“背黑锅”冠军李鸿章:所受委屈比窦娥还冤-看世界

“背黑锅”冠军李鸿章:所受委屈比窦娥还冤

  我在乡村破庙里上小学四年级时,正值“文革”末期,眼镜片比浆糊瓶底厚的历史老师在课堂上说,晚清有个大卖国贼李鸿章,外号叫“李混账”,他签订了一系列不平等条约,从此,我和小朋友们都恨上了李老汉。1988年,我在西北大学读历史系,《中国近代史》教科书历数李鸿章的“卖国”史,当时,我很纳闷,慈禧太后是当家人,同光二帝是名誉“一把手”,下边还有咸丰皇帝的亲弟弟六王爷、七王爷,李鸿章最多是分管外交外事外资朝政的“五把手”,如果按爵位排序,前面还有几尊位高权重、地位显赫的满蒙亲王郡王,李鸿章恐怕连“十把手”都排不上,签不平等条约时的职位相当于“副总理兼外交部长”。行政常识告诉我,李鸿章有什么权力随便签订丧权辱国的不平等条约?即使真的“卖国”,他也不应该是丧权辱国“第一责任人”。后来,读的历史书多了,走进历史的深处才明白,“弱国无外交”,愚昧无知,刚愎自用的满蒙亲贵连“卖国”的差使都办不了,满朝衮衮诸公,只有李鸿章懂外交,善斡旋,善于“与列强打痞子腔”(曾国藩讥讽语)。老资格重臣刚毅之流只能说大话,办不了大事,清流领袖翁同龢等辈书生气太重,不识时务,好人办不了难事硬事。在积贫积弱的条件下,熟悉内政外交的李鸿章努力运用老辣的政治智慧,玩“洋毛子”于股掌之间,善于少赔款,多办事,坚持能赔款不割地,能割半岛,最好不割让海岛的原则,尽量减少损失。

  签订丧权辱国的不平等条约是吃力不讨好的苦差使,受屈辱,趟混水,涉险滩,挨谩骂,当替罪羊,并替一党背历史黑锅的烂差使。从能力上看,让满蒙亲贵卖国都卖不出好价钱,无德无能无知,只会说正确的废话,以及百无一用的大话套话假话,里外不是人的差使都委派出马。

Signing unequal treaties of humiliation and humiliation is a thankless drudgery, a scapegoat, a troublemaker of history. From the perspective of ability, we can't make Manchu and Mongolia sell their country at a good price. We can't be virtuous and ignorant. We can only say the right nonsense, and the useless lies. The errands that are neither inside nor outside are appointed.

  我在乡村破庙里上小学四年级时,正值“文革”末期,眼镜片比浆糊瓶底厚的历史老师在课堂上说,晚清有个大卖国贼李鸿章,外号叫“李混账”,他签订了一系列不平等条约,从此,我和小朋友们都恨上了李老汉。1988年,我在西北大学读历史系,《中国近代史》教科书历数李鸿章的“卖国”史,当时,我很纳闷,太后是当家人,同光二帝是名誉“一把手”,下边还有皇帝的亲弟弟六王爷、七王爷,李鸿章最多是分管外交外事外资朝政的“五把手”,如果按爵位排序,前面还有几尊位高权重、地位显赫的满蒙亲王郡王,李鸿章恐怕连“十把手”都排不上,签不平等条约时的职位相当于“副总理兼外交部长”。行政常识告诉我,李鸿章有什么权力随便签订丧权辱国的不平等条约?即使真的“卖国”,他也不应该是丧权辱国“第一责任人”。后来,读的历史书多了,走进历史的深处才明白,“弱国无外交”,愚昧无知,刚愎自用的满蒙亲贵连“卖国”的差使都办不了,满朝衮衮诸公,只有李鸿章懂外交,善斡旋,善于“与列强打痞子腔”(讥讽语)。老资格重臣刚毅之流只能说大话,办不了大事,清流领袖翁同龢等辈书生气太重,不识时务,好人办不了难事硬事。在积贫积弱的条件下,熟悉内政外交的李鸿章努力运用老辣的政治智慧,玩“洋毛子”于股掌之间,善于少赔款,多办事,坚持能赔款不割地,能割半岛,最好不割让海岛的原则,尽量减少损失。

