还原史上真实张飞:能文能武的美男子?-看世界

还原史上真实张飞:能文能武的美男子?

  关于张飞墓之说,民间流传版本诸多,有人称在张飞的出生地河北省涿县;有人称在重庆云阳县;还有人表示张飞墓就在阆中“工作”过的古城西街的汉桓侯祠等,到底哪里是张飞墓地所在呢?前日,阆中名城研究会副主任刘先澄称,张飞身葬阆中,头葬云阳。对此,四川省社科院教授、三国文化研究专家沈伯俊认为,张飞身葬阆中头葬云阳一说不应该有争议。

  随着高陵被确认,彭山莲花村一些村民称当地有墓后,阆中张飞墓葬是否真身、张飞头颅何时“回家”等悬案,也成了网友们时下关注的热点话题。

With the confirmation of Gaoling, some villagers in Lianhua village of Pengshan said that after there was a local tomb, the suspense about whether Zhang Fei's tomb was real and when Zhang Fei's head would "go home" has become a hot topic for netizens nowadays.

  关于张飞墓之说,民间流传版本诸多,有人称在张飞的出生地河北省涿县;有人称在重庆云阳县;还有人表示张飞墓就在阆中“工作”过的古城西街的汉桓侯祠等,到底哪里是张飞墓地所在呢?前日,阆中名城研究会副主任刘先澄称,张飞身葬阆中,头葬云阳。对此,四川省社科院教授、文化研究专家沈伯俊认为,张飞身葬阆中头葬云阳一说不应该有争议。

About Zhang Fei's tomb, there are many popular versions. Some people say that Zhang Fei was born in Zhuoxian County, Hebei Province; some people say that he was born in Yunyang County, Chongqing; others say that Zhang Fei's tomb was in the temple of the Marquis of the Han Dynasty on the West Street of the ancient city where Langzhong "worked". Where is Zhang Fei's tomb? The day before yesterday, Liu Xiancheng, deputy director of Langzhong City Research Association, said that Zhang Fei was buried in Langzhong and Yunyang was buried first. In this regard, Shen Bojun, a professor and cultural research expert of Sichuan Academy of Social Sciences, believes that there should be no dispute about Zhang Fei's burial of Yunyang in Langzhong.

  然而让人惊讶的是,刘先澄表示,张飞其实是个能文能武的“儒将”,其书画在当时很有名气,是三国时流行的“八分书体”的代表。

However, it is surprising that Liu Xiancheng said that Zhang Fei was actually a "Confucian general" who was good at writing and martial arts. His paintings and calligraphy were very famous at that time, and he was the representative of the "eight part calligraphy style" popular in the Three Kingdoms.

  怎么回事?历代在史书中描画的张飞的鲁莽形象有误吗?揭开事实真相,让我们还原一个真实的张飞。

What's the matter? Is the reckless image of Zhang Fei depicted in historical books wrong? Uncover the truth and let's restore a real Zhang Fei.

  追根“探访”猛张飞是能文能武的美男子?

After all, "visit" Meng zhangfei is a man of beauty who is good at writing and martial arts?

  张飞塑像奇特,民间赋予帝王待遇

The statue of Zhang Fei is unique, and the people give the emperor treatment

  在阆中汉桓侯祠前,有一根“丈八蛇矛”和一面“战鼓”,相传,这是这里的镇祠之宝。在张飞庙里,张飞的形象却令人惊奇:一尊高达4.5米的张飞文身帝王塑像,张飞身穿黄袍、头戴皇冠、正襟危坐、文质彬彬,塑像前站着文臣马齐、武将张苞,更衬托出张飞的威严。

In front of the temple of marquis Huan of the Han Dynasty in Langzhong, there is a "Zhang eight snake spear" and a "war drum". It is said that this is the treasure of the temple. In zhangfei temple, Zhang Fei's image is amazing: a 4.5-meter-high statue of Zhang Fei's tattooed emperor, wearing a yellow robe, wearing a crown, sitting in a critical position, and being gentle. Standing in front of the statue are Wenchen Mazi and general Zhangbao, which further reflects Zhang Fei's majesty.

  张飞文身帝王塑像最早塑于何年,现已无法考证。在人们印象中,张飞是一员目不识丁的武将。但在阆中张飞庙中,张飞为什么当了“帝王”?

When did Zhang Fei's tattooed statue of the emperor first be made? It can't be verified now. In people's impression, Zhang Fei is an illiterate general. But in zhangfei temple in Langzhong, why did zhangfei become the "emperor"?

