朱棣生母是谁?明成祖朱棣的生母是马皇后吗?-看世界

朱棣生母是谁?明成祖朱棣的生母是马皇后吗?

  明人沈玄华在《敬礼南都奉先殿纪事十四韵》中有:“高后配在天,御幄神所栖。众妃位东序,一妃独在西。成祖重所生,嫔德莫敢齐。”因此,包括当代著名历史学家吴晗先生在内,都深信朱棣的生母为“碽妃”李氏。最普遍的观点是,朱棣的生母其实是个高丽人,李姓,封贡妃,论据是《南京太常寺志》所记:“右一位贡妃生成祖文皇帝”。史料中关于贡妃的资料很少,据说是因为生朱棣的时候早产,朱元璋认为孩子定非己出,而将其赐死。

  导读:自称是所生,自然也就是所谓嫡子了,但事实上其实,经历代学者考证,明成祖的生母不是马皇后。成祖的生母问题,不只是关系到他的身世,而且深刻地影响到他一生的行为,有野载碽妃就是成祖(朱棣)生母,并且正史之中也能找到应对此项推测的证据。

Guide: he claims to be born, which is naturally the so-called legitimate son. But in fact, through the textual research of scholars of the generation, the birth mother of Ming Chengzu is not empress ma. The birth mother problem of Chengzu is not only related to his life experience, but also profoundly affects his behavior in his whole life. Princess Ye Zai is the birth mother of Chengzu (Zhu Di), and evidence to deal with this speculation can be found in the official history.

  明人沈玄华在《敬礼南都奉先殿纪事十四韵》中有:“高后配在天,御幄神所栖。众妃位东序,一妃独在西。成祖重所生,嫔德莫敢齐。”因此,包括当代著名历史学家吴晗先生在内,都深信朱棣的生母为“碽妃”李氏。最普遍的观点是,朱棣的生母其实是个高丽人,李姓,封贡妃,论据是《南京太常寺志》所记:“右一位贡妃生成祖文”。史料中关于贡妃的资料很少,据说是因为生朱棣的时候早产,认为孩子定非己出,而将其赐死。

Shen Xuanhua of the Ming Dynasty wrote in the fourteen rhymes of courting the Fengxian Hall of the southern capital: "the high queen is matched in the sky, and the king's God lives in the tent. All the imperial concubines are in the East, and one is in the West. The son of Cheng Zu was born again, and his concubines are not brave. " Therefore, including the famous historian Wu Han, Zhu Di's birth mother is believed to be Li's. The most common view is that Zhu Di's birth mother is actually a Gaoli, surnamed Li, who was granted the title of imperial concubine Gong. The argument is that "the right imperial concubine Gong produced Zuwen" in the annals of Taichang temple in Nanjing. There is little information about Gong Fei in the historical materials. It is said that she was born prematurely at the time of Zhu Di's birth. She thought that the child must not have been born, but died.

  朱棣夺位当了皇帝以后,在当时的京城,也就是今天的南京,修建了一座大报恩寺,这座寺庙大门内有一座正殿,平日大殿的门紧闭,老百姓不能随便进去,所以也都不知道里面到底供奉着什么。在朱棣当了皇帝以后的二百多年间,外人从来没有人知晓。直到清军入关,明朝灭亡,它的神秘面纱才被揭开,这座大殿被人打开来一看,原来里面供奉的是碽氏的牌位。朱棣修大报恩寺,原来是想报生母碽氏的生育之恩,朱棣既然知道自己的生母是碽氏,并且也想报恩,为什么又要隐瞒这件事情呢?

After Zhu Di won the throne and became emperor, he built a great gratitude temple in the then capital city, today's Nanjing. There is a main hall in the gate of the temple. The gate of the main hall is closed on weekdays, so people can't go in at will, so they don't know what is enshrined in it. For more than 200 years after Zhu Di became emperor, no one outside knew it. It was not until the Qing army entered the pass and the Ming Dynasty perished that its mysterious veil was uncovered. This hall was opened to have a look. It was originally dedicated to the memorial tablet of the surname Chen. Zhu Di built the great benefactor temple. He wanted to repay his mother's benefactor. Since Zhu Di knew that his mother was a benefactor, he also wanted to repay his benefactor. Why should he hide this?