When I was in the fourth grade of primary school in shabaoli, a village, at the end of the cultural revolution, the history teacher, whose glasses were thicker than the bottom of the paste bottle, said in class that in the late Qing Dynasty, Li Hongzhang, a great traitor, was nicknamed "Li bastard". He signed a series of unequal treaties. From then on, my children and I hated Li Laohan. In 1988, I studied in the Department of history of Northwest University. The textbook of modern Chinese history recorded Li Hongzhang's history of "betraying the country". At that time, I was puzzled that the Empress Dowager was the head of the family, the second emperor Tongguang was the "top leader" of reputation, and there were the emperor's brother-in-law, the sixth and seventh princes. Li Hongzhang was at most the "top five leaders" in charge of foreign affairs and foreign affairs. If they were ranked according to their titles, they would still be in front of me There are several high-ranking princes and princes of Manchuria and Mongolia. I'm afraid Li Hongzhang can't even rank among the "ten leaders". When he signed the unequal treaty, he held the position of "Vice Premier and foreign minister". Administrative common sense tells me, what right does Li Hongzhang have to sign unequal treaties casually? Even if he really "sells his country", he should not be the "first responsible person" for his humiliation. Later, I read many historical books, and only when I went into the depths of history did I understand that "weak countries have no diplomacy", ignorant, headstrong Manchu relatives and nobles can't even "betray the country". Only Li Hongzhang knew diplomacy, was good at mediating, and was good at "beating ruffians with other powers" (sarcasm). The old and determined officials can only talk big and can't do big things. Weng Tonghe, the leader of the Qing Dynasty, is too angry to understand the current affairs. Good people can't do hard things. Under the condition of poverty and weakness, Li Hongzhang, who is familiar with domestic and foreign affairs, tries to use his old and spicy political wisdom to play "foreign maozi" between the hands of his stock. He is good at making less compensation and doing more. He adheres to the principle of being able to make compensation without cutting off the land, cutting off the peninsula, and preferably not ceding the island, so as to minimize the loss.

  签订丧权辱国的不平等条约是吃力不讨好的苦差使,受屈辱,趟混水,涉险滩,挨谩骂,当替罪羊,并替太后一党背历史黑锅的烂差使。从能力上看,让满蒙亲贵卖国都卖不出好价钱,无德无能无知,只会说正确的废话,以及百无一用的大话套话假话,里外不是人的差使都委派李鸿章出马。因此,在外交领域,李鸿章为满亲王朝背完了所有外交黑锅,堪称中国历史上背黑锅冠军,背黑锅受的委屈比窦娥还冤!

The unequal treaties of losing power and insulting the country are the poor envoys who are hard-working and unsavory. They are humiliated, scuttled, dangerous, reviled, scapegoats, and bad envoys who carry the history black pot for the Empress Dowager. From the perspective of ability, Li Hongzhang was appointed by the emissaries who were not good at both inside and outside, who could not sell the country at a good price, who could not be virtuous, incompetent and ignorant, but could only say the correct nonsense and useless lies. Therefore, in the field of diplomacy, Li Hongzhang completed all the diplomatic black pots for the Manchu Dynasty. He can be called the champion of the black pot in Chinese history. The grievances he suffered were worse than Dou E's!

李鸿章

Li Hongzhang

  李鸿章是四大领袖人物中办实事最多的人,他主办的洋务中有500多个中国第一,200多个亚洲第一。他是中国近现代电力、电讯、邮政、金融、外贸、铁路、航运、冶金、造船、教育、翻译、出版、海军、兵器等多项事业的开山鼻祖,培养的高级人才车载斗量。“中国威胁论”的首唱者是日本人,而日本人的危机感来自李鸿章后半生的赫赫政绩。由于皇权专制体制的“瓶颈效应”,由于洋务事业“官办、官督商办”的“国有制”机制制约,由于权贵资本主义和帝国主义侵略对民办商业产权的侵害,由于科学技术和教育不发达,洋务运动最后失败了,为此,李鸿章也饱受诟病。

Li Hongzhang is the most practical person among the four leaders. In his foreign affairs, there are more than 500 Chinese leaders and more than 200 Asian leaders. He is the founder of China's modern electric power, telecommunication, post, finance, foreign trade, railway, shipping, metallurgy, shipbuilding, education, translation, publishing, Navy, weapons and many other undertakings, and trains high-level talents. The first singer of "China's threat theory" is Japanese, whose sense of crisis comes from Li Hongzhang's outstanding achievements in the latter half of his life. Because of the "bottleneck effect" of the autocratic system of imperial power, the "state-owned" mechanism of the "government run, official supervision and business run" of the Westernization cause, the invasion of the powerful capitalism and imperialism to the private commercial property rights, and the underdeveloped science and technology and education, the Westernization Movement finally failed. Therefore, Li Hongzhang was also criticized.