张飞

Zhang Fei

  阆中名城研究会副主任刘先澄分析,追谥张飞为“桓侯”,民间一般老百姓是分不清王、侯的,并且在清代年间,当地道台上书,称颂张飞保境安民,嘉庆皇帝遂封张飞为“桓侯大帝”,这可能是阆中百姓将张飞塑成帝王像的原因,但张飞“称帝”的具体原因还有待进一步考证。

Liu Xiancheng, deputy director of Langzhong famous city Research Association, analyzed that Zhang Fei was posthumously named "Huan Hou". The common people couldn't distinguish between the king and the marquis. In the Qing Dynasty, when Zhang Fei was written on the platform, he was praised to protect the environment and the people. Emperor Jiaqing then named Zhang Fei "Huan Hou emperor". This may be the reason why people in Langzhong modeled Zhang Fei as a king, but the specific reason why Zhang Fei was "called emperor" Further research is needed.

  蛇矛作笔,猛张飞是位书法家

Zhang Fei is a calligrapher with a snake spear as a pen

  人们眼中,张飞一定是勇猛的战将。实际上张飞的能耐不仅如此,《集解》等一些史料记载,他还能写诗,会画画。而更让人惊奇的是,他还是一位不错的书法家。《三国志》记载:当年张飞以少胜多,把曹操张郃打得大败。因胜利而喜悦,他当即便以石代纸,以丈八蛇矛作笔,在八濛山上书写了“立马铭”两行隶体大字,以示记功勉士兼羞曹军。

In people's eyes, Zhang Fei must be a brave general. In fact, Zhang Fei's ability is not only that, but also that he can write poems and draw pictures according to some historical records such as Ji Jie. What's more surprising is that he is a good calligrapher. According to the records of the Three Kingdoms, Zhang Fei defeated Zhang Ying, Cao Cao. Because of the victory and joy, he should use the stone instead of the paper, Zhang Ba snake spear as the pen, and write two lines of official script on bamong mountain, to show the memory of merit, encouragement and shame of Cao Jun.

  上世纪八十年代,在四川电视台经常出现的一则电视广告,威武勇猛的张飞挥舞手中的丈八长矛,高唱:“濛山酒,喝一口,精神抖,单枪匹马战张郃……”也唱出张飞当年战张郃的故事。据时期王象之编著的《舆地纪胜》载:“八濛山,(渠)县东北七里,不匝者一里,常有烟雾其上,故名。”渠江环其三面,自北向东转南而去,上山一条小道,仅容一人一骑,南面是悬崖峭壁,山势险要。

In the 1980s, a TV advertisement often appeared in Sichuan TV station. Zhang Fei, a powerful and brave man, waved his eight Zhang spears and sang: "Mengshan wine, take a sip, shake your spirit, fight Zhang Ying alone..." He also sang the story of Zhang Fei's battle with Zhang Ying. According to Yu Di Ji Sheng, compiled by Wang Xiangzhi at that time, "Bameng mountain (canal) is seven Li northeast of the county, and one li in the northeast of the county, where there is often smoke, hence its name." Qujiang River is surrounded by three sides. It turns from north to East and goes to south. It is a small road up the mountain. Only one person can ride it. In the south, there are cliffs and dangerous mountains.

  传说,张飞打败曹操手下名将张郃之后,洋洋自得,用丈八长矛在八濛山石壁上凿两行隶书:“汉将军飞,率精卒万人,大破贼首张郃于八濛,立马勒铭。”即后世传诵的“八濛摩崖”,又叫“张飞立马铭”。

It's said that after Zhang Fei defeated Zhang Ying, a famous general of Cao Cao, he was proud of himself. He chiseled two lines of official script on the stone wall of bamong mountain with Zhang eight spears: "general Fei of Han Dynasty led ten thousand elite soldiers. Zhang Ying, the first thief, was killed in bamong and established a malaming." That is to say, "Bameng cliff" passed down by later generations, also known as "Zhang Fei Lima Ming".

  那么,这块有史有记的张飞所书的“立马”石碑现在何处呢?如今在阆中市锦屏山碑林就有一块。

So where is the "instant" stone tablet written by Zhang Fei? Now there is a stone tablet forest in Jinping Mountain of Langzhong City.

