郑成功在明代是如何维护中国海权的?-看世界

郑成功在明代是如何维护中国海权的?

  所谓“大明王朝”终于被人民唾弃了。内地流民起义,沿海武装走私,人民自己救自己。17世纪中叶,朝廷不要海权,而沿海人民则以武装走私捍卫中国海权。

  一代王朝依靠海商打败荷兰强盗

A generation of dynasties rely on sea merchants to defeat the Dutch bandits

  所谓“大明王朝”终于被人民唾弃了。内地流民起义,沿海武装走私,人民自己救自己。17世纪中叶,朝廷不要海权,而沿海人民则以武装走私捍卫中国海权。

The so-called "Daming Dynasty" was finally rejected by the people. The refugees in the mainland revolted, armed smuggling along the coast, and the people saved themselves. In the middle of the 17th century, the court did not want sea power, while the coastal people defended China's sea power by armed smuggling.

  于是,东南沿海一带,兴起了各种各样的海商武装集团。这些海商集团较之以往的倭寇大有改观,他们在更为广阔的世界里和更加开放的条件下,分享了世界地理大发现的成果和经济全球化利润。朝廷不知新大陆,不知银子来路,可他们知道;朝廷靠“澳门—马尼拉”航线经西班牙人做转口贸易,他们却走东洋下西洋做自由贸易。正是出于对自由贸易的需求,他们懂得了海权的重要。

As a result, various armed groups of maritime merchants have sprung up along the southeast coast. Compared with the Japanese pirates in the past, these maritime groups have made great changes. In a broader world and under more open conditions, they have shared the fruits of the great discovery of world geography and the profits of economic globalization. The imperial court did not know the new continent or the way of silver, but they knew it; the imperial court used the "Macao Manila" route to do entrepot trade through the Spanish, but they took the eastern ocean to the west to do free trade. It was out of the need for free trade that they understood the importance of sea power.

  海商要赚钱,就要维护中国海权,其中,最有名的是郑氏集团。

In order to make money, sea merchants need to safeguard China's sea power, of which Zheng's group is the most famous.

  当荷兰东印度公司——世界上最强大的“海商—军事复合体”横行中国海时,它遭遇了郑氏集团,两个“海商—军事复合体”开战了。最著名的一战,便是1633年的金门料罗湾海战,这一战,打出了一位绝世英雄。

When the Dutch East India Company, the most powerful "maritime military complex" in the world, crossed the sea of China, it encountered Zheng's group and two "maritime military complex" began to fight. The most famous World War I was the battle of the Jinmen Shiluo Bay in 1633, which played a unique hero.

  郑氏集团领袖郑芝龙,原名一官,闽南泉州人,海商出身。从澳门起步,他到过马尼拉和日本,会葡萄牙文,还懂卢西塔尼亚语,即犹太—葡萄牙语,为葡国犹太人秘密用语。受西方文化熏陶,入天主教,取教名贾斯帕,另名尼古拉。他曾在荷兰东印度公司做过“通事”——翻译,参与过荷兰人劫掠中国商船。但荷兰人却没有想到,就是他们身边这名不起眼的“通事”,被他们称作“尼古拉一官”的人,有一天会颠覆了他们在“中国海”的霸权。

Zheng Zhilong, the leader of Zheng's group, originally named Yiguan, was born in Quanzhou, South Fujian Province, and was a maritime businessman. Starting from Macao, he has been to Manila and Japan, and he knows Portuguese. He also knows Lusitanian, namely Jewish Portuguese, which is the secret language of Portuguese Jews. Influenced by western culture, he joined Catholicism and was named Jasper and Nicholas. He once worked as a translator in the Dutch East India Company and participated in the Dutch plundering of Chinese merchant ships. But the Dutch didn't expect that it was this unimportant "General Affair" around them, who they called "Nikolai official", would one day overturn their hegemony in the "China Sea".

  一官兴起以后,不但成了荷兰人的对手,还被朝廷视为“倭寇”,邀荷兰人一起来剿他。没想到,被他打得全军覆没,不得已,才招安他去做了“海防游击”,让他平靖海疆。这样一来,郑氏集团武装得以雄踞海上。1633年,荷兰人出动战舰,不宣而战,突袭郑氏战船,击沉、烧毁战船二十余艘。官员欲息事宁人,表示愿意赔礼,请求荷兰罢兵。可荷兰人不听,遂起兵。

After the rise of Yiguan, he not only became the opponent of the Dutch, but also was regarded as a "Japanese enemy" by the court, and invited the Dutch to fight him together. Unexpectedly, he defeated the whole army and forced him to become a "coastal guerrilla" to pacify the sea. In this way, Zheng's armed forces can occupy the sea. In 1633, the Dutch sent out warships to fight undeclared, raided Zheng's warships, sank and burned more than 20 warships. Officials wanted to calm down, offered to make amends, and asked the Netherlands to stop. But the Dutch did not listen, so they set out.

