A generation of dynasties rely on sea merchants to defeat the Dutch bandits
The so-called "Daming Dynasty" was finally rejected by the people. The refugees in the mainland revolted, armed smuggling along the coast, and the people saved themselves. In the middle of the 17th century, the court did not want sea power, while the coastal people defended China's sea power by armed smuggling.
As a result, various armed groups of maritime merchants have sprung up along the southeast coast. Compared with the Japanese pirates in the past, these maritime groups have made great changes. In a broader world and under more open conditions, they have shared the fruits of the great discovery of world geography and the profits of economic globalization. The imperial court did not know the new continent or the way of silver, but they knew it; the imperial court used the "Macao Manila" route to do entrepot trade through the Spanish, but they took the eastern ocean to the west to do free trade. It was out of the need for free trade that they understood the importance of sea power.
In order to make money, sea merchants need to safeguard China's sea power, of which Zheng's group is the most famous.
When the Dutch East India Company, the most powerful "maritime military complex" in the world, crossed the sea of China, it encountered Zheng's group and two "maritime military complex" began to fight. The most famous World War I was the battle of the Jinmen Shiluo Bay in 1633, which played a unique hero.
Zheng Zhilong, the leader of Zheng's group, originally named Yiguan, was born in Quanzhou, South Fujian Province, and was a maritime businessman. Starting from Macao, he has been to Manila and Japan, and he knows Portuguese. He also knows Lusitanian, namely Jewish Portuguese, which is the secret language of Portuguese Jews. Influenced by western culture, he joined Catholicism and was named Jasper and Nicholas. He once worked as a translator in the Dutch East India Company and participated in the Dutch plundering of Chinese merchant ships. But the Dutch didn't expect that it was this unimportant "General Affair" around them, who they called "Nikolai official", would one day overturn their hegemony in the "China Sea".
After the rise of Yiguan, he not only became the opponent of the Dutch, but also was regarded as a "Japanese enemy" by the court, and invited the Dutch to fight him together. Unexpectedly, he defeated the whole army and forced him to become a "coastal guerrilla" to pacify the sea. In this way, Zheng's armed forces can occupy the sea. In 1633, the Dutch sent out warships to fight undeclared, raided Zheng's warships, sank and burned more than 20 warships. Officials wanted to calm down, offered to make amends, and asked the Netherlands to stop. But the Dutch did not listen, so they set out.
Zheng's battle was fought in Shiluo Bay, Jinmen. As for Zheng's naval battle method, Xu Jiyu referred to Taiwan's foreign chronicles written by Jiang Risheng, a Qing man, who thought that "although the book is a novel, there are many facts about it". He said that "the Dutch ship is strong and strong, and cannons can't be won". Zheng Zhilong "is a good swimmer who recruited the dead". He sat on the bow with an axe, piled fuel in a boat, poured oil, hid gunpowder in it, set a lead, rode the wind in a hurry, approached the barbarian ship, and nailed the barbarian ship with an axe, As soon as it is connected with the Yi boat, it ignites the medicine line, and then throws it back into the water. I don't know how many such fire boats rushed to the Dutch ship for a decisive battle, "the medicine ignited and the wind was fierce", resulting in "three Dutch splints were burned, and I got away.". The so-called "splint" is the warship.
The sea battle in Shiluo Bay is a World War of vital importance to the East and the West. For example, Zheng's defeat in the war and China's land cutting reparations, it is unnecessary to wait for the British to start the war, and the land degradation will be 200 years ahead of schedule. In this war, the Dutch succumbed and the "coachman of the sea" was overthrown at sea.
From then on, the Dutch gave up their attempt to monopolize China's maritime trade and recognized Zheng's group's maritime rights. The Dutch East India Company reached an agreement with Zheng and began to pay tribute to Zheng. All sea going vessels operating in Macao, Manila, Xiamen, Taiwan and Japan must hold Zheng's Lingqi, otherwise they are prohibited. Zheng's tax is levied on current ships, "3000 gold per ship, 10 million revenue per year".
