上官婉儿简介死因 历史上的上官婉儿和武则天-看世界

上官婉儿简介死因 历史上的上官婉儿和武则天

  上官婉儿简介

  历史上的女官简介:上官婉儿又称上官昭容,唐代女官、诗人、皇妃。陕州陕县(今属河南三门峡)人,孙女,上官仪获罪被杀后随母郑氏配入内庭为婢。十四岁时因聪慧善文为重用,掌管宫中制诰多年,有“巾帼宰相”之名。上官婉儿与武则天有着怎样的关系?

Brief introduction of female officials in history: Shangguan Wan'er, also known as Shangguan Zhaorong, was a female official, poet and imperial concubine in Tang Dynasty. A granddaughter of Shanxian County, Shaanxi Province (now Sanmenxia, Henan Province), who was killed by shangguanyi, was assigned to the inner court with his mother, Zheng, as a maid. At the age of 14, she was in charge of the imperial palace for many years because of her wisdom and good writing. She was known as the "Prime Minister of women". What is the relationship between Shangguan Wan'er and Wu Zetian?

  上官婉儿简介

About Shangguan Wan'er

  时,上官婉儿封为昭容,权势更盛,在政坛、文坛有着显要地位,从此以皇妃的身份掌管内廷与外朝的政令文告。曾建议扩大书馆,增设学士,在此期间主持风雅,代朝廷品评天下诗文,一时词臣多集其门,《全唐诗》收其遗诗三十二首。710年,临淄王(即唐玄宗)起兵发动唐隆政变,与韦后同时被杀。

At that time, Shangguan Wan'er was granted Zhaorong, with more power. She had a prominent position in the political and literary circles. She was then in charge of the decrees of the inner court and the outer court as the imperial concubine. It was suggested that the library should be expanded and a bachelor should be set up. During this period, he presided over elegance and evaluated the world's poetry and prose on behalf of the court. At that time, most of the CI ministers collected their poems. Thirty two poems were collected in the whole Tang Dynasty. In 710, King Linzi (that is, Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty) launched a coup of Tang long, and was killed at the same time as empress Wei.

  陕州陕县人,时宰相上官仪孙女,曾祖父上官弘曾在时任江都宫福监。麟德元年(664),上官仪因替高宗起草将废武则天的诏书,被武后所杀,刚刚出生的上官婉儿与母亲郑氏同被配没掖廷。在掖廷为奴期间,在其母的精心培养下,上官婉儿熟读诗书,不仅能吟诗着文,而且明达吏事,聪敏异常。仪凤二年(677),上官婉儿曾被武则天召见宫中,当场命题,让其依题着文。上官婉儿文不加点,须臾而成,且文意通畅,词藻华丽,语言优美,真好像是夙构而成。武则天看后大悦,当即下令免其奴婢身分,让其掌管宫中诏命。不久,上官婉儿又因违忤旨意,罪犯死刑,但武则天惜其文才而特予赦免,只是处以黥面而已。以后,上官婉儿遂精心伺奉,曲意迎合,更得武则天欢心。

Shangguanhong, the great grandfather of shangguanyi granddaughter, the Prime Minister of Shaanxi Province, was a eunuch of Jiangdu Palace at that time. In the first year of Linde (664), shangguanyi was killed by Empress Wu because she drafted an imperial edict for Emperor Gaozong to abolish Empress Wu. Shangguanwan'er, who was just born, and her mother Zheng's were sent to the court. During the period of being a slave in yeting, under the careful training of his mother, Shangguan Wan'er read poems and books carefully, not only could he recite poems and write, but also could understand official affairs with extraordinary intelligence. In the second year of Yifeng (677), Shangguan Wan'er was summoned to the palace by Wu Zetian and asked to make a proposition on the spot. Shangguan Wan'er's prose is not a little bit more than a second, and the prose is clear, the words are luxuriant, the language is beautiful, it really seems that it has been constructed for a long time. Seeing this, Empress Wu Zetian immediately ordered her to exempt her from the status of servant and let her take charge of the imperial edict. Soon after, Shangguan Wan'er was executed for disobeying his will, but Wu Zetian spared his literary talents and granted him a special pardon, which was only a tattoo. After that, Shangguan Wan'er carefully served and catered to Qu Yi, which made Wu Zetian more happy.