  至于张飞为何有“文气”,阆中名城研究会副主任刘先澄说,历史上的张飞本身就是一个能文能武的“儒将”,猛张飞根本不是“莽张飞”,他的书画在当时也很有名气,还是三国时流行的“八分书体”的代表。

Liu Xiancheng, deputy director of Langzhong famous city Research Association, said that Zhang Fei in history was a "Confucian general" capable of writing and martial arts. Meng Zhang Fei was not "mang Zhang Fei" at all. His paintings and calligraphy were also famous at that time, and he was also a representative of the "eight point calligraphy style" popular in the Three Kingdoms.

  慈眉善目、没有胡须,张飞可能是美男

He is kind-hearted and has no beard. Zhang Fei may be a beautiful man

  要说张飞的长相,影视剧中形象实在和美搭不上半毫。然而,2004年文物部门在四川简阳张飞营山上发现的一个石人头像,使一些专家学者对三国名将张飞的外貌,产生了新的看法。

In terms of Zhang Fei's appearance, the images in the film and TV plays are not nearly equal to the beauty. However, in 2004, the cultural relics department found a stone figure on zhangfei's Yingshan mountain in Jianyang, Sichuan Province, which made some experts and scholars have a new view on the appearance of Zhang Fei, a famous general of the Three Kingdoms.

  据说,该石像大约高四米、宽三米多。当地人传说,这是唐代工匠为纪念“”张飞,在当年张飞扎寨处专门雕塑的。该“张飞”慈眉善目,耳长唇厚,脸上竟没有一根胡须,与《》和人们心目中的那个张飞形象大相径庭。四川省文物研究所曾专门为头像做过测量和鉴定,发现该石像的确建于唐代。对于它是否就是张飞,虽然考古专家没有给出答案,但该石像的发现,使人们对张飞的真实面容不得不重新加以考证。《三国志》里对刘备“大耳垂肩,双手过膝”、“美髯公”、“相貌堂堂”等均作过比较详细的描述,独独对张飞的长相却只字未提,这不能不说是一个奇怪的现象。正因为这样,也就使罗贯中有了更多的发挥空间。在《三国演义》里,他对张飞的形象不惜笔墨大肆夸张,说张飞“身长八尺,豹头环眼,燕颔虎须,声若巨雷,势如奔马。”活脱脱就是另一个钟魁。而在戏剧里张飞不仅是豹头环眼、燕颔虎须,更给张飞增加了一张黑脸,这完全出于艺术创作的需要。

It is said that the statue is about four meters high and more than three meters wide. According to the local legend, this is a special sculpture made by craftsmen of Tang Dynasty in memory of "Zhang Fei". The "Zhang Fei" is kind-hearted, with long ears and thick lips, and no beard on his face. It is quite different from the image of Zhang Fei in the book and people's mind. Sichuan Provincial Institute of cultural relics has measured and identified the head portrait, and found that it was indeed built in the Tang Dynasty. Although archaeologists didn't give an answer to whether it was Zhang Fei or not, the discovery of the stone makes people have to re verify the real face of Zhang Fei. In the records of the Three Kingdoms, Liu Bei's "big earlobes and shoulders, hands over knees", "beautiful beard" and "good looks" have been described in detail, but Zhang Fei's appearance has not been mentioned, which is a strange phenomenon. Because of this, Luo Guanzhong has more room to play. In the romance of the Three Kingdoms, he exaggerates the image of Zhang Fei, saying that Zhang Fei is "eight feet long, with a leopard's head around his eyes, a swallow's chin and a beard, a voice like thunder, and a momentum like galloping horse." Living is another Zhong Kui. In the drama, Zhang Fei is not only a leopard with a round head and a gnarled beard, but also adds a black face to Zhang Fei, which is completely out of the need of artistic creation.

  张飞有两个女儿,先后都嫁给后主刘禅。能够当上皇后,在讲究后妃美貌的古代,她们的相貌至少应该算是不错的。因此有的学者认为她们的父亲、张飞本人也不会差到哪里去。但由于缺少正史的记载,无论是《三国演义》中的,还是简阳张飞营山张飞,哪一个才是张飞真实的相貌?这是一个待解之谜。

Zhang Fei has two daughters, who are both married to Liu Chan. To be a queen, in the ancient times when the beauty of concubines was emphasized, their looks should be at least good. So some scholars think that their father, Zhang Fei himself, will not go anywhere. However, due to the lack of official records, whether in the romance of the three kingdoms or Zhang Fei in Jianyang, which is the real appearance of Zhang Fei? This is a mystery to be solved.

