钟馗何以成神?考试不第死而成神 掌管除妖-看世界

钟馗何以成神?考试不第死而成神 掌管除妖

  传统民居的大门一般是双扇对开的,所以年画中的门神也多是成对的,神荼对郁垒,秦琼对尉迟恭。但是,门神钟馗的像却是独一份。我1993年到杨柳青镇参观,买了一幅《福从天降》 ,画的就是长髯、赤袍、持剑的钟馗,左上角一只蝙蝠从天而降。这种门神适合贴在单开门上。新年贴钟馗像的习俗始于唐代。那时候,每年年末,翰林们向皇帝进献钟馗像,用以赏赐大臣。民间也流行于门首悬挂钟馗像以驱鬼辟邪。钟馗这个人为什么能够成神?

  钟馗是民众信仰中一位驱鬼辟邪的神灵,年画和新年应时戏曲中多有钟馗的形象出现。

Zhong Kui is a deity who dispels ghosts and exorcises evil spirits in people's belief.

  传统民居的大门一般是双扇对开的,所以年画中的门神也多是成对的,神荼对郁垒,对。但是,门神钟馗的像却是独一份。我1993年到杨柳青镇参观,买了一幅《福从天降》 ,画的就是长髯、赤袍、持剑的钟馗,左上角一只蝙蝠从天而降。这种门神适合贴在单开门上。新年贴钟馗像的习俗始于唐代。那时候,每年年末,翰林们向进献钟馗像,用以赏赐大臣。民间也流行于门首悬挂钟馗像以驱鬼辟邪。钟馗这个人为什么能够成神?

The doors of traditional houses are generally double, so the door gods in New Year's paintings are mostly in pairs. The tea is right for Yu Lei, right. But Zhong Kui, the door god, was the only one. I visited Yangliuqing town in 1993 and bought a picture of Zhongkui with long beard, red robe and sword. A bat fell from the sky in the upper left corner. This kind of door god is suitable for single door. The custom of pasting Zhong Kui's image in the new year began in the Tang Dynasty. At that time, at the end of each year, the scholars presented Zhong Kui to the imperial court to reward the officials. It is also popular among the people to hang Zhong Kui's statue at the front of the door to ward off ghosts and evil spirits. Why can Zhong Kui become a God?

  北宋科学家沈括在《补笔谈》中提到皇宫收藏的一幅吴道子所画钟馗像。此像有唐人题记云:唐玄宗患疟疾,久治不愈。梦见一个蓝衣大鬼捉拿一个盗窃皇宫的穿绛色短裤的小鬼,并吞吃了事。玄宗问大鬼是何人,大鬼回答:“臣钟馗氏,即武举不捷之士也。誓与陛下除天下之妖孽。 ”玄宗梦醒,疾病立消。召见画工吴道子依玄宗之梦而画钟馗。这个传说的核心内容是考试不第,死而成神,掌管除妖孽鬼怪。

Shen Kuo, a scientist in the Northern Song Dynasty, mentioned a picture of Zhong Kui painted by Wu Daozi in the Imperial Palace collection. This image is inscribed by the Tang people: "Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty suffered from malaria, which has not been cured for a long time.". I dreamed that a big blue ghost caught a little one in red shorts who stole the palace and swallowed it. Xuanzong asked who Dagui was, and Dagui replied, "minister Zhong Kui is a man who failed in martial arts. Swear to your majesty to eliminate the evils of the world. " Xuanzong wakes up in a dream and the disease disappears immediately. Wu Daozi, the painter, was summoned to paint Zhong Kui in accordance with the dream of Xuanzong. The core content of this legend is to become a God after death and to be in charge of removing demons and ghosts.

