清朝的名妓是什么样子的?清朝“花魁”怎么选?-看世界

清朝的名妓是什么样子的?清朝“花魁”怎么选?

  说到清朝的名妓长什么样,其实大家别误会啊,小编说的是清朝的正常现象,历史上就有这事,那么有的人问了,这个清朝的名妓到底长什么样呢?其实看看故宫收藏的一个“艳榜”就知道了呀,下面来一睹芳容吧!

  今天小编给大家带来的“花魁”介绍,感兴趣的读者可以跟着小编一起看一看。

Today's introduction of "Huakui" brought by Xiaobian to you. Interested readers can take a look with Xiaobian.

  说到清朝的长什么样,其实大家别误会啊,小编说的是清朝的正常现象,历史上就有这事,那么有的人问了,这个清朝的名妓到底长什么样呢?其实看看收藏的一个“艳榜”就知道了呀,下面来一睹芳容吧!

When it comes to what the Qing Dynasty looks like, don't get me wrong. Xiaobian is talking about the normal phenomenon of the Qing Dynasty, which happened in history. Then some people ask, what does the famous prostitute look like? Actually, look at a collection of "Yanbang". Let's have a look!

  故宫博物院收藏五幅标注“状元”、“榜眼”字样的年轻女子照片。若按现在的审美标准,她们虽然不一定都能称作美人,却也相貌端庄,衣着时尚,颇有几分的“范儿”。

The Palace Museum collects five pictures of young women with the words "number one" and "number one". According to the current aesthetic standards, although they may not all be called beauties, they are also dignified in appearance, fashionable in dress and somewhat "stylish".

  那么,这些既非格格、宫女,也不像宦家闺秀的人物,身份究竟如何?查阅相关史料,得知她们都是清末上海《游戏报》选出的“艳榜”(花榜)名妓。它们虽然只鳞片爪,却可透视出当时的世态风俗。

So, these are neither Ge Ge Ge, Gong NV, nor eunuch girls. What about their identities? Looking up the relevant historical materials, we can see that they are all the famous prostitutes selected by Shanghai game daily in the late Qing Dynasty. Although they are only scales and claws, they can reflect the world customs at that time.

  花榜就是在中进行选美,类似活动早在即已出现。二十三年(公元一八九七年),《游戏报》主笔李伯元首度将花榜评选公开化、体制化,陆续在报纸上推出“艳榜三科”,成为影响广泛的沪上盛事。所谓“艳榜三科”,就是妓女海选的三个名目——花榜、武榜和叶榜。

Huabang is a beauty pageant in China. Similar activities have already appeared for a long time. In the 23rd year (1897 A.D.), Li Boyuan, the main writer of the game newspaper, made the flower list selection open and institutionalized for the first time, and successively launched the "three subjects of gorgeous list" in the newspaper, which has become an influential event in Shanghai. The so-called "three branches of Yanbang" are the three categories of prostitute auditions: Huabang, Wubang and yebang.

  李伯元(公元一八六七至一九〇六年),名宝嘉,字伯元,江苏常州人,光绪二十三年在上海创办《游戏报》。这是中国近代第一份文艺小报,宗旨是“假游戏之说,以隐喻劝惩”。由于该报注重青楼,俨然花界的专业报纸,李伯元因此获得“风月总持”、“骚坛盟主”、“花界提调”等雅号。

Li Boyuan (1867-1906 A.D.), a native of Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, was named Baojia. In the 23rd year of Guangxu, he founded the game daily in Shanghai. This is the first literary tabloid in modern China. Its tenet is "to talk about fake games and persuade and punish with metaphor". Due to its emphasis on brothels, Li Boyuan has won the titles of "general manager of Fengyue", "leader of Sao altar" and "theme of Huajie", etc.

  《游戏报》创办人李伯元

Li Boyuan, founder of Game Daily

  《游戏报》创刊伊始,即以开花榜为首事。具体评选规则是:仿照西方民主选举办法,以“荐函”多寡——选票数量决定选举结果。大致分三个步骤,即征求荐函、统计选票和公布结果。

At the beginning of the founding of the game newspaper, the first thing was the flowering list. The specific selection rules are: following the western democratic election method, the number of "recommendation letter" - the number of votes determines the election results. There are three steps, i.e. soliciting letters of recommendation, counting votes and publishing results.

