With the confirmation of Gaoling, some villagers in Lianhua village of Pengshan said that after there was a local tomb, the suspense about whether Zhang Fei's tomb was real and when Zhang Fei's head would "go home" has become a hot topic for netizens nowadays.
About Zhang Fei's tomb, there are many popular versions. Some people say that Zhang Fei was born in Zhuoxian County, Hebei Province; some people say that he was born in Yunyang County, Chongqing; others say that Zhang Fei's tomb was in the temple of the Marquis of the Han Dynasty on the West Street of the ancient city where Langzhong "worked". Where is Zhang Fei's tomb? The day before yesterday, Liu Xiancheng, deputy director of Langzhong City Research Association, said that Zhang Fei was buried in Langzhong and Yunyang was buried first. In this regard, Shen Bojun, a professor and cultural research expert of Sichuan Academy of Social Sciences, believes that there should be no dispute about Zhang Fei's burial of Yunyang in Langzhong.
However, it is surprising that Liu Xiancheng said that Zhang Fei was actually a "Confucian general" who was good at writing and martial arts. His paintings and calligraphy were very famous at that time, and he was the representative of the "eight part calligraphy style" popular in the Three Kingdoms.
What's the matter? Is the reckless image of Zhang Fei depicted in historical books wrong? Uncover the truth and let's restore a real Zhang Fei.
After all, "visit" Meng zhangfei is a man of beauty who is good at writing and martial arts?
The statue of Zhang Fei is unique, and the people give the emperor treatment
In front of the temple of marquis Huan of the Han Dynasty in Langzhong, there is a "Zhang eight snake spear" and a "war drum". It is said that this is the treasure of the temple. In zhangfei temple, Zhang Fei's image is amazing: a 4.5-meter-high statue of Zhang Fei's tattooed emperor, wearing a yellow robe, wearing a crown, sitting in a critical position, and being gentle. Standing in front of the statue are Wenchen Mazi and general Zhangbao, which further reflects Zhang Fei's majesty.
When did Zhang Fei's tattooed statue of the emperor first be made? It can't be verified now. In people's impression, Zhang Fei is an illiterate general. But in zhangfei temple in Langzhong, why did zhangfei become the "emperor"?
Liu Xiancheng, deputy director of Langzhong famous city Research Association, analyzed that Zhang Fei was posthumously named "Huan Hou". The common people couldn't distinguish between the king and the marquis. In the Qing Dynasty, when Zhang Fei was written on the platform, he was praised to protect the environment and the people. Emperor Jiaqing then named Zhang Fei "Huan Hou emperor". This may be the reason why people in Langzhong modeled Zhang Fei as a king, but the specific reason why Zhang Fei was "called emperor" Further research is needed.
Zhang Fei is a calligrapher with a snake spear as a pen
In people's eyes, Zhang Fei must be a brave general. In fact, Zhang Fei's ability is not only that, but also that he can write poems and draw pictures according to some historical records such as Ji Jie. What's more surprising is that he is a good calligrapher. According to the records of the Three Kingdoms, Zhang Fei defeated Zhang Ying, Cao Cao. Because of the victory and joy, he should use the stone instead of the paper, Zhang Ba snake spear as the pen, and write two lines of official script on bamong mountain, to show the memory of merit, encouragement and shame of Cao Jun.
In the 1980s, a TV advertisement often appeared in Sichuan TV station. Zhang Fei, a powerful and brave man, waved his eight Zhang spears and sang: "Mengshan wine, take a sip, shake your spirit, fight Zhang Ying alone..." He also sang the story of Zhang Fei's battle with Zhang Ying. According to Yu Di Ji Sheng, compiled by Wang Xiangzhi at that time, "Bameng mountain (canal) is seven Li northeast of the county, and one li in the northeast of the county, where there is often smoke, hence its name." Qujiang River is surrounded by three sides. It turns from north to East and goes to south. It is a small road up the mountain. Only one person can ride it. In the south, there are cliffs and dangerous mountains.