  从通天元年(696)(出自《景龙文馆记》,《旧唐书》为圣历年)开始,又让其处理百司奏表,参决政务,权势日盛。神龙元年(705),唐中宗复位以后,又令上官婉儿专掌起草诏令,深被信任,又拜为昭容,封其母郑氏为沛国夫人。二年,依靠韦后和安乐公主等人的支持,相继设计贬杀了张柬之、桓彦范、敬晖、袁恕己和崔玄暐等五王,权倾人主,不可一世。上官婉儿又与其私通,并在所草诏令中,经常推崇武氏而排抑皇家,致使太子李重俊气愤不已。景龙元年(707)七月,李重俊与左羽林大将军李多祚等,矫诏发羽林军三百余人,杀武三思、武崇训于其府第,并诛其亲党十余人,又引兵从肃章门斩关而入,叩击阁门而搜捕上官婉儿。上官婉儿急忙逃至唐中宗和韦后处,并扬言说:“观太子之意,是先杀上官婉儿,然后再依次捕弑皇后和陛下。”韦后和中宗一时大怒,遂带着上官婉儿和安乐公主登上玄武门躲避兵锋,令右羽林大将军刘景仁率飞骑二千余人,屯太极殿前,闭门自守。太子兵败被杀。

From the first year of Tongtian (696) (from the records of jinglongwenguan and the old Tangshu as the holy calendar year), he was asked to deal with Baisi playing table, participate in government affairs, and become increasingly powerful. In the first year of Shenlong (705), after the restoration of emperor Zhongzong of Tang Dynasty, Shangguan Wan'er was appointed to draft the imperial edict, which was deeply trusted and worshipped as Zhaorong. Zheng's mother was appointed as the wife of peiguo. In the past two years, with the support of empress Wei and Princess Anle, five kings including Zhang Cambodian, Huan yanfan, Jing Hui, Yuan Shuji and Cui Xuanwei were successively designed and demoted, and their power was overwhelming. Shangguan Wan'er had an intimate relationship with her. In the imperial edict, she often respected Wu family and suppressed the royal family, which made Prince Li chongjun angry. In July of the first year of Jinglong's reign (707), Li chongjun and Li duozuo, the general of zuoyulin, ordered more than 300 soldiers to kill Wu Sansi and Wu chongxun, and killed more than ten of his relatives. They also led the soldiers to enter the gate of Suzhou, knock on the gate of the pavilion, and hunt for Shangguan Waner. Shangguan Wan'er hurriedly fled to Tang Zhongzong and empress Wei, and said: "the idea of Prince Guan is to kill Shangguan Wan'er first, and then kill the queen and Her Majesty in turn." Empress Wei and Zhongzong were angry for a while, so they took Shangguan Wan'er and Princess Anle to the Xuanwu Gate to escape from the front of the soldiers. Liu Jingren, the general of the right badminton forest, led more than 2000 people to fly to the Taiji hall and guard themselves. The prince was defeated and killed.

  此后,上官婉儿又经常劝说中宗,大量设置昭文馆学士,广召当朝词学之臣,多次赐宴游乐,赋诗唱和。上官婉儿每次都同时代替中宗、韦后和安乐公主,数首并作,诗句优美,时人大多传诵唱和。对大臣所作之诗,中宗又令上官婉儿进行评定,名列第一者,常赏赐金爵,贵重无比。因此,朝廷内外,吟诗作赋,靡然成风。中宗派人又在上官婉儿居地穿池筑岩,穷极雕饰,常引大臣宴乐其中。当时,宫禁宽疏,允许宫内官员任意出入。上官婉儿遂与一些宫官在宫外购筑宅第,经常与他们交接往来,有的人因此而求得高官要职。中书侍郎崔湜就是因为与上官婉儿在外宅私通,后被引以为相的。不久,崔湜又在主持铨选时,多有违失,被御史李尚隐弹劾,以罪被贬外州司马;也因上官婉儿和安乐公主为其申理,仍官复原职。