  郑氏应战,战于金门料罗湾。关于郑氏海战法,徐继畬提到了清人江日升写的《台湾外纪》,以为“其书虽小说,而事多实录”,其言“荷兰船坚炮猛,不能胜”,郑芝龙“乃募死士善泅者”,持斧坐船头,以小船堆燃料,浇以油,中藏火药,置引线,乘风急棹,靠近夷船,以斧钉锥于夷船,与夷船一相连,就点燃药线,然后投水凫回。不知有多少条这样的火船,冲向荷舰决一死战,“药燃火发,风又猛烈”,致使“荷兰夹板,被焚三艘,余悉遁去”。所谓“夹板”,即战船。

Zheng's battle was fought in Shiluo Bay, Jinmen. As for Zheng's naval battle method, Xu Jiyu referred to Taiwan's foreign chronicles written by Jiang Risheng, a Qing man, who thought that "although the book is a novel, there are many facts about it". He said that "the Dutch ship is strong and strong, and cannons can't be won". Zheng Zhilong "is a good swimmer who recruited the dead". He sat on the bow with an axe, piled fuel in a boat, poured oil, hid gunpowder in it, set a lead, rode the wind in a hurry, approached the barbarian ship, and nailed the barbarian ship with an axe, As soon as it is connected with the Yi boat, it ignites the medicine line, and then throws it back into the water. I don't know how many such fire boats rushed to the Dutch ship for a decisive battle, "the medicine ignited and the wind was fierce", resulting in "three Dutch splints were burned, and I got away.". The so-called "splint" is the warship.

  料罗湾海战,乃东西方命运攸关的一战,如郑氏战败,中国割地赔款,就无须等英国人来发动战争,国土沉沦就要提前两百年。这一战,使荷兰人屈服,“海上马车夫”在海上被颠覆。

The sea battle in Shiluo Bay is a World War of vital importance to the East and the West. For example, Zheng's defeat in the war and China's land cutting reparations, it is unnecessary to wait for the British to start the war, and the land degradation will be 200 years ahead of schedule. In this war, the Dutch succumbed and the "coachman of the sea" was overthrown at sea.

  从此,荷兰人放弃了垄断中国海上贸易的企图,转而承认郑氏集团海权。荷属东印度公司与郑氏达成协议,开始向郑氏纳贡,海船在澳门、马尼拉、厦门、台湾、日本各港口间行驶,都须持有郑氏令旗,否则一律禁止。郑氏向往来海船征税,“每舶税三千金,岁入千万计”。

From then on, the Dutch gave up their attempt to monopolize China's maritime trade and recognized Zheng's group's maritime rights. The Dutch East India Company reached an agreement with Zheng and began to pay tribute to Zheng. All sea going vessels operating in Macao, Manila, Xiamen, Taiwan and Japan must hold Zheng's Lingqi, otherwise they are prohibited. Zheng's tax is levied on current ships, "3000 gold per ship, 10 million revenue per year".

  不是一代王朝,而是一介海商,代表了中国的一个海权时代。荷兰人纳税以后,成为郑氏朋友,获得了进入“中国海”的自由。他们向郑氏朝贡,有一次故意献了王杖一枝,金冠一顶,以引诱他自立王朝。但郑氏时代好景不长,没过几年,清军就入关了。南明王朝一支逃到福建,倚郑氏为长城,清军随之而南下,也向郑氏招安,郑芝龙待价而沽,终于投靠清朝。

It is not a dynasty, but a sea merchant, which represents a sea power era in China. After paying taxes, the Dutch became Zheng's friends and gained the freedom to enter the "China Sea". When they paid tribute to the Zheng family, they deliberately offered a king's staff and a golden crown to lure him to establish his own dynasty. However, Zheng's time was not long. Within a few years, the Qing army entered the customs. One of the Southern Ming Dynasty fled to Fujian and relied on the Zheng family as the Great Wall. The Qing army then went south and appealed to the Zheng family. Zheng Zhilong was waiting for a price and finally joined the Qing Dynasty.