It's said that after Zhang Fei defeated Zhang Ying, a famous general of Cao Cao, he was proud of himself. He chiseled two lines of official script on the stone wall of bamong mountain with Zhang eight spears: "general Fei of Han Dynasty led ten thousand elite soldiers. Zhang Ying, the first thief, was killed in bamong and established a malaming." That is to say, "Bameng cliff" passed down by later generations, also known as "Zhang Fei Lima Ming".
So where is the "instant" stone tablet written by Zhang Fei? Now there is a stone tablet forest in Jinping Mountain of Langzhong City.
Liu Xiancheng, deputy director of Langzhong famous city Research Association, said that Zhang Fei in history was a "Confucian general" capable of writing and martial arts. Meng Zhang Fei was not "mang Zhang Fei" at all. His paintings and calligraphy were also famous at that time, and he was also a representative of the "eight point calligraphy style" popular in the Three Kingdoms.
He is kind-hearted and has no beard. Zhang Fei may be a beautiful man
In terms of Zhang Fei's appearance, the images in the film and TV plays are not nearly equal to the beauty. However, in 2004, the cultural relics department found a stone figure on zhangfei's Yingshan mountain in Jianyang, Sichuan Province, which made some experts and scholars have a new view on the appearance of Zhang Fei, a famous general of the Three Kingdoms.
It is said that the statue is about four meters high and more than three meters wide. According to the local legend, this is a special sculpture made by craftsmen of Tang Dynasty in memory of "Zhang Fei". The "Zhang Fei" is kind-hearted, with long ears and thick lips, and no beard on his face. It is quite different from the image of Zhang Fei in the book and people's mind. Sichuan Provincial Institute of cultural relics has measured and identified the head portrait, and found that it was indeed built in the Tang Dynasty. Although archaeologists didn't give an answer to whether it was Zhang Fei or not, the discovery of the stone makes people have to re verify the real face of Zhang Fei. In the records of the Three Kingdoms, Liu Bei's "big earlobes and shoulders, hands over knees", "beautiful beard" and "good looks" have been described in detail, but Zhang Fei's appearance has not been mentioned, which is a strange phenomenon. Because of this, Luo Guanzhong has more room to play. In the romance of the Three Kingdoms, he exaggerates the image of Zhang Fei, saying that Zhang Fei is "eight feet long, with a leopard's head around his eyes, a swallow's chin and a beard, a voice like thunder, and a momentum like galloping horse." Living is another Zhong Kui. In the drama, Zhang Fei is not only a leopard with a round head and a gnarled beard, but also adds a black face to Zhang Fei, which is completely out of the need of artistic creation.
Zhang Fei has two daughters, who are both married to Liu Chan. To be a queen, in the ancient times when the beauty of concubines was emphasized, their looks should be at least good. So some scholars think that their father, Zhang Fei himself, will not go anywhere. However, due to the lack of official records, whether in the romance of the three kingdoms or Zhang Fei in Jianyang, which is the real appearance of Zhang Fei? This is a mystery to be solved.
Zhang Fei likes to draw beauties and cursive script
Many years ago, Deng Tuo said in "talking about Zhang Fei's painting and calligraphy" that "Chinese Calligraphers are not limited to literati, and there are many generals, such as Zhang Fei." one reader read it and asked, "Zhang Fei is eight feet long, with a leopard head around his eyes, a swallow's jaw and a tiger's beard, a thundering voice, a galloping horse, and a roaring voice from Changbanpo. How can a person who breaks the bridge and turns back water be a book?" How about Legalists? "To this question, Deng Tuo cited the records of Zhang Fei's calligraphy in several ancient books to prove it.
The earliest record of Zhang Fei's calligraphy can be seen in Tao Hongying's record of swords and swords. He wrote: "Zhang feichu paid homage to the new pavilion and ordered a craftsman to make Chishan iron for a sword. The inscription said: the new pavilion Marquis, the general of Shu. Later, he was killed by fan Jiang and killed by Wu. " The new pavilion Hou Dao Ming is Zhang Fei's calligraphy work.
According to Liu Jixing, the author of Bameng mountain in Quxian County, Shunqing Prefecture is a philologist in Ming Dynasty and Cao Xue, who once participated in the right politics of Sichuan Province. At that time, he had both cultural status and political status. His records should be credible.
