然就要受到惩罚。从这以后,大臣们在写奏疏的时候,只讲事情,不敢再空话连篇堆砌辞藻了。

The next day, Emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty asked people to take down four things that could be adopted in Ru Taisu's memorials, and wrote a preface to add in front of it and send it to the Minister of culture and military affairs. He also asked Zhongshu province to use this example to set a format for writing a book, limit the number of memorials, and require that they be concise and comprehensive, otherwise they will be punished. Since then, when ministers write memorials, they only talk about things, and dare not pile up rhetoric.

  明太祖反对奏折冗长是有原因的。他曾对太子说:“我自从登基以来,事事都亲自处理,从不偷懒,每天天不亮就起床,上朝办事,晚上夜深了才休息。这是你亲眼看到的。你能照我这样做,才能保住江山。”所以,朱元璋平日十分辛苦,常常在吃饭的时候突然想起一件事情来,就赶忙放下筷子,把要办的事儿写到纸片上,又怕纸片丢失,叫人用针线缝在他的衣服上。有时想的事情一多,纸片缀了满身,就像吊着好多只鹌鹑。等到第二天早朝的时候,他把纸片一一揭下来逐件处理,直到认为办妥为止。据说,他每天要看和听200多道奏折,要处理400件左右的事情。所以,他一直要求奏章写得简短扼要。难怪他看见茹太素的万言书,竟发了那么大的火。

There is a reason why emperor Taizu opposed the lengthy Memorial. He once said to the prince, "since I became king, I have dealt with everything myself. I never slacked off. I get up at dawn every day, go to the court to do business, and have a rest at night. You saw it with your own eyes. You can do as I do to keep the river and the mountain. " Therefore, Zhu Yuanzhang worked very hard on weekdays. When he was eating, he suddenly thought of something. He quickly put down his chopsticks and wrote down what he had to do on the paper. He was afraid that the paper would be lost, so he asked people to sew it on his clothes with needles and threads. Sometimes I think about a lot of things. The paper is all over my body, just like hanging a lot of quails. In the early morning of the next day, he uncoiled the pieces of paper one by one and dealt with them one by one until he thought it was done. It is said that he has to watch and listen to more than 200 memorials and deal with about 400 things every day. Therefore, he always asked for the memorial to be brief and concise. No wonder he was so angry when he saw rutaisu's Wanyan book.

  后来,朱元璋又命令廷臣研究制定了《案牍减繁式》,要求发文要少而精,语言要通俗易懂;还亲自起草颁布了《御制行移减繁体式一册》。这些法令条例,对于深化文风整顿、克服繁文之害、打击文牍主义、提高办事效率,具有重要作用。

Later, Zhu Yuanzhang ordered the court officials to study and formulate the "reducing the complexity of documents", which requires less and more precise documents, and easy to understand language; he also drafted and promulgated the "reducing the complexity of the imperial system" in person. These laws and regulations play an important role in deepening the rectification of the style of writing, overcoming the disadvantages of traditional writing, cracking down on the doctrine of writing and improving the efficiency of handling affairs.

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