  内忧外患,中国民间海权新时代的代表,便由郑芝龙转向郑成功了。

Internal and external troubles, the representative of the new era of China's civil sea power, changed from Zheng Zhilong to Zheng Chenggong.

  郑成功的梦想被人遗忘了

Zheng Chenggong's dream has been forgotten

  郑成功是郑芝龙的儿子,降清,儿子起兵!从沿海入长江,兵临南京与清对峙,东南半壁为之一振,江南一隅突现光明,无奈师老兵顿,败归厦门。刚好“荷兰通事何斌负逋税逃内地,献谋取台湾”,这位何斌先生,原是郑芝龙部下,随郑氏到台湾,便留在台湾学荷兰语,做了荷兰通事。据说,荷兰人让他去收税,他拿了税银,就跑到内地来找郑成功了,劝郑成功先取台湾,再图中原。

Zheng Chenggong is the son of Zheng Zhilong. When he was demoted to Qing Dynasty, his son started his army! When he entered the Yangtze River from the coast, he came to Nanjing to confront Qing Dynasty. The eastern and southern half of the Yangtze River was shaken, and a corner of the south of the Yangtze River was bright, but he had no choice but to learn from the veterans and return to Xiamen. He bin, a former subordinate of Zheng Zhilong, who came to Taiwan with Zheng's family, stayed in Taiwan to learn Dutch and did Dutch communication. It is said that the Dutchman asked him to collect taxes. He took the tax silver and went to the mainland to find Zheng Chenggong. He advised him to take Taiwan first and then map the Central Plains.

  郑成功因收复国土一时无望,便听取何斌建议,先来收复中国海权。

Zheng Chenggong listened to He Bin's suggestion to recover China's sea power because he had no hope of recovering the land.

  我们知道,明万历年间,西班牙人曾屠杀过华侨,而当郑氏令旗通行于中国海时,谁敢屠杀华侨?明末清初,郑芝龙在扶明与降清之间游离,放松了对海权的监理,于是西班牙人乘机再次屠杀华侨,这次又屠杀了约三万人。须知,华侨势力是中国民间海权的一部分,华侨势力增长,就意味着中国民间海权扩张。郑氏时代,中国民间海权的基础,不光在东南沿海,更分布在南洋一带。

We know that during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, Spaniards slaughtered overseas Chinese, but when Zheng's flag passed in the sea of China, who dared to kill overseas Chinese? At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Zheng Zhilong drifted between helping Ming Dynasty and demobilizing Qing Dynasty, relaxed the supervision of sea power, so the Spaniards took the opportunity to kill overseas Chinese again, this time killing about 30000 people. It should be noted that overseas Chinese power is a part of China's civil sea power. The increase of overseas Chinese power means the expansion of China's civil sea power. In Zheng's era, the basis of China's civil sea power was not only in the southeast coast, but also in the Nanyang area.

  郑成功从台湾岛上驱逐了荷兰人,接着就派使者到吕宋(今菲律宾),向西班牙总督递交国书,谴责其屠杀罪行,并广告华侨,联络各地甲必丹——华侨首领,断绝同吕宋贸易,同时调动军队,准备攻取吕宋;意图先占台湾,再取吕宋,继而夺取噶罗巴(今爪哇),控制台湾海峡和马六甲海峡,然后联合日本,光复中华。可怜兵马未动,英雄先崩,这样一个伟大的海权之梦,惜未“成功”。郑成功之子郑经,强撑台湾孤岛,处于满清王朝与西方列强的合围中。

Zheng Chenggong expelled the Dutch from the island of Taiwan. Then he sent envoys to Luzon (now the Philippines) to submit his credentials to the governor of Spain, denounced the massacre, advertised the overseas Chinese, contacted the leaders of jiabidan overseas Chinese, cut off the trade with Luzon, and mobilized the army to attack Luzon. He intended to occupy Taiwan first, then take Luzon, and then take garoba (now Java), Control the Taiwan Strait and Malacca Strait, and then unite with Japan to restore China. Poor soldiers and horses did not move, the hero died first, such a great dream of sea power, cherish not "success". Zheng Jing, the son of Zheng Chenggong, strongly supported Taiwan's isolated island and was surrounded by the Manchu Dynasty and Western powers.