  史料记载

Historical records

  张飞喜好画美人、写草书

Zhang Fei likes to draw beauties and cursive script

  多年前,邓拓在《由张飞的书画谈起》一文里说:“我国书法家并不限于文人,武将中也不少,如、张飞等”,有位读者看了,去信问说:“张飞是身长八尺,豹头环眼,燕颔虎须,声若巨雷,势如奔马,长坂坡一声吼,喝断了桥梁水倒流的人物,怎么也会是书法家呢?”对于这样的疑问,邓拓引了几本古书中关于张飞书法的记载来佐证。

Many years ago, Deng Tuo said in "talking about Zhang Fei's painting and calligraphy" that "Chinese Calligraphers are not limited to literati, and there are many generals, such as Zhang Fei." one reader read it and asked, "Zhang Fei is eight feet long, with a leopard head around his eyes, a swallow's jaw and a tiger's beard, a thundering voice, a galloping horse, and a roaring voice from Changbanpo. How can a person who breaks the bridge and turns back water be a book?" How about Legalists? "To this question, Deng Tuo cited the records of Zhang Fei's calligraphy in several ancient books to prove it.

  有关张飞书法的记载,最早见于时期梁人陶宏影的《刀剑录》。他写道:“张飞初拜新亭侯,自命匠炼赤山铁,为一刀。铭曰:新亭侯,蜀大将也。后被范疆杀之,将此刀人于吴。”这个《新亭侯刀铭》便是张飞的书法作品。

The earliest record of Zhang Fei's calligraphy can be seen in Tao Hongying's record of swords and swords. He wrote: "Zhang feichu paid homage to the new pavilion and ordered a craftsman to make Chishan iron for a sword. The inscription said: the new pavilion Marquis, the general of Shu. Later, he was killed by fan Jiang and killed by Wu. " The new pavilion Hou Dao Ming is Zhang Fei's calligraphy work.

  《蜀中名胜记》第二十八卷中记载顺庆府渠县八濛山的故事,刘继兴认为,《蜀中名胜记》的作者是明代文献学家、曾任四川右参政的曹学,此人当时既有文化地位,又有政治地位,他的记载应该是可信的。

According to Liu Jixing, the author of Bameng mountain in Quxian County, Shunqing Prefecture is a philologist in Ming Dynasty and Cao Xue, who once participated in the right politics of Sichuan Province. At that time, he had both cultural status and political status. His records should be credible.

  清代人赵一清所写的《稿本三国志注补》中,引自《方舆纪要》上的话也说:八濛山“山下有勒石云:汉将张飞率精卒万人,大破贼首张郃,立马勒石。盖张飞所亲书也”。

Zhao Yiqing, a native of the Qing Dynasty, quoted the words from the minutes of Fang Yu in the annotated manuscript of the Three Kingdoms annals, which also said: "there are Leshi clouds at the foot of bamongshan mountain: Zhang Fei, the general of the Han Dynasty, led ten thousand people to kill the first thief, Zhang Ying, and immediately Leshi. The book that Gai zhangfei wrote.

  明代的《丹铅总录》中,也有一条关于张飞书法的记载:“涪陵有张飞刁斗铭。其文字甚工,飞所书也。张士环诗云:天下英雄只豫州,阿瞒不共戴天仇。山河割据三分国;宇宙威名丈八矛。江上祠常严剑珮;人间刁斗见银钩。空余诸葛秦川表,左袒何人复为刘”。“飞所书也”,说明这个铭文是张飞所书。

There is also a record about Zhang Fei's calligraphy in the general record of red lead in Ming Dynasty: "there are Diao Douming of Zhang Fei in Fuling. Its writing is very technical, and it is also written by feisuo. Zhang Shihuan's poem says: the heroes in the world are only Yuzhou, and a concealed man will not share his hatred. Mountains and rivers divide the country into three parts. In the ancestral hall on the river, there is always a sharp sword and a sharp sword. Spare Zhuge Qin Chuan watch, who is left to Liu. "Fei Suo Shu" means that this inscription is written by Zhang Fei.

  青年时代曾有“上马击狂胡,下马草军书”的冲天之志,没想到早在三国时代就有张飞替他真正做到了。元吴镇《张翼德祠》诗作云:“关侯讽左氏,车骑更工书。文武趣虽别,古人尝有余。横矛思腕力,繇像恐难如。”意思是张飞的书法很有造诣,连三国著名的书法家——魏国的钟繇、吴国的皇像都比不上他。

In his youth, he had the ambition of "mounting a horse to fight against a wild Hu and dismounting a horse to write a military book". Unexpectedly, Zhang Fei did it for him as early as the Three Kingdoms. According to the poem "Zhang Yide Temple" of Wu town in Yuan Dynasty, "Marquis Guan satirized Zuo's family, and the work of riding was better. Although there are different tastes in culture and martial arts, the ancients have more than enough. If you think about the strength of your wrist, you will be afraid of difficulties. " It means that Zhang Fei's calligraphy is very accomplished, even the famous calligrapher of the Three Kingdoms, Zhongyao of the Wei state and the statue of the emperor of the Wu state, can't match him.