After that, Shangguan Wan'er often persuaded Zhongzong to set up a large number of Zhao Wenguan scholars, who were widely called to be officials of CI studies in the dynasty, and gave many banquets and amusements, poems and harmony. Shangguan Wan'er took the place of Zhongzong, empress Wei and Princess Anle at the same time every time. She wrote several poems together. The poems were beautiful. Most of the people chanted and sang them. As for the poems written by the ministers, Zhongzong ordered Shangguan Wan'er to evaluate them. They ranked first, and they often rewarded Jinjue with incomparable value. Therefore, poetry and Fu are popular both inside and outside the court. Zhongzong sent people to build rocks in Shangguan Wan'er's house through the pool, which was extremely carved and often entertained the ministers. At that time, the Imperial Palace was wide and sparse, allowing officials to enter and leave at will. Shangguan Wan'er then bought and built houses outside the palace with some Palace officials, often connecting with them, and some people sought important positions for them. Cui Shi, a middle school waiter, was introduced to Shangguan Wan'er after he had an affair with Shangguan Wan'er. Before long, Cui Shi was impeached by Li Shangyin, the imperial history, and demoted to the foreign state's Sima for his crime. Because Shangguan Wan'er and Princess Anle were his reasons, he was restored to his original position.

  景龙四年(710),势力日盛,上官婉儿又依附太平公主。六月,唐中宗被韦后与安乐公主毒死后,上官婉儿与太平公主一起草拟遗诏,立温王李重茂为皇太子,韦后知政事,相王李旦参决政务。七月,临淄王率羽林将士冲入宫中,杀韦后及其党羽。上官婉儿执烛率宫人迎接,并把她与太平公主所拟遗诏拿给刘幽求观看,刘幽求拿着遗诏在李隆基处为其说项,但李隆基不许,杀上官婉儿于旗下。开元初年,唐玄宗派人将上官婉儿的诗作收集起来,编成文集二十卷,令张说作序。此集今佚,《全唐诗》仅收其遗诗三十二首。

Jinglong four years (710), the growing power, Shangguan Wan'er and attached to Princess Taiping. In June, after emperor Zhongzong of Tang was poisoned by Empress Wei and Princess Anle, Shangguan Wan'er and Princess Taiping drafted the imperial edict together, and made Li chongmao, king of Wen, the crown prince. Empress Wei knew the politics and decided the government affairs with Li Dan, king of Wei. In July, Linzi King rushed into the palace with Yu Lin's soldiers, killing empress Wei and her party members. Shangguan Wan'er leads the palace people to greet her with candles, and gives Liu youqiu the imperial edict she and Princess Taiping proposed. Liu youqiu takes the imperial edict and talks about it at Li Longji's place, but Li Longji does not allow her to kill Shangguan Wan'er. In the early years of the first Yuan Dynasty, Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty sent people to collect Shangguan Wan'er's poems and compile them into 20 volumes of anthologies to make Zhang Shuo preface them. This collection is now lost, and only 32 poems are collected in the whole Tang poetry.

  上官婉儿怎么死的

How did Shangguan Wan'er die

  虽然上官婉儿凭借她的聪明才智,周旋在武、韦、李等各大政治势力之间,并借此掌握国家大权,但她毕竟只是一个小小的昭容,没有自己的势力,朝堂上的风起云涌也让她疲于应付。710年5月,中宗突然死亡,这让上官婉儿感到了危机。韦后意欲独掌大权,让婉儿起草一份遗诏,遗诏重点内容一共三条。

Although Shangguan Wan'er, by virtue of her intelligence and wisdom, is in the power of Wu, Wei, Li and other major political forces to control the country, she is only a small Zhaorong after all, and has no power of her own. The surging wind and clouds in the court also make her tired of coping with it. In May 710, Zhongzong died suddenly, which made Shangguan Wan'er feel crisis. Empress Wei intended to take charge of the power alone, and asked Wan'er to draft an imperial edict with three key contents.