  郑成功之梦如能“成功”,那就不但“驱逐鞑虏,恢复中华”,且以海权光大中华,使中国早在17世纪便转型为一个伟大的海权国家了。惜其梦想随他而逝,没有继承下来。如今我们说起他,只说他有收复台湾的伟业,而他建立中国海权的伟大梦想——一笔巨大的历史遗产,竟然被人遗忘。

If Zheng's dream of success can be "successful", it will not only "expel Tartars and restore China", but also make China a great sea power country as early as in the 17th century. His dream died with him, not inherited. Now when we talk about him, we only say that he has the great cause of recovering Taiwan, and his great dream of establishing China's sea power, a huge historical heritage, has been forgotten.

  萧一山推崇他,在《清史大纲》中,把他作为中国近代民族革命第一人,其“民族革命之酝酿”一章开篇就说:“在中国历史上有一个人不能不大书特书的,就是郑成功。”

Xiao Yishan praised him highly. In the outline of Qing Dynasty history, he was regarded as the first person of modern Chinese national revolution. The chapter of "the brewing of national revolution" begins with the saying: "there is one person who can't do without a special book in Chinese history, that is, Zheng Chenggong."

  萧氏推崇他有三点,一是光复运动领袖,这还是中国传统里的人物,如等人;二是收复台湾英雄,这就不光是民族的,还是世界的了,他不但使光复运动有了根据地,还改变了世界大格局,荷兰从此衰落下去;三是民族革命先驱,他反清、反帝,在东方高举民族主义大旗。

Xiao respected him in three ways: first, he was the leader of the restoration movement, who was also a figure in Chinese tradition, such as others; second, he recovered Taiwan heroes, which was not only national, but also world. He not only made the restoration movement a base, but also changed the world pattern, and Holland declined from then on; third, he was the pioneer of national revolution, who fought against the Qing Dynasty and emperor, and held the nation high in the East The banner of doctrine.

  郑氏信心满满,坦言:“东西洋饷,我所自生自殖者也;进战退守,绰绰余裕。”人言其居海外一岛,养精兵十万,战舰数千,以“通洋裕国”,而财用不匮。且以洪门深入内地,遍植会党,布下星星之火,此伏彼起,渐成燎原之势。,非从天降,其来有自矣。清朝禁海迁界,内迁渔民,以困郑氏,反使郑氏独操通洋之利,“中国各货,海外人皆仰资郑氏”,郑氏因之而“财用益饶”。

Zheng's confidence is full, and he said frankly: "the western and Eastern pay, I was born to colonize; into the war and retreat, more than enough." It is said that it lives on an island overseas, with 100000 elite soldiers and thousands of warships, so as to "open up the ocean and enrich the country", and its wealth is not scarce. And with Hongmen deep into the mainland, all over the party, spread a single spark, one after another, gradually become a prairie fire. Not from heaven, but from itself. In the Qing Dynasty, the sea was forbidden to move, and the fishermen were moved in to trap the Zheng family. Instead, the Zheng family took advantage of the advantages of the foreign countries alone. "All the goods in China and the overseas people all admired the Zheng family," and the Zheng family "profited from it.".

  遗憾的是,这个在航海和自由贸易中成长起来的“海商—军事复合体”,虽然有足够的资本和武装力量,却没能以海上力量立国,没有像荷兰东印度公司那样,走在如麦尼尔所说的资本主义道路上,向民主共和国远航。而是背道而驰,走向以王权自立。共和国兴起,要靠自由贸易和保护自由贸易的武力,还要从自由贸易里发展出自由主义,没有自由主义,郑氏集团走不出王权樊篱。

Unfortunately, although the "Maritime Commercial military complex" which grew up in navigation and free trade has enough capital and armed forces, it has not been able to establish a country with maritime forces, and has not gone on the capitalist road as described by McNeill to the Democratic Republic like the Dutch East India Company. However, it runs counter to the trend of relying on monarchy. The rise of the Republic depends on the force of free trade and the protection of free trade, and on the development of liberalism from free trade. Without liberalism, Zheng's group can't get out of the Royal fence.

  清帝拒绝与英国贸易的根源

The root of Qing Dynasty's refusal to trade with Britain

  对于民间海权,清朝视为大患,满人占有国土,尚未拥有海权,南明退到海边,中国以民间海权抗争。欲灭民间海权,清朝不择手段,海禁以外,更厉行迁界。年间,三次迁界,从山东到广东,沿海居民都被迁走,寸板不许下水,片物不许越界,违者杀无赦。刚好西班牙人屠杀华侨,这在清王朝看来便是天随人愿,助它消灭中国民间海权。须知,此时清朝,其身份还是异族入侵者,它在江南对国人的屠杀,一点不亚于西方海盗屠杀华侨。当国人的抗争被清军压缩在东南沿海及西南一隅时,它比西方海盗更急于扼杀中国民间海权,以斩断反清复明之根。