  荐函即对应选妓女的推荐信,主要内容包括被举荐者的姓名、住址,对其身材、容貌、品行和应对举止的描述,以及推荐理由等。收到的荐函均以“来书照录”的形式,原封不动地在报上陆续刊载,每日都吸引着读者的眼球。

The letter of recommendation refers to the letter of recommendation corresponding to the prostitute selected. The main contents include the name and address of the person recommended, the description of his body, appearance, conduct and response behavior, and the reasons for recommendation. The letters of recommendation received are in the form of "photos of incoming books", which are published in the newspaper one after another intact, attracting the readers' attention every day.

  这年七月初七“女儿节”,首届花榜正式发布,推出一甲(即状元、榜眼、)张四宝等三人、二甲蔡新宝等三十人、三甲金丽卿等一百零七人。从籍贯上看,状元、榜眼、探花均被“姑苏人”所包揽。

On July 7th of that year, the first flower list was officially released, including three persons, namely, top one (i.e. champion, top one), Zhang Sibao, thirty persons, Cai Xinbao, thirty persons and Jin Liqing, one hundred and seven persons. From the perspective of native place, the number one scholar, rank eye and flower exploration are all covered by the "Suzhou people".

  当时的上海可谓繁荣“娼”盛,妓女因来历、籍贯、身份的不同,分为许多种类和等级,归纳起来大致有:书寓、长三、么二,以及最下层的台基、野鸡、花烟间、钉棚、咸水妹、淌白、拆白党等。

At that time, Shanghai was prosperous and "prostitutes" flourished. Prostitutes were divided into many kinds and grades due to different origins, places of origin and identities. They can be summed up as follows: Shuyu, Changshan, Maoer, and the lowest platform base, pheasant, flower and smoke room, nail shed, salt water sister, Dabai, LiBai, etc.

  “花榜”选举的对象,属于“书寓”、“长三”等的高级妓女。中榜者虽然不能做官,也没什么奖品,但开榜时每个人的名字后面,都注明住所和评语,冶游者可“按图索骥”,名次靠前者自然也就生意兴隆了。

The object of Huabang election belongs to senior prostitutes such as Shuyu and Changshan. Although the winner of the list can't be an official and has no prize, everyone's residence and comments are indicated after their name when they open the list. The tourist can "follow the map to find a steed" and the ranking depends on the former, which naturally leads to prosperous business.

  小脚妓女出堂会时由龟奴扛在肩上出行

Little footed prostitutes go out on their shoulders when they come out of the hall

  《游戏报》所开花榜,相当于考试中的“文榜”。其后,李伯元又套用武科举之名,开设“武榜”。武榜又称“艺榜”,并非比试武功、武艺,而是“仿京城梨园前例”,在艺伎中评选技艺出色者。

"Game" by the blooming list, equivalent to the examination of "Wen bang.". Later, Li Boyuan used the name of martial arts examination to set up the "martial arts list". Wubang, also known as "art list", is not a contest of martial arts, but "imitating the precedent of the pear garden in the capital" to select the outstanding artists among the geisha.

  接着更是别出心裁,推出以高级妓女之侍女为评选对象的“叶榜”。意思是说妓女为花,侍女是叶,好花还须绿叶陪。武榜、叶榜均沿花榜之例,分为三甲。

Then came the "leaf list", which was chosen by the maid of the high-level prostitute. It means that prostitutes are flowers, maids are leaves, and good flowers must be accompanied by green leaves. Wu bang and ye Bang are both examples of flower bang, which are divided into three categories.

  名妓照片何以进宫

Why do famous prostitutes enter the palace

  《游戏报》将传统的妓女选举变换出不同的花样,满足了都市人的心理,并由此获得了商业利益的最大化。但对于李伯元这位风流才子而言,逐利绝非唯一目的。他是在以其特有的诙谐调侃,借事寓言,进而唤醒痴愚。将等第与科举头衔,移植于妓女选美,本身就是借助科举的外壳,嘲弄“神圣”的。

The game newspaper has transformed the traditional prostitute election into different patterns, which satisfies the psychology of urban people and thus maximizes the commercial benefits. But for Li Boyuan, a talented man, pursuing profits is not the only purpose. He is in with its unique humorous ridicule, borrow the fable of things, and then wake up the fool. To transplant the title of equal rank and imperial examination into the beauty contest of prostitutes is to ridicule "sanctity" with the help of the imperial examination shell.

