Today's introduction of "Huakui" brought by Xiaobian to you. Interested readers can take a look with Xiaobian.


When it comes to what the Qing Dynasty looks like, don't get me wrong. Xiaobian is talking about the normal phenomenon of the Qing Dynasty, which happened in history. Then some people ask, what does the famous prostitute look like? Actually, look at a collection of "Yanbang". Let's have a look!


The Palace Museum collects five pictures of young women with the words "number one" and "number one". According to the current aesthetic standards, although they may not all be called beauties, they are also dignified in appearance, fashionable in dress and somewhat "stylish".


So, these are neither Ge Ge Ge, Gong NV, nor eunuch girls. What about their identities? Looking up the relevant historical materials, we can see that they are all the famous prostitutes selected by Shanghai game daily in the late Qing Dynasty. Although they are only scales and claws, they can reflect the world customs at that time.


Huabang is a beauty pageant in China. Similar activities have already appeared for a long time. In the 23rd year (1897 A.D.), Li Boyuan, the main writer of the game newspaper, made the flower list selection open and institutionalized for the first time, and successively launched the "three subjects of gorgeous list" in the newspaper, which has become an influential event in Shanghai. The so-called "three branches of Yanbang" are the three categories of prostitute auditions: Huabang, Wubang and yebang.


Li Boyuan (1867-1906 A.D.), a native of Changzhou, Jiangsu Province, was named Baojia. In the 23rd year of Guangxu, he founded the game daily in Shanghai. This is the first literary tabloid in modern China. Its tenet is "to talk about fake games and persuade and punish with metaphor". Due to its emphasis on brothels, Li Boyuan has won the titles of "general manager of Fengyue", "leader of Sao altar" and "theme of Huajie", etc.


Li Boyuan, founder of Game Daily


At the beginning of the founding of the game newspaper, the first thing was the flowering list. The specific selection rules are: following the western democratic election method, the number of "recommendation letter" - the number of votes determines the election results. There are three steps, i.e. soliciting letters of recommendation, counting votes and publishing results.


The letter of recommendation refers to the letter of recommendation corresponding to the prostitute selected. The main contents include the name and address of the person recommended, the description of his body, appearance, conduct and response behavior, and the reasons for recommendation. The letters of recommendation received are in the form of "photos of incoming books", which are published in the newspaper one after another intact, attracting the readers' attention every day.


On July 7th of that year, the first flower list was officially released, including three persons, namely, top one (i.e. champion, top one), Zhang Sibao, thirty persons, Cai Xinbao, thirty persons and Jin Liqing, one hundred and seven persons. From the perspective of native place, the number one scholar, rank eye and flower exploration are all covered by the "Suzhou people".


At that time, Shanghai was prosperous and "prostitutes" flourished. Prostitutes were divided into many kinds and grades due to different origins, places of origin and identities. They can be summed up as follows: Shuyu, Changshan, Maoer, and the lowest platform base, pheasant, flower and smoke room, nail shed, salt water sister, Dabai, LiBai, etc.


The object of Huabang election belongs to senior prostitutes such as Shuyu and Changshan. Although the winner of the list can't be an official and has no prize, everyone's residence and comments are indicated after their name when they open the list. The tourist can "follow the map to find a steed" and the ranking depends on the former, which naturally leads to prosperous business.


Little footed prostitutes go out on their shoulders when they come out of the hall


"Game" by the blooming list, equivalent to the examination of "Wen bang.". Later, Li Boyuan used the name of martial arts examination to set up the "martial arts list". Wubang, also known as "art list", is not a contest of martial arts, but "imitating the precedent of the pear garden in the capital" to select the outstanding artists among the geisha.


Then came the "leaf list", which was chosen by the maid of the high-level prostitute. It means that prostitutes are flowers, maids are leaves, and good flowers must be accompanied by green leaves. Wu bang and ye Bang are both examples of flower bang, which are divided into three categories.


Why do famous prostitutes enter the palace


The game newspaper has transformed the traditional prostitute election into different patterns, which satisfies the psychology of urban people and thus maximizes the commercial benefits. But for Li Boyuan, a talented man, pursuing profits is not the only purpose. He is in with its unique humorous ridicule, borrow the fable of things, and then wake up the fool. To transplant the title of equal rank and imperial examination into the beauty contest of prostitutes is to ridicule "sanctity" with the help of the imperial examination shell.


Then, why did the photos of the gorgeous people hosted by Li Boyuan enter the palace? Before we find the exact historical data, we may try to speculate on several possibilities:


First, the court paid attention to Li Boyuan. Li Boyuan supported, closely related to the super reformers, and from time to time expressed his indignation and grief about the state affairs. There are even "the West Palace is towering to suppress the sun" and other extreme words, aiming at those who control the government!