  后来关于钟馗成神的传说基本都是这样的模式。明代万历年间宫内新年供奉之剧《庆丰年五鬼闹钟馗》云:钟馗是终南山甘河镇人,平生直正,不信邪鬼。参加,文采飞扬。收受贿赂,贬低钟馗文章。其他官员将考试情况报告皇帝皇帝钦点钟馗为天下头名状元。不料此时钟馗已经在旅店一气而亡,官员们只好把御赐之物焚化祭奠。上帝怜悯,加封钟馗为“天下都领判官,捉绝魍魉鬼怪” 。清代蒲松龄的剧本《钟妹庆寿》则说钟馗是因为相貌丑而落第,一怒之下头撞金阶而死。上帝怜悯,擢为九幽三曹都判官,掌管幽冥界。

Later, the legend of Zhong Kui becoming a God was basically in this mode. Zhongkui is a native of Ganhe town in Zhongnan mountain. He was upright and didn't believe in evil spirits. Take part in it. Accept bribes and belittle Zhong Kui's articles. Other officials reported the examination to the emperor, who named Zhong Kui the number one scholar in the world. Unexpectedly, Zhong Kui had died in the hotel at the same time, so officials had to burn the imperial gifts for sacrifice. God's mercy, Zhong Kui as "the world's leading judge, catch the monsters.". Pu Songling's play Zhong Mei Qing Shou in the Qing Dynasty said that Zhong Kui was defeated because of his ugly appearance, and died when he hit his head against the golden stage in a rage. God pitied and promoted him to judge of Jiuyou and sancaodu, who was in charge of the netherworld.

  考试不第,郁闷而死,是古代士人最大的人生悲剧。后来的传说又加上考官舞弊,再加上因为貌丑而不第,一步步强化了钟馗死亡的可怜、可叹。钟馗的死亡引发了深切的同情,以至于在传说中连上帝都受到感动,于是钟馗就被封成神。

It is the greatest tragedy of ancient scholars' life that they failed in examinations and died of depression. Later legends, together with the cheating of examiners and the fact that he was not the first because of his ugly appearance, gradually strengthened Zhong Kui's pitiful and lamentable death. Zhong Kui's death caused deep sympathy, so that even God was moved in the legend, so Zhong Kui was sealed as a God.

  其实,中国古代很多神灵都是由普通人非正常死亡而来的。冰夷溺水而死成为黄河水神河伯。女儿宓妃溺水成为洛河水神。被冤杀,化为潮神(或吴江水仙) 。投江,化为湘江水仙。介子推被焚而死,成为介山神。紫姑被婆婆虐待而死,成为厕神。如此等等,不胜枚举。这些人生前都没有什么超自然能力,纯粹的普通人。他们之所以能够死后成神,反映了一种普遍的社会心理——相信非正常死亡者的亡灵一定郁闷、愤怒、不安分。这时候,如果某个社会成员恰巧梦见死者(这种可能性很高,因为大家都在始终关注这个非正常死亡者)具有某种超自然能力,比如光武帝建武年间欧回大白天出现幻觉,看见屈原出现在河边自称三闾大夫,唐玄宗梦见钟馗在捉鬼,那么社会很容易认为死者已经成神。这个结果是受民众欢迎的,因为他们这下可以完全放心了,不必再担心死者作祟报复了。于是,各种崇拜祭祀活动纷纷展开……

In fact, many gods in ancient China came from the abnormal death of ordinary people. He Bo, the God of water of the Yellow River, died of drowning. Her daughter, Mi Fei, drowned and became the God of water of Luohe River. He was wrongly killed and turned into a tide God (or Wujiang Narcissus). Throw into the river, turn into Xiangjiang Narcissus. Jiezitui was burned to death and became the God of Jieshan. She was abused by her mother-in-law and died. She became a toilet God. And so on, too many. These people have no supernatural ability before their lives. They are pure ordinary people. The reason why they can become gods after death reflects a common social psychology, that is, they believe that the spirits of the abnormal dead must be depressed, angry and restless. At this time, if a certain social member happens to dream of the dead (this possibility is very high, because everyone is always concerned about this abnormal dead person) with some supernatural ability, for example, during the reign of Emperor Guangwu, during the broad day of the European Hui Dynasty, he saw Qu Yuan appear on the river and call himself Sanlu doctor, and Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty dreamed that Zhong Kui was catching ghosts, then it is easy for the society to think that the dead have become gods 。 This result is popular with the public, because they can rest assured that there is no need to worry about the Revenge of the dead. Therefore, all kinds of worship and sacrifice activities are launched one after another

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