Signing unequal treaties of humiliation and humiliation is a thankless drudgery, a scapegoat, a troublemaker of history. From the perspective of ability, we can't make Manchu and Mongolia sell their country at a good price. We can't be virtuous and ignorant. We can only say the right nonsense, and the useless lies. The errands that are neither inside nor outside are appointed.
When I was in the fourth grade of primary school in shabaoli, a village, at the end of the cultural revolution, the history teacher, whose glasses were thicker than the bottom of the paste bottle, said in class that in the late Qing Dynasty, Li Hongzhang, a great traitor, was nicknamed "Li bastard". He signed a series of unequal treaties. From then on, my children and I hated Li Laohan. In 1988, I studied in the Department of history of Northwest University. The textbook of modern Chinese history recorded Li Hongzhang's history of "betraying the country". At that time, I was puzzled that the Empress Dowager was the head of the family, the second emperor Tongguang was the "top leader" of reputation, and there were the emperor's brother-in-law, the sixth and seventh princes. Li Hongzhang was at most the "top five leaders" in charge of foreign affairs and foreign affairs. If they were ranked according to their titles, they would still be in front of me There are several high-ranking princes and princes of Manchuria and Mongolia. I'm afraid Li Hongzhang can't even rank among the "ten leaders". When he signed the unequal treaty, he held the position of "Vice Premier and foreign minister". Administrative common sense tells me, what right does Li Hongzhang have to sign unequal treaties casually? Even if he really "sells his country", he should not be the "first responsible person" for his humiliation. Later, I read many historical books, and only when I went into the depths of history did I understand that "weak countries have no diplomacy", ignorant, headstrong Manchu relatives and nobles can't even "betray the country". Only Li Hongzhang knew diplomacy, was good at mediating, and was good at "beating ruffians with other powers" (sarcasm). The old and determined officials can only talk big and can't do big things. Weng Tonghe, the leader of the Qing Dynasty, is too angry to understand the current affairs. Good people can't do hard things. Under the condition of poverty and weakness, Li Hongzhang, who is familiar with domestic and foreign affairs, tries to use his old and spicy political wisdom to play "foreign maozi" between the hands of his stock. He is good at making less compensation and doing more. He adheres to the principle of being able to make compensation without cutting off the land, cutting off the peninsula, and preferably not ceding the island, so as to minimize the loss.
The unequal treaties of losing power and insulting the country are the poor envoys who are hard-working and unsavory. They are humiliated, scuttled, dangerous, reviled, scapegoats, and bad envoys who carry the history black pot for the Empress Dowager. From the perspective of ability, Li Hongzhang was appointed by the emissaries who were not good at both inside and outside, who could not sell the country at a good price, who could not be virtuous, incompetent and ignorant, but could only say the correct nonsense and useless lies. Therefore, in the field of diplomacy, Li Hongzhang completed all the diplomatic black pots for the Manchu Dynasty. He can be called the champion of the black pot in Chinese history. The grievances he suffered were worse than Dou E's!
Li Hongzhang is the most practical person among the four leaders. In his foreign affairs, there are more than 500 Chinese leaders and more than 200 Asian leaders. He is the founder of China's modern electric power, telecommunication, post, finance, foreign trade, railway, shipping, metallurgy, shipbuilding, education, translation, publishing, Navy, weapons and many other undertakings, and trains high-level talents. The first singer of "China's threat theory" is Japanese, whose sense of crisis comes from Li Hongzhang's outstanding achievements in the latter half of his life. Because of the "bottleneck effect" of the autocratic system of imperial power, the "state-owned" mechanism of the "government run, official supervision and business run" of the Westernization cause, the invasion of the powerful capitalism and imperialism to the private commercial property rights, and the underdeveloped science and technology and education, the Westernization Movement finally failed. Therefore, Li Hongzhang was also criticized.
In terms of military affairs, Li Hongzhang knows that he can't do it. He has been defeated and defeated repeatedly. He has been fighting and alternating. He has run his own military industry, raised his own funds and trained his own army to fight for the court. However, the upper support is not enough, the middle execution is not effective, the lower level is weak and lax, the local baozi soldiers carrying foreign guns do not aim at shooting, the soldiers with big swords and spears run away as soon as they see the foreign devils, and the army has no combat effectiveness, so Li Hongzhang's command is not effective, and the reputation of "laboring at the expense of salary" has fallen.
Zeng Guofan's disciples are Ruyun. There are only two of his most admired disciples. One is Zhao Liewen, who accurately predicted that "within fifty years of the Great Qing Dynasty, he will die". He knows that if he can't do something, he will not do it. He is proficient in Imperial learning and devoted himself to learning. In turbulent times, he is determined not to be an official. The other is Li Hongzhang, who goes against the current and "wholeheartedly makes an official bigger" (Zeng Guofan's language). Li Hongzhang's "know-how" for promotion includes two aspects: first, to do things, to take on responsibilities bravely, to get ahead in a hurry, and second, to be a human being. The main means is to bribe Empress Dowager Cixi, the senior and the senior. Not to mention the ordinary "foreign games" (imported luxury goods) that are not special purchases and gifts, Li Hongzhang's annual "regular money" (New Year's Eve) to the upper class dignitaries is up to 2 million liang of silver. No matter public or private, Li Hongzhang was the champion of "paying the bill" in the official arena of late Qing Dynasty. He bribed a large number of people. Otherwise, he could not do anything, and could not protect himself. Li Hongzhang was born as a Jinshi. He was full of poems and books. He knew the teachings of saints, the integrity and shame. He was in the mud and had to do it. The snobbish and evil reputation came from it.
In the late Qing Dynasty, the officialdom was filthy, just like the public toilet that no one cleaned. The longer the person stayed, the stronger the stink he got, the more often he was attacked by flies. The building will fall, and it will be hard to stand alone. Li Hongzhang is a man who is realistic and brave to face the reality. He knows that he can't be a saint and doesn't want to be a saint. Li Hongzhang, who derided himself as a "mounting craftsman", worked his life to death in the turbulent Qing Dynasty. It is no surprise that he suffered the most troubles, criticisms and bad comments
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