  朱棣为夺取皇位,杀人如麻,他甚至可以被评为中国历史上杀人最多的皇帝之一,那时候他几乎是杀红了眼,绝对是顺之者昌,逆之者亡了。可是到了要认自己的生母了,他却遮遮藏藏,欲盖弥彰,软弱得让人难以理解,这其中的原因不外乎下面这几点:

In order to seize the throne, Zhu Di killed as many people as he could. He could even be rated as one of the most murderous emperors in Chinese history. At that time, he almost killed red eyes. He was absolutely the one who followed the rule of Chang and the one who rebelled against it died. But when he came to recognize his mother, he was hiding and trying to cover up. He was so weak that it was hard to understand. The reasons were as follows:

  1、保皇位。朱棣费尽千辛万苦抢来皇位很不容易,他的做法在人们心目中被视为。名不正则言不顺,因此他若要保住皇位,就得拼命掩盖篡位的恶名,想尽千方百计来证明自己皇位的合法性。于是就得打出正牌来,如果出身既是庶出,又是篡位,这皇帝能不能当下去还真不好说,我们在这里揣测一下,朱棣每当想到不能承认亲生母亲的身份,不能给她应得的荣誉和地位,一定非常苦恼,非常愧疚。可这事又万万不能对外人讲,也就只好把母亲的牌位放到寺庙里,在心里默默请求母亲原谅自己。人在江湖身不由己,为了坐稳皇帝的宝座,他只能忍痛这样处理了!

1. Keep the throne. It's not easy for Zhu Di to seize the throne with all his efforts. His practice is regarded as in people's mind. If he wants to keep the throne, he has to cover up the usurper's bad name and try his best to prove the legitimacy of his throne. Therefore, we have to play a real card. If the birth is not only a commoner but also a usurper of the throne, it's hard to say whether the emperor can go on. Let's speculate here. Whenever Zhu Di thinks that he can't admit his mother's identity and can't give her the honor and status she deserves, he must be very upset and guilty. But this matter can never be told to others, so we have to put mother's memorial tablet in the temple and ask her to forgive herself in my heart. People can't help themselves in the Jianghu. In order to secure the throne of the emperor, he can only bear to deal with it like this!

  2、争正统。马皇后是正牌皇后,因此说是她生的,身份自然就是正统的了,同时也就可以为朱棣的夺权找到借口——当初朱元璋和马皇后原本就是想把皇位传给朱棣的,只是因为有人出坏主意,才传给了皇太孙。另一方面,朱棣说自己是马皇后生的,也就比太子妃生的朱允炆的地位更正统了。

2. Fight for orthodoxy. Empress Ma is an authentic empress, so she was born, and her identity is orthodox. At the same time, she can find an excuse for Zhu Di's usurpation of power. At the beginning, Zhu Yuanzhang and empress Ma wanted to pass the throne to Zhu Di, only because someone had a bad idea, they passed it to the emperor TAISUN. On the other hand, Zhu Di said that he was born after the emperor Ma, which was more orthodox than Zhu Yunwen, the son of the crown princess.

  3、怕舆论、要面子。朱棣的生母碽氏是一位蒙古族的女性,在今天看来,这当然算是一件好事,因为少数民族在工作学习生活中会有一些优待政策。可在当时,就完全不是这么回事了,朱元璋是从蒙古族统治者手中夺得天下的,当时残余势力虽然退到大漠以北,可仍然苟延残喘地与明朝对峙,双方还在打仗。朱棣若承认是碽氏所生,就等于承认自己是蒙古族的后代,这就是朱棣不能公开认自己蒙古族生母的主要原因。

3. Be afraid of public opinion and face. Zhu Di's birth mother is a Mongolian woman. In today's eyes, this is certainly a good thing, because ethnic minorities will have some preferential policies in their work, study and life. But at that time, it was not the case at all. Zhu Yuanzhang won the world from the Mongolian rulers. Although the remaining forces retreated to the north of the desert, they still continued to confront the Ming Dynasty, and the two sides were still fighting. If Zhu Di admits that he was born of the Han family, he will admit that he is a descendant of the Mongolian nationality. This is the main reason why Zhu Di cannot publicly recognize his Mongolian birth mother.

  朱棣不公开认生母一事虽然有许多历史原因,但不管怎么说,还是主要因为在他的眼里,皇帝宝座重于亲情。从小浸染权欲的朱棣,终究无法摆脱权力这枚糖衣炮弹的利诱,朱棣的亲生母亲碽氏最终连一座坟墓都没有留下,而这段历史,也最终被朱棣带入了他的坟墓之中,从此没有人能够知道当时的真相。这成为后世的史学家们花费心思去考证的历史疑点,终归让人感到有些遗憾和可悲。

Although there are many historical reasons for Zhu Di's Secret recognition of his mother, in any case, it is mainly because in his eyes, the emperor's throne is more important than family affection. Zhu Di, who was imbued with the desire for power since childhood, could not get rid of the lure of the sugar coated shell of power. Zhu Di's biological mother, Chen Shi, did not even leave a tomb at last, and this history was finally brought into his tomb by Zhu Di. No one can know the truth at that time. This has become the historical doubt that later historians spend their time to research, and it is a little pity and sad.

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