  那么,李伯元主持评选的艳榜人物照片,为什么会堂而皇之地进入宫中?在没有找到确切的史料之前,我们不妨试做几种可能性的推测:

Then, why did the photos of the gorgeous people hosted by Li Boyuan enter the palace? Before we find the exact historical data, we may try to speculate on several possibilities:

  一是朝廷关注李伯元其人。李伯元支持,与超等维新党人关系密切,不时放言无忌,表达对国事的悲愤之情。甚至还有“西宫巍峨以压日”等过激言辞,矛头直指把持朝政的!

First, the court paid attention to Li Boyuan. Li Boyuan supported, closely related to the super reformers, and from time to time expressed his indignation and grief about the state affairs. There are even "the West Palace is towering to suppress the sun" and other extreme words, aiming at those who control the government!

  他的谴责小说《官场现形记》,更以晚清官场为发难对象,集中描写了官场中的种种腐败与黑暗,堪称清末官僚的百丑图。他的活动可能也曾引起朝廷关注,并为此搜集相关材料,这些照片便由此进入宫中,并被有意或无意中收藏。

His denouncing novel "the official scene", which focuses on the official scene in the late Qing Dynasty, describes all kinds of corruption and darkness in the official scene. It can be called a hundred ugly pictures of the bureaucrats in the late Qing Dynasty. His activities may have attracted the attention of the court and collected relevant materials for this purpose, which led to the entry of these photos into the palace and their intentional or unintentional collection.

  二是妓女引领潮流。上海是开埠最早的城市,也是中西文化的交汇之地。妓女以其独特的身份与经历,容易突破成规束缚,成为新事物的早期接受者和推介者。她们开风气之先,尤其在服饰穿着和行为举止上引领潮流,被视为时髦的代表。在此背景下,出于欣赏时尚或“整肃风化”,这些照片也进入宫中。

Second, prostitutes lead the trend. Shanghai is the first city to open a port, and also the intersection of Chinese and Western cultures. Prostitutes, with their unique identity and experience, are easy to break through the shackles of rules and become the early recipients and promoters of new things. They are regarded as the representatives of fashion, especially in dress and behavior. In this context, for the sake of enjoying fashion or "cleaning up the Weathering", these photos also enter the palace.

  清末名妓明信片

Postcard of famous prostitutes in the late Qing Dynasty

  三是满足娱乐需求。清末上海堪称东方的娱乐中心,在传统戏剧方面,也居于同北京相抗衡的地位。《游戏报》在大量刊载妓院、妓女消息的同时,对梨园、优伶也不乏报道。从某种意义上来讲,娼、优同属“文艺工作者”,名妓、名伶都具有社会明星的地位。

Third, meet the entertainment needs. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Shanghai was regarded as the entertainment center of the East, and in the aspect of traditional drama, it was also in the position of competing with Beijing. While the game newspaper published a lot of information about brothels and prostitutes, it also reported on Liyuan and Youling. In a sense, both prostitutes and actors belong to "literary workers", and both famous prostitutes and actors have the status of social stars.

  欣赏的谭鑫培、朱素云等名角,都经常赴沪演出,受到热烈追捧。宫中的主要娱乐活动就是听戏,并收藏有大量京剧、崑剧的剧照。由此推之,同时搜集少量名妓照片,似乎也在情理之中。

The famous stars like Tan Xinpei and Zhu Suyun, who enjoy it, often perform in Shanghai and are warmly sought after. The main entertainment in the palace is to listen to the opera and collect a large number of photos of Peking Opera and Kunqu Opera. Therefore, it seems reasonable to collect a few photos of famous prostitutes at the same time.

  当然,在尚未发现确切的史料依据之前,这些推测都不能成为定论。

Of course, these conjectures can not be concluded until the exact historical basis has been found.

  清朝晚期以前,北京的妓院虽然明暗杂陈,但由于上层社会禁止狎妓,所以几乎没有什么像样的青楼。以后,妓风大炽,、石头等胡同,家悬纱灯,门揭红帖。每日午后,香车络绎,游客如云。

Before the late Qing Dynasty, although the brothels in Beijing were bright and dark, there were few brothels in the upper class because they were forbidden to have sex with prostitutes. Later, the prostitute wind is blazing, stone and other hutongs, the house hangs the gauze lamp, the door uncovers the red post. Every afternoon, there are a stream of fragrant cars and tourists.