  在古代,书画往往不分家。张飞不仅书法作品甚佳,而且还很爱画画,尤其喜欢画美人。据明代卓尔昌编的《画髓元诠》载:“张飞……喜画美人,善草书。”张飞的书法真迹尚有存世者,可惜的是张飞画的真迹却至今尚未发现,这也是历史的一个小小的遗憾。

In ancient times, painting and calligraphy were not separated. Zhang Fei is not only good at calligraphy, but also loves painting, especially the beauty of painting. According to zhuoerchang's painting pith Yuan Quan in Ming Dynasty, "Zhang Fei I like painting beauty and cursive writing. " Zhang Fei's calligraphy works still exist. Unfortunately, the works of Zhang Fei's paintings have not been found yet, which is also a small regret of history.

  “物探”证实 张飞葬在阆中不应该有争议

"Geophysical exploration" confirms that Zhang Fei's burial in Langzhong should not be disputed

  张飞墓大致轮廓完好

The general outline of Zhang Fei's tomb is in good condition

  一直有说法是张飞身葬阆中,头葬云阳,但是该说法是从何时提起的不得而知。四川省社科院三国文化研究专家沈伯俊教授说,根据史料记载,张飞在阆中呆了7年,被杀后,头颅被部下带至云阳,被云阳人所葬,但身体没有理由被带走。综合古代官员安葬制度等,张飞身被葬阆中不应该有争议。

It has always been said that Zhang Fei was buried in Langzhong and Yunyang, but it is not known when he mentioned this. According to historical records, Zhang Fei spent seven years in Langzhong. After he was killed, his head was taken to Yunyang by his subordinates and buried by Yunyang people, but his body had no reason to be taken away. According to the burial system of ancient officials, it should not be disputed that Zhang Fei was buried in Langzhong.

  对于阆中张飞墓安葬的是身躯,而重庆云阳县凤凰山上的张飞墓安葬的是其人头之说,阆中文管所长郑勇德表示认同,他还希望,两处张飞庙结为“秦晋之好”,早日将张飞的头和身躯安放在一起,让张飞“身首合一”。

For Zhang Fei's tomb in Langzhong, the body is buried, while for Zhang Fei's tomb in Fenghuang mountain, Yunyang County, Chongqing, the head is buried. Zheng Yongde, director of Langzhong's cultural administration, agrees. He also hopes that the two temples will be "the best of Qin and Jin", and that Zhang Fei's head and body will be placed together as soon as possible, so that Zhang Fei's body and head will be integrated.

  郑勇德说,专家运用“物探技术”对张飞墓地进行了全方位“物探”,经探测后根据地磁场反映数据,对墓地结构勾勒出大致轮廓,初步判断:墓地内的墓穴有墓门、墓道、左右耳室、墓室等结构。同时探明还有两处比较明显的“反应”,测定墓道口有“扰乱”现象,证实了40多年前一群人掘墓时留下的痕迹;另一处“扰乱”点在墓中的东北角处,有早期(明清)“扰乱”现象。

Zheng Yongde said that the experts used the "geophysical exploration technology" to carry out a comprehensive "geophysical exploration" of zhangfei cemetery. After the exploration, according to the data reflected by the geomagnetic field, they outlined the general outline of the cemetery structure, and preliminarily judged that the tombs in the cemetery have the structure of the tomb gate, the tomb path, the left and right ear chambers, and the tomb chamber. At the same time, it was found that there were two more obvious "reactions" to determine the "disturbance" phenomenon at the entrance of the tomb, which confirmed the traces left by a group of people digging the tomb more than 40 years ago; another "disturbance" point was in the northeast corner of the tomb, which had the early (Ming and Qing) "disturbance" phenomenon.

  郑勇德说,张飞墓地历代备受重视,而现代物探技术证实张飞墓地除了两个“扰乱”点外,一切原貌尚存,充分证实了张飞墓完好无损。

Zheng Yongde said that Zhang Fei's tomb has been highly valued in the past dynasties, while modern geophysical exploration technology has confirmed that all the original appearance of Zhang Fei's tomb remains, except for two "disturbing" points, which fully proves that Zhang Fei's tomb is intact.

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