  在军事方面,李鸿章明知不可为而为,屡战屡败,屡败屡战,战和交替,自办军工,自筹经费,自练军队为朝廷作战。但是,上层支持不够,中层执行不力,下层软弱涣散,扛洋枪的土包子士兵射击不瞄准,持大刀长矛的士兵一看见洋鬼子就跑,军队毫无战斗力,李鸿章为此落下指挥不力,“劳师靡饷”的恶名。

In terms of military affairs, Li Hongzhang knows that he can't do it. He has been defeated and defeated repeatedly. He has been fighting and alternating. He has run his own military industry, raised his own funds and trained his own army to fight for the court. However, the upper support is not enough, the middle execution is not effective, the lower level is weak and lax, the local baozi soldiers carrying foreign guns do not aim at shooting, the soldiers with big swords and spears run away as soon as they see the foreign devils, and the army has no combat effectiveness, so Li Hongzhang's command is not effective, and the reputation of "laboring at the expense of salary" has fallen.

  曾国藩门生如云,他最欣赏的弟子仅有两个,一个是准确预言“大清不出五十年必亡”,明知不可为则不为,精通帝王学,潜心治学,乱世坚决不做官的赵烈文,二是逆流而上,“一心一意把官做大”(曾国藩语)的李鸿章。李鸿章升官的“诀窍”有二,一是做事,勇于担当,急难险重齐上,二是做人,主要手段是给慈禧太后、大和上层满蒙亲贵大肆行贿。不说平常,不算特别采购赠送的“洋玩艺”(进口奢侈品),李鸿章每年给上层权贵上的“例钱”(拜年)多达二百万两白银。无论公私,李鸿章是晚清官场的“买单”冠军,行贿大户,否则,无法做事,更无法自保。李鸿章进士出身,饱读诗书,深知圣人教诲,知道礼义廉耻,身处污泥,不得已而为之,势利恶名由此而来。

Zeng Guofan's disciples are Ruyun. There are only two of his most admired disciples. One is Zhao Liewen, who accurately predicted that "within fifty years of the Great Qing Dynasty, he will die". He knows that if he can't do something, he will not do it. He is proficient in Imperial learning and devoted himself to learning. In turbulent times, he is determined not to be an official. The other is Li Hongzhang, who goes against the current and "wholeheartedly makes an official bigger" (Zeng Guofan's language). Li Hongzhang's "know-how" for promotion includes two aspects: first, to do things, to take on responsibilities bravely, to get ahead in a hurry, and second, to be a human being. The main means is to bribe Empress Dowager Cixi, the senior and the senior. Not to mention the ordinary "foreign games" (imported luxury goods) that are not special purchases and gifts, Li Hongzhang's annual "regular money" (New Year's Eve) to the upper class dignitaries is up to 2 million liang of silver. No matter public or private, Li Hongzhang was the champion of "paying the bill" in the official arena of late Qing Dynasty. He bribed a large number of people. Otherwise, he could not do anything, and could not protect himself. Li Hongzhang was born as a Jinshi. He was full of poems and books. He knew the teachings of saints, the integrity and shame. He was in the mud and had to do it. The snobbish and evil reputation came from it.

  晚清官场肮脏不堪,如同没人打扫的公共厕所,谁呆的时间越长,谁沾染的臭味越浓,谁被苍蝇袭击的次数就越多。大厦将倾,独木难支。李鸿章是个实事求是,勇于面对现实的人,他知道自己做不了圣人,也不想做圣人。以“裱糊匠”自嘲的李鸿章为风雨飘摇中的清王朝卖命到死,他遭遇的麻烦、非议和恶评最多,毫不奇怪

In the late Qing Dynasty, the officialdom was filthy, just like the public toilet that no one cleaned. The longer the person stayed, the stronger the stink he got, the more often he was attacked by flies. The building will fall, and it will be hard to stand alone. Li Hongzhang is a man who is realistic and brave to face the reality. He knows that he can't be a saint and doesn't want to be a saint. Li Hongzhang, who derided himself as a "mounting craftsman", worked his life to death in the turbulent Qing Dynasty. It is no surprise that he suffered the most troubles, criticisms and bad comments

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