It is not a dynasty, but a sea merchant, which represents a sea power era in China. After paying taxes, the Dutch became Zheng's friends and gained the freedom to enter the "China Sea". When they paid tribute to the Zheng family, they deliberately offered a king's staff and a golden crown to lure him to establish his own dynasty. However, Zheng's time was not long. Within a few years, the Qing army entered the customs. One of the Southern Ming Dynasty fled to Fujian and relied on the Zheng family as the Great Wall. The Qing army then went south and appealed to the Zheng family. Zheng Zhilong was waiting for a price and finally joined the Qing Dynasty.
Internal and external troubles, the representative of the new era of China's civil sea power, changed from Zheng Zhilong to Zheng Chenggong.
Zheng Chenggong's dream has been forgotten
Zheng Chenggong is the son of Zheng Zhilong. When he was demoted to Qing Dynasty, his son started his army! When he entered the Yangtze River from the coast, he came to Nanjing to confront Qing Dynasty. The eastern and southern half of the Yangtze River was shaken, and a corner of the south of the Yangtze River was bright, but he had no choice but to learn from the veterans and return to Xiamen. He bin, a former subordinate of Zheng Zhilong, who came to Taiwan with Zheng's family, stayed in Taiwan to learn Dutch and did Dutch communication. It is said that the Dutchman asked him to collect taxes. He took the tax silver and went to the mainland to find Zheng Chenggong. He advised him to take Taiwan first and then map the Central Plains.
Zheng Chenggong listened to He Bin's suggestion to recover China's sea power because he had no hope of recovering the land.
We know that during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, Spaniards slaughtered overseas Chinese, but when Zheng's flag passed in the sea of China, who dared to kill overseas Chinese? At the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Zheng Zhilong drifted between helping Ming Dynasty and demobilizing Qing Dynasty, relaxed the supervision of sea power, so the Spaniards took the opportunity to kill overseas Chinese again, this time killing about 30000 people. It should be noted that overseas Chinese power is a part of China's civil sea power. The increase of overseas Chinese power means the expansion of China's civil sea power. In Zheng's era, the basis of China's civil sea power was not only in the southeast coast, but also in the Nanyang area.
Zheng Chenggong expelled the Dutch from the island of Taiwan. Then he sent envoys to Luzon (now the Philippines) to submit his credentials to the governor of Spain, denounced the massacre, advertised the overseas Chinese, contacted the leaders of jiabidan overseas Chinese, cut off the trade with Luzon, and mobilized the army to attack Luzon. He intended to occupy Taiwan first, then take Luzon, and then take garoba (now Java), Control the Taiwan Strait and Malacca Strait, and then unite with Japan to restore China. Poor soldiers and horses did not move, the hero died first, such a great dream of sea power, cherish not "success". Zheng Jing, the son of Zheng Chenggong, strongly supported Taiwan's isolated island and was surrounded by the Manchu Dynasty and Western powers.
If Zheng's dream of success can be "successful", it will not only "expel Tartars and restore China", but also make China a great sea power country as early as in the 17th century. His dream died with him, not inherited. Now when we talk about him, we only say that he has the great cause of recovering Taiwan, and his great dream of establishing China's sea power, a huge historical heritage, has been forgotten.
Xiao Yishan praised him highly. In the outline of Qing Dynasty history, he was regarded as the first person of modern Chinese national revolution. The chapter of "the brewing of national revolution" begins with the saying: "there is one person who can't do without a special book in Chinese history, that is, Zheng Chenggong."
Xiao respected him in three ways: first, he was the leader of the restoration movement, who was also a figure in Chinese tradition, such as others; second, he recovered Taiwan heroes, which was not only national, but also world. He not only made the restoration movement a base, but also changed the world pattern, and Holland declined from then on; third, he was the pioneer of national revolution, who fought against the Qing Dynasty and emperor, and held the nation high in the East The banner of doctrine.