  第一条:立温王重茂为皇太子;第二条:知政事;第三条:相王李旦参谋政事。然而韦后并不满意,她准备效法武则天当,将台阁政职、内外兵马大权以及中央禁军等全部安排了自己的党羽和族人,这无疑令李唐皇室感受了巨大的危机,太平公主与临淄王李隆基决定先下手为强。

The first is to make Wang chongmao the crown prince; the second is to know the political affairs; the third is to make Li Dan, the prime minister, advise on the political affairs. However, empress Wei was not satisfied. She was ready to follow Wu Zetian's example. She arranged her own party and people for the political posts of the Jiangtai Pavilion, the power of internal and external forces and the central forbidden army, which undoubtedly made the royal family of the Tang Dynasty feel a great crisis. Princess Taiping and King Linzi, Li Longji, decided to start first.

  7月21日,李隆基引兵杀入内宫,声称“韦氏毒死先帝,谋危社稷,今夕当共诛诸韦”,大部羽林军临阵倒戈,韦氏一党来不及反应,尽数被杀,史称“唐隆政变”。而与韦后关系过密的上官婉儿也在诛杀之列,婉儿执烛率宫人迎接,并把她与太平公主所拟遗诏拿给刘幽求观看,以证明自己是和李唐宗室站在一起的,刘幽求拿着遗诏求李隆基开恩,但李隆基深知其左右摇摆,此时若放过,定后悔无及,遂斩于旗下。

On July 21, Li Longji led his troops into the inner palace, claiming that "Wei killed the first emperor by poisoning himself and plotted against the whole country. This evening, he will kill all Wei". Most of the badminton army turned against him, and the Wei party was killed before it could respond. It was known as the "Tang Long coup". The Shangguan Wan'er, who had a close relationship with empress Wei, was also in the process of killing. Wan'er led the palace people to greet her with candles and showed Liu youqiu the imperial edict she and Princess Taiping had drawn up to prove that she was standing with Li Tang's clan. Liu youqiu asked for Li Longji's favor with the imperial edict, but Li Longji knew that it swayed from side to side. If she let it go, she would be regretful, and then she was beheaded.

  其实上官婉儿在政变中计划十分周密,她早早就联络了太平公主。然而她没有算到引兵攻入宫中是英武果敢的李隆基,李隆基虽与太平公主一起对付韦后,但二人实则各怀心事。此外,婉儿一次又一次地在政治斗争中左右逢源,固然说明她心思的聪明,但也暴露了她政治道德的弱点,她是一个没有任何政治节操和政治立场的人。所以,在这次政变中婉儿聪明反被聪明误,她手中的遗诏非但没有成为救命稻草,反倒成了刺向她自己的一把利剑。

In fact, Shangguan Wan'er planned very carefully in the coup. She contacted Princess Taiping early. However, she did not reckon that Li Longji, who was brave and resolute, was the one who led the troops into the palace. Although Li Longji and Princess Taiping fought against empress Wei together, they actually had their own concerns. In addition, Wan'er has found her right and left in the political struggle again and again, which shows her intelligence in mind, but also exposes her weakness in political morality. She is a person without any political integrity and political stand. Therefore, Wan'er's cleverness was wronged by cleverness in this coup. Instead of being a life-saving straw, the imperial edict in her hand became a sharp sword stabbing at her.