As for the folk sea power, the Qing Dynasty saw it as a great trouble. Manchu occupied the land, but not the sea power. Nanming retreated to the sea, and China fought with the folk sea power. In order to extinguish the civil sea power, the Qing Dynasty did whatever it could to remove it. During the year, three times, from Shandong to Guangdong, the coastal residents were moved away. No one was allowed to go into the water, no one was allowed to cross the border, and no one was allowed to kill anyone who violated. It happened that the Spaniards slaughtered the overseas Chinese, which in the eyes of the Qing Dynasty was the wish of heaven and people to help it eliminate China's civil sea rights. It should be noted that in the Qing Dynasty, its identity was still an alien invader, and its massacre of Chinese people in the south of the Yangtze River was no less than that of Western pirates killing overseas Chinese. When the Chinese people's struggle was compressed in the southeast coast and southwest corner by the Qing army, it was more eager than the Western pirates to kill China's civil sea power, in order to cut off the root of anti Qing restoration.

  荷兰人盘踞台湾30多年,被郑成功一举夺取,其恼怒自不待言。还在被围困时,荷兰人就请求清军救援,被撵出台湾后,仍派舰队驶抵闽洋,以清荷联军,先夺金、厦,再取台湾。但荷兰再也不能恢复它在中国海的霸权。

The Dutch, who have been occupying Taiwan for more than 30 years, were seized by Zheng Chenggong in one fell swoop. When they were still besieged, the Dutch asked the Qing army for help. After they were expelled from Taiwan, they still sent a fleet to the minyang sea to win the gold, Xiamen and Taiwan by the alliance of the Qing and the Dutch. But the Netherlands can no longer regain its hegemony in the sea of China.

  荷兰立国,以东印度公司为支柱,该公司曾经控制了东西方贸易的两条财路,一以台湾控制台湾海峡,一以噶罗巴控制马六甲海峡。郑成功收复台湾,使荷兰失去台湾海峡,断了一条财路;英国人占领新加坡,又夺走了马六甲海峡——这两条财路一断,荷兰就衰落了,其海权从东到西被英国一一夺去。本来,荷兰与清朝有约,联合攻打台湾,打下台湾后,清朝仍将台湾交给荷兰。荷兰助清军攻克台湾,却无力来讨要,因为蒸蒸日上的英国人又在大西洋把荷兰打败了。

Holland is a country with East India Company as its pillar. The company once controlled two financial channels of East-West trade, one was Taiwan controlling the Taiwan Strait, the other was garoba controlling the Malacca Strait. Zheng succeeded in regaining Taiwan, making the Netherlands lose the Taiwan Strait and cut off a financial path; the British occupied Singapore and took the Strait of Malacca - once the two financial paths were broken, the Netherlands declined, and its sea power was taken away by the UK from east to west. Originally, the Netherlands had an agreement with the Qing Dynasty to jointly attack Taiwan. After the defeat of Taiwan, the Qing Dynasty still gave Taiwan to the Netherlands. The Dutch helped the Qing army conquer Taiwan, but they were unable to ask for help, because the rising British defeated the Dutch in the Atlantic Ocean.

  中国第一任驻外公使郭嵩焘出使欧洲时,乘船经过香港和新加坡,专门上去考察了一番,对英荷两国治理殖民地做了比较。他说,荷兰踞南洋各港口,“专事苛敛,以济国用”,而英国却“以本地之财,济本地之用”。以英国在印度和澳大利亚为例,每年收入逾万万,都没有拿到英国去,而是用来建设本地,“使其人民共之,故无怨者”。因而,“苏门答腊各小国,乐以其地献之英人”。又说,荷兰连个苏门答腊都搞不定,看来是大势已去了,较之英国搞定印度,差得很远。其实英国赋

When Guo Songtao, China's first foreign minister, sent out to Europe, he sailed through Hong Kong and Singapore to make a special inspection and made a comparison between the British and Dutch colonies. He said that the Netherlands is located in various ports in the South Ocean, which "specializes in excessive collection and helps the country", while the UK "helps the country with its local wealth". In India and Australia, for example, the UK earns more than 10000 yuan a year, which is not taken to the UK. Instead, it is used to build the local area and "make its people share it, so there is no resentment". Therefore, "every small country in Sumatra is happy to offer its land to the British.". He added that the Netherlands can't even figure out Sumatra. It seems that the situation is over. Compared with Britain, it's a long way from finishing India. In fact, English Fu

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