Zheng's confidence is full, and he said frankly: "the western and Eastern pay, I was born to colonize; into the war and retreat, more than enough." It is said that it lives on an island overseas, with 100000 elite soldiers and thousands of warships, so as to "open up the ocean and enrich the country", and its wealth is not scarce. And with Hongmen deep into the mainland, all over the party, spread a single spark, one after another, gradually become a prairie fire. Not from heaven, but from itself. In the Qing Dynasty, the sea was forbidden to move, and the fishermen were moved in to trap the Zheng family. Instead, the Zheng family took advantage of the advantages of the foreign countries alone. "All the goods in China and the overseas people all admired the Zheng family," and the Zheng family "profited from it.".
Unfortunately, although the "Maritime Commercial military complex" which grew up in navigation and free trade has enough capital and armed forces, it has not been able to establish a country with maritime forces, and has not gone on the capitalist road as described by McNeill to the Democratic Republic like the Dutch East India Company. However, it runs counter to the trend of relying on monarchy. The rise of the Republic depends on the force of free trade and the protection of free trade, and on the development of liberalism from free trade. Without liberalism, Zheng's group can't get out of the Royal fence.
The root of Qing Dynasty's refusal to trade with Britain
As for the folk sea power, the Qing Dynasty saw it as a great trouble. Manchu occupied the land, but not the sea power. Nanming retreated to the sea, and China fought with the folk sea power. In order to extinguish the civil sea power, the Qing Dynasty did whatever it could to remove it. During the year, three times, from Shandong to Guangdong, the coastal residents were moved away. No one was allowed to go into the water, no one was allowed to cross the border, and no one was allowed to kill anyone who violated. It happened that the Spaniards slaughtered the overseas Chinese, which in the eyes of the Qing Dynasty was the wish of heaven and people to help it eliminate China's civil sea rights. It should be noted that in the Qing Dynasty, its identity was still an alien invader, and its massacre of Chinese people in the south of the Yangtze River was no less than that of Western pirates killing overseas Chinese. When the Chinese people's struggle was compressed in the southeast coast and southwest corner by the Qing army, it was more eager than the Western pirates to kill China's civil sea power, in order to cut off the root of anti Qing restoration.
The Dutch, who have been occupying Taiwan for more than 30 years, were seized by Zheng Chenggong in one fell swoop. When they were still besieged, the Dutch asked the Qing army for help. After they were expelled from Taiwan, they still sent a fleet to the minyang sea to win the gold, Xiamen and Taiwan by the alliance of the Qing and the Dutch. But the Netherlands can no longer regain its hegemony in the sea of China.
Holland is a country with East India Company as its pillar. The company once controlled two financial channels of East-West trade, one was Taiwan controlling the Taiwan Strait, the other was garoba controlling the Malacca Strait. Zheng succeeded in regaining Taiwan, making the Netherlands lose the Taiwan Strait and cut off a financial path; the British occupied Singapore and took the Strait of Malacca - once the two financial paths were broken, the Netherlands declined, and its sea power was taken away by the UK from east to west. Originally, the Netherlands had an agreement with the Qing Dynasty to jointly attack Taiwan. After the defeat of Taiwan, the Qing Dynasty still gave Taiwan to the Netherlands. The Dutch helped the Qing army conquer Taiwan, but they were unable to ask for help, because the rising British defeated the Dutch in the Atlantic Ocean.
When Guo Songtao, China's first foreign minister, sent out to Europe, he sailed through Hong Kong and Singapore to make a special inspection and made a comparison between the British and Dutch colonies. He said that the Netherlands is located in various ports in the South Ocean, which "specializes in excessive collection and helps the country", while the UK "helps the country with its local wealth". In India and Australia, for example, the UK earns more than 10000 yuan a year, which is not taken to the UK. Instead, it is used to build the local area and "make its people share it, so there is no resentment". Therefore, "every small country in Sumatra is happy to offer its land to the British.". He added that the Netherlands can't even figure out Sumatra. It seems that the situation is over. Compared with Britain, it's a long way from finishing India. In fact, English Fu