  上官婉儿和武则天

Shangguan Wan'er and Wu Zetian

  武则天将上官婉儿倚为心腹,甚至与在床榻间交欢时也不避忌她。上官婉儿正值情窦初开,免不得被引动,加上张昌宗姿容秀美,不由地心如鹿撞。一天,婉儿与张昌宗私相调谑,被武则天看见,拔取金刀,插入上官婉儿前髻,伤及左额,且怒目道:“汝敢近我禁脔,罪当处死。”亏得张昌宗替她跪求,才得赦免。婉儿因额有伤痕,便在伤疤处刺了一朵红色的梅花以遮掩,谁知却益加娇媚。宫女们皆以为美,有人偷偷以胭脂在前额点红效仿,渐渐地宫中便有了这种红梅妆。

Wu Zetian leaned on Shangguan Wan'er as his confidant, and even made friends with her in bed. Shangguan Wan'er is at the beginning of her love. She can't be moved. With Zhang changzong's beautiful appearance, she can't be bumped by the heart of the earth like a deer. One day, Wan'er and Zhang changzong flirted with each other in private. Wu Zetian saw them. She pulled out a gold knife and inserted it into the bun in front of Shangguan Wan'er. She hurt her left forehead. She said angrily, "you dare to come near me and forbid me to commit crimes." Thanks to Zhang changzong's kneeling for her, she can be forgiven. Wan'er stabbed a red plum flower at the scar because of the scar on her forehead. However, she was more charming. Ladies all think it's beautiful. Some people secretly use rouge to redden their forehead, and gradually there is this kind of red plum makeup in the underground palace.

  以后,上官婉儿遂精心伺奉,曲意迎合,更得武则天欢心。从圣历元年开始,又让其处理百司奏表,参决政务,权势日盛。

After that, Shangguan Wan'er carefully served and catered to Qu Yi, which made Wu Zetian more happy. From the first year of the holy calendar, he was allowed to deal with the Baisi table and participate in the government affairs, which made him more powerful.

  神龙元年,唐中宗复位。中宗即位后政权掌握在韦后的手中。中宗一生颠沛流离,过着朝不保夕的日子,养成了一副柔弱性格。而韦后则一心学武则天,勾结女儿安乐公主,把持了朝纲。早在唐高宗崩时,上官婉儿那年十六岁,她母亲早已去世。这婉儿善于修饰,画眉贴翠,搔首弄姿,便和中宗皇帝偷了私情。后来中宗被废,幽囚在房州地方,只有韦后伴着中宗皇帝在幽囚地方,吃尽苦楚。中宗到了复位以后,大权在握,便接着把婉儿召幸,合成一个鸾凤交,册为婕妤,封婉儿母郑氏,为沛国夫人。又令婉儿专掌起草诏令。

In the first year of Shenlong, Zhongzong of Tang Dynasty was restored. After Zhongzong ascended the throne, the regime was controlled by Empress Wei. Zhongzong was displaced all his life, lived precariously, and developed a weak character. Empress Wei, however, devoted herself to learning from Empress Wu Zetian and colluded with her daughter Princess Anle to control the court. As early as when Gaozong died in the Tang Dynasty, Shangguan Wan'er was sixteen years old, and her mother had already passed away. This Wan'er is good at decorating. Her thrushes are pasted with emerald, and she flirts with the emperor Zhongzong. Later, Zhongzong was abandoned and imprisoned in Fangzhou. Only empress Wei and Zhongzong emperor were in the prison and suffered a lot. After Zhongzong's restoration, when he was in power, he summoned Wan'er to be lucky and formed a Luan Fengjiao, which was recorded as Jieyu, granted her mother Zheng's name and became the wife of peiguo. She also ordered Wan'er to draft an imperial edict.

免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。

Disclaimer: the above content comes from the Internet, and the copyright belongs to the original author. If you violate your original copyright, please let us know, and we will delete the relevant content as soon as possible.

本文由 看世界 作者:小小 发表,其版权均为 看世界 所有,文章内容系作者个人观点,不代表 看世界 对观点赞同或支持。如需转载,请注明文章来源。

发表评论