Zhong Kui is a deity who dispels ghosts and exorcises evil spirits in people's belief.
The doors of traditional houses are generally double, so the door gods in New Year's paintings are mostly in pairs. The tea is right for Yu Lei, right. But Zhong Kui, the door god, was the only one. I visited Yangliuqing town in 1993 and bought a picture of Zhongkui with long beard, red robe and sword. A bat fell from the sky in the upper left corner. This kind of door god is suitable for single door. The custom of pasting Zhong Kui's image in the new year began in the Tang Dynasty. At that time, at the end of each year, the scholars presented Zhong Kui to the imperial court to reward the officials. It is also popular among the people to hang Zhong Kui's statue at the front of the door to ward off ghosts and evil spirits. Why can Zhong Kui become a God?
Shen Kuo, a scientist in the Northern Song Dynasty, mentioned a picture of Zhong Kui painted by Wu Daozi in the Imperial Palace collection. This image is inscribed by the Tang people: "Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty suffered from malaria, which has not been cured for a long time.". I dreamed that a big blue ghost caught a little one in red shorts who stole the palace and swallowed it. Xuanzong asked who Dagui was, and Dagui replied, "minister Zhong Kui is a man who failed in martial arts. Swear to your majesty to eliminate the evils of the world. " Xuanzong wakes up in a dream and the disease disappears immediately. Wu Daozi, the painter, was summoned to paint Zhong Kui in accordance with the dream of Xuanzong. The core content of this legend is to become a God after death and to be in charge of removing demons and ghosts.
后来关于钟馗成神的传说基本都是这样的模式。明代万历年间宫内新年供奉之剧《庆丰年五鬼闹钟馗》云：钟馗是终南山甘河镇人，平生直正，不信邪鬼。参加，文采飞扬。收受贿赂，贬低钟馗文章。其他官员将考试情况报告， 钦点钟馗为天下头名状元。不料此时钟馗已经在旅店一气而亡，官员们只好把御赐之物焚化祭奠。上帝怜悯，加封钟馗为“天下都领判官，捉绝魍魉鬼怪” 。清代蒲松龄的剧本《钟妹庆寿》则说钟馗是因为相貌丑而落第，一怒之下头撞金阶而死。上帝怜悯，擢为九幽三曹都判官，掌管幽冥界。
Later, the legend of Zhong Kui becoming a God was basically in this mode. Zhongkui is a native of Ganhe town in Zhongnan mountain. He was upright and didn't believe in evil spirits. Take part in it. Accept bribes and belittle Zhong Kui's articles. Other officials reported the examination to the emperor, who named Zhong Kui the number one scholar in the world. Unexpectedly, Zhong Kui had died in the hotel at the same time, so officials had to burn the imperial gifts for sacrifice. God's mercy, Zhong Kui as "the world's leading judge, catch the monsters.". Pu Songling's play Zhong Mei Qing Shou in the Qing Dynasty said that Zhong Kui was defeated because of his ugly appearance, and died when he hit his head against the golden stage in a rage. God pitied and promoted him to judge of Jiuyou and sancaodu, who was in charge of the netherworld.
It is the greatest tragedy of ancient scholars' life that they failed in examinations and died of depression. Later legends, together with the cheating of examiners and the fact that he was not the first because of his ugly appearance, gradually strengthened Zhong Kui's pitiful and lamentable death. Zhong Kui's death caused deep sympathy, so that even God was moved in the legend, so Zhong Kui was sealed as a God.
In fact, many gods in ancient China came from the abnormal death of ordinary people. He Bo, the God of water of the Yellow River, died of drowning. Her daughter, Mi Fei, drowned and became the God of water of Luohe River. He was wrongly killed and turned into a tide God (or Wujiang Narcissus). Throw into the river, turn into Xiangjiang Narcissus. Jiezitui was burned to death and became the God of Jieshan. She was abused by her mother-in-law and died. She became a toilet God. And so on, too many. These people have no supernatural ability before their lives. They are pure ordinary people. The reason why they can become gods after death reflects a common social psychology, that is, they believe that the spirits of the abnormal dead must be depressed, angry and restless. At this time, if a certain social member happens to dream of the dead (this possibility is very high, because everyone is always concerned about this abnormal dead person) with some supernatural ability, for example, during the reign of Emperor Guangwu, during the broad day of the European Hui Dynasty, he saw Qu Yuan appear on the river and call himself Sanlu doctor, and Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty dreamed that Zhong Kui was catching ghosts, then it is easy for the society to think that the dead have become gods 。 This result is popular with the public, because they can rest assured that there is no need to worry about the Revenge of the dead. Therefore, all kinds of worship and sacrifice activities are launched one after another
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