Zhao Yiqing, a native of the Qing Dynasty, quoted the words from the minutes of Fang Yu in the annotated manuscript of the Three Kingdoms annals, which also said: "there are Leshi clouds at the foot of bamongshan mountain: Zhang Fei, the general of the Han Dynasty, led ten thousand people to kill the first thief, Zhang Ying, and immediately Leshi. The book that Gai zhangfei wrote.
There is also a record about Zhang Fei's calligraphy in the general record of red lead in Ming Dynasty: "there are Diao Douming of Zhang Fei in Fuling. Its writing is very technical, and it is also written by feisuo. Zhang Shihuan's poem says: the heroes in the world are only Yuzhou, and a concealed man will not share his hatred. Mountains and rivers divide the country into three parts. In the ancestral hall on the river, there is always a sharp sword and a sharp sword. Spare Zhuge Qin Chuan watch, who is left to Liu. "Fei Suo Shu" means that this inscription is written by Zhang Fei.
In his youth, he had the ambition of "mounting a horse to fight against a wild Hu and dismounting a horse to write a military book". Unexpectedly, Zhang Fei did it for him as early as the Three Kingdoms. According to the poem "Zhang Yide Temple" of Wu town in Yuan Dynasty, "Marquis Guan satirized Zuo's family, and the work of riding was better. Although there are different tastes in culture and martial arts, the ancients have more than enough. If you think about the strength of your wrist, you will be afraid of difficulties. " It means that Zhang Fei's calligraphy is very accomplished, even the famous calligrapher of the Three Kingdoms, Zhongyao of the Wei state and the statue of the emperor of the Wu state, can't match him.
In ancient times, painting and calligraphy were not separated. Zhang Fei is not only good at calligraphy, but also loves painting, especially the beauty of painting. According to zhuoerchang's painting pith Yuan Quan in Ming Dynasty, "Zhang Fei I like painting beauty and cursive writing. " Zhang Fei's calligraphy works still exist. Unfortunately, the works of Zhang Fei's paintings have not been found yet, which is also a small regret of history.
"Geophysical exploration" confirms that Zhang Fei's burial in Langzhong should not be disputed
The general outline of Zhang Fei's tomb is in good condition
It has always been said that Zhang Fei was buried in Langzhong and Yunyang, but it is not known when he mentioned this. According to historical records, Zhang Fei spent seven years in Langzhong. After he was killed, his head was taken to Yunyang by his subordinates and buried by Yunyang people, but his body had no reason to be taken away. According to the burial system of ancient officials, it should not be disputed that Zhang Fei was buried in Langzhong.
For Zhang Fei's tomb in Langzhong, the body is buried, while for Zhang Fei's tomb in Fenghuang mountain, Yunyang County, Chongqing, the head is buried. Zheng Yongde, director of Langzhong's cultural administration, agrees. He also hopes that the two temples will be "the best of Qin and Jin", and that Zhang Fei's head and body will be placed together as soon as possible, so that Zhang Fei's body and head will be integrated.
Zheng Yongde said that the experts used the "geophysical exploration technology" to carry out a comprehensive "geophysical exploration" of zhangfei cemetery. After the exploration, according to the data reflected by the geomagnetic field, they outlined the general outline of the cemetery structure, and preliminarily judged that the tombs in the cemetery have the structure of the tomb gate, the tomb path, the left and right ear chambers, and the tomb chamber. At the same time, it was found that there were two more obvious "reactions" to determine the "disturbance" phenomenon at the entrance of the tomb, which confirmed the traces left by a group of people digging the tomb more than 40 years ago; another "disturbance" point was in the northeast corner of the tomb, which had the early (Ming and Qing) "disturbance" phenomenon.
Zheng Yongde said that Zhang Fei's tomb has been highly valued in the past dynasties, while modern geophysical exploration technology has confirmed that all the original appearance of Zhang Fei's tomb remains, except for two "disturbing" points, which fully proves that Zhang Fei's tomb is intact.
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