  光绪戊戌、己亥年间(公元一八九八至一八九九年),始有上海妓女进京设立妓馆,亦名“书寓”,名妓就是早期的“淘金者”之一。庚子后京师创设警察,规定内城妓院一律迁到外城,并给照收税,准许公开营业。

In the years of 1898-1899, Shanghai prostitutes came to Beijing to set up brothels, also known as "Shuyu". Famous prostitutes were one of the early "gold diggers". After gengzi, the capital created a police force, which stipulated that all brothels in the inner city should be moved to the outer city, and that they should be allowed to open their business with license and tax.

  当时,京师妓馆大体分为三等:小班、茶室、下处。其中一等“小班”和二等“茶室”,多集中于前门外的八条胡同内,故有“八大胡同”之称,并于早期发展到鼎盛。而“茶室以下,非上流人所往”。

At that time, the brothels in Beijing were roughly divided into three classes: small class, teahouse and the lower part. Among them, the first-class "small class" and the second-class "teahouse" are mostly concentrated in the eight alleys outside the front door, so they are called "eight Alleys" and developed to the peak in the early stage. And "below the teahouse, not to the upper class.".

  花榜之风,也曾波及京城。《清稗类钞》称:“就会试而言,则有状元、榜眼、探花诸名目。而京朝既醉心于科举,随时随地,悉由此念,流露于不自觉。于是评骘花事,亦以状元、榜眼、探花等名词甲乙之,谓之花榜。”光绪二十五年(公元一八九九年),《游戏报》曾刊登一则《状元行贿》的新闻,报道这年京师亦开花榜,其“状元”小平果向主办者行贿数百两。

The wind of Huabang also touched the capital. "Qingbarnyardgrass notes" said: "as far as the test is concerned, there are top scholars, list eyes, explore flowers and other items. While the Beijing Dynasty was absorbed in the imperial examination, at any time and anywhere, it read from this, and showed in unconsciousness. Therefore, it is also called "flower list" by the terms of number one scholar, list eye, and flower exploration In the 25th year of Guangxu reign (1899 A.D.), the game newspaper published a piece of news about the number one scholar's bribery. It was reported that in this year, the capital also blossomed, and its "Number One Scholar", Xiao Pingguo, paid hundreds of liang of bribes to the organizers.

  到了一九一三年,北京《民主报》为八大胡同花界举办了一次选秀活动。这是民国成立后的首次妓女选举,为凸现民国新风,胜出者不再称状元、榜眼、探花。而仿照西方教育制度,改称“博士、学士”,并“分别赠以徽章,以作证书”。但标准仍沿袭惯例,分才、情、色、艺四科,每科评出博士一名、学士若干。如一九一九年,某次花选的才、艺、色三科“博士”,分别是花君、张金凤、李金翠。

In 1913, beijing democracy daily held a talent show for the eight hutonghua communities. This is the first election of prostitutes since the founding of the Republic of China. In order to highlight the new trend of the Republic of China, the winner will no longer be called the champion, the eye of the list and the flower of exploration. Following the western education system, it was renamed "doctor and Bachelor" and "respectively presented badges as certificates". However, the standard still follows the practice, which is divided into four subjects, namely, talent, emotion, color and art. Each subject is evaluated as a doctor or a bachelor. For example, in 1919, Huajun, Zhang Jinfeng and Li jincui were the "doctors" in three subjects of talent, art and color.

  一九一九年,某次花选中的才、艺、色三科“博士”

In 1919, the "doctor" of talent, art and color was selected

  妓女作为游离于社会大众的特殊群体,其生活方式不同于一般民众。尤其是部分高级妓女,在一定程度上可以称作“有闲”阶层,读书、看报也是她们的日常生活之一。

Prostitutes, as a special group, live in a different way from the general public. In particular, some senior prostitutes can be called "leisure" class to some extent. Reading books and newspapers is also one of their daily lives.

  笔者发现故宫收藏的一幅女子读报的照片,无论人物神态、坐姿、发式、衣着,还是里面的布景陈设,都与妓女形象相似。再仔细观察她手中的报纸,可以发现上面的“群强报”字样。

The author finds that a picture of a woman reading a newspaper collected in the Forbidden City is similar to the image of a prostitute, no matter how she looks, how she sits, how she looks, how she dresses, or the setting display inside. If you look at her newspaper carefully, you can find the words "group strong newspaper" on it.

  《群强报》创办于民国元年,一九三六年停刊。据此推断,这名女子很可能就是民国早期的京城高级妓女。照片的拍摄目的,不排除报纸利用“明星效应”,为自己做广告宣传。

Qunjiang newspaper was founded in the first year of the Republic of China, and its publication was suspended in 1936. It can be concluded that this woman is probably a senior prostitute in the early Republic of China. The purpose of taking photos does not exclude that newspapers use "star effect" to advertise themselves.

  民国时期北京读报名妓

Famous prostitutes reading newspapers in Beijing during the period of the Republic of China

  故宫博物院收藏的五幅妓女照片,身份无疑也属于不同年份的艳榜名妓。那么,她们是否也是《游戏报》所选出?下面就依据现有史料线索,分别对其进行简要考察。

The five pictures of prostitutes in the Palace Museum undoubtedly belong to the famous prostitutes in different years. Then, are they also selected by the game daily? Next, we will make a brief investigation on them according to the existing historical clues.

  (一)“戊戌春榜状元”林绛雪

(1) Lin jiangxue, the top player in the 1898 spring League

  在现存《游戏报》资料中,有关林绛雪的记述相对较多。她是光绪二十四年(戊戌,公元一八九八年)花榜的状元,也是次年春季“花选”的第二名“牡丹”。

In the existing "Game Daily" data, there are relatively more records about Lin jiangxue. She was the number one scholar in the flower list in the 24th year of Guangxu (1898 A.D.), and the second "Peony" in the spring of the next year.

  丁酉(公元一八九七年)花榜开榜后,仅仅一年,很多登榜妓女便名花有主,纷纷适人。于是,《游戏报》又于戊戌七月第二次开花榜。此次名列前茅者为:状元林绛雪、榜眼花丽娟、探花沈二宝、传胪谢倩云。

After Ding you (1897 AD) put on the flower list, only one year later, many prostitutes on the list were famous for their flowers and were suitable for people. As a result, the game newspaper once again bloomed in July 1898. This time, the top three are: Lin jiangxue, the top one, Hua Lijuan, Shen Erbao, and Xie qianyun.

  从这次花榜开始,还随报附送照片。报纸与相馆合作,将名列前茅的“名花小照”,每人拍印一万张,定期贴于报纸,每日附送。后因报纸过多,照片黏贴不及,索性要求读者另掏腰包。这些名妓照片的大量复制,更使她们被视为社会明星而受到追捧。

From the beginning of this flower list, photos are also attached to the newspaper. The newspaper cooperates with Xiangguan to take and print 10000 photos of famous flowers, which are among the best. They are regularly posted in the newspaper and attached daily. Because there are too many newspapers and the photos can't be pasted, the readers are required to pay for them. The mass reproduction of these famous prostitutes' photos makes them more popular as social stars.

  故宫收藏的这幅林绛雪照片,或许就是当时拍印的万幅小照之一。只是戊戌花榜开榜于当年七月,而照片下面的标注文字却是“戊戌春榜状元”。这里的“春榜”,似为“夏榜”之误。

This picture of Lin jiangxue in the palace museum may be one of the ten thousand photos taken and printed at that time. It was only in July of that year that the 1898 flower list was launched, and the text below the photo was "top one in the 1898 spring list". The "spring list" here seems to be the mistake of "summer list".

  《游戏报》除开艳榜之外,还定期举办“花选”。就是按十二月令选出十二名妓女(遇闰月多取一人),再结合每人的姿态、性格,每月令各司一花,以梅花为魁,牡丹次之。从己亥年(公元一八九九年)开始,花选固定于阴历

In addition to opening the list, the game daily also holds "flower selection" on a regular basis. It is to select 12 prostitutes according to the order of December (one more prostitute in case of leap month), and then combine each person's attitude and character to make each department spend one flower every month, with plum blossom as the leader, followed by peony. Since the year of Qihai (1899 A.D.), flower selection has been fixed on the lunar calendar

本文由 看世界 作者:小小 发表,其版权均为 看世界 所有,文章内容系作者个人观点,不代表 看世界 对观点赞同或支持。如需转载,请注明文章来源。

发表评论