His denouncing novel "the official scene", which focuses on the official scene in the late Qing Dynasty, describes all kinds of corruption and darkness in the official scene. It can be called a hundred ugly pictures of the bureaucrats in the late Qing Dynasty. His activities may have attracted the attention of the court and collected relevant materials for this purpose, which led to the entry of these photos into the palace and their intentional or unintentional collection.


Second, prostitutes lead the trend. Shanghai is the first city to open a port, and also the intersection of Chinese and Western cultures. Prostitutes, with their unique identity and experience, are easy to break through the shackles of rules and become the early recipients and promoters of new things. They are regarded as the representatives of fashion, especially in dress and behavior. In this context, for the sake of enjoying fashion or "cleaning up the Weathering", these photos also enter the palace.


Postcard of famous prostitutes in the late Qing Dynasty


Third, meet the entertainment needs. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Shanghai was regarded as the entertainment center of the East, and in the aspect of traditional drama, it was also in the position of competing with Beijing. While the game newspaper published a lot of information about brothels and prostitutes, it also reported on Liyuan and Youling. In a sense, both prostitutes and actors belong to "literary workers", and both famous prostitutes and actors have the status of social stars.


The famous stars like Tan Xinpei and Zhu Suyun, who enjoy it, often perform in Shanghai and are warmly sought after. The main entertainment in the palace is to listen to the opera and collect a large number of photos of Peking Opera and Kunqu Opera. Therefore, it seems reasonable to collect a few photos of famous prostitutes at the same time.


Of course, these conjectures can not be concluded until the exact historical basis has been found.


Before the late Qing Dynasty, although the brothels in Beijing were bright and dark, there were few brothels in the upper class because they were forbidden to have sex with prostitutes. Later, the prostitute wind is blazing, stone and other hutongs, the house hangs the gauze lamp, the door uncovers the red post. Every afternoon, there are a stream of fragrant cars and tourists.


In the years of 1898-1899, Shanghai prostitutes came to Beijing to set up brothels, also known as "Shuyu". Famous prostitutes were one of the early "gold diggers". After gengzi, the capital created a police force, which stipulated that all brothels in the inner city should be moved to the outer city, and that they should be allowed to open their business with license and tax.


At that time, the brothels in Beijing were roughly divided into three classes: small class, teahouse and the lower part. Among them, the first-class "small class" and the second-class "teahouse" are mostly concentrated in the eight alleys outside the front door, so they are called "eight Alleys" and developed to the peak in the early stage. And "below the teahouse, not to the upper class.".


The wind of Huabang also touched the capital. "Qingbarnyardgrass notes" said: "as far as the test is concerned, there are top scholars, list eyes, explore flowers and other items. While the Beijing Dynasty was absorbed in the imperial examination, at any time and anywhere, it read from this, and showed in unconsciousness. Therefore, it is also called "flower list" by the terms of number one scholar, list eye, and flower exploration In the 25th year of Guangxu reign (1899 A.D.), the game newspaper published a piece of news about the number one scholar's bribery. It was reported that in this year, the capital also blossomed, and its "Number One Scholar", Xiao Pingguo, paid hundreds of liang of bribes to the organizers.


In 1913, beijing democracy daily held a talent show for the eight hutonghua communities. This is the first election of prostitutes since the founding of the Republic of China. In order to highlight the new trend of the Republic of China, the winner will no longer be called the champion, the eye of the list and the flower of exploration. Following the western education system, it was renamed "doctor and Bachelor" and "respectively presented badges as certificates". However, the standard still follows the practice, which is divided into four subjects, namely, talent, emotion, color and art. Each subject is evaluated as a doctor or a bachelor. For example, in 1919, Huajun, Zhang Jinfeng and Li jincui were the "doctors" in three subjects of talent, art and color.


In 1919, the "doctor" of talent, art and color was selected


Prostitutes, as a special group, live in a different way from the general public. In particular, some senior prostitutes can be called "leisure" class to some extent. Reading books and newspapers is also one of their daily lives.


The author finds that a picture of a woman reading a newspaper collected in the Forbidden City is similar to the image of a prostitute, no matter how she looks, how she sits, how she looks, how she dresses, or the setting display inside. If you look at her newspaper carefully, you can find the words "group strong newspaper" on it.


Qunjiang newspaper was founded in the first year of the Republic of China, and its publication was suspended in 1936. It can be concluded that this woman is probably a senior prostitute in the early Republic of China. The purpose of taking photos does not exclude that newspapers use "star effect" to advertise themselves.


Famous prostitutes reading newspapers in Beijing during the period of the Republic of China


The five pictures of prostitutes in the Palace Museum undoubtedly belong to the famous prostitutes in different years. Then, are they also selected by the game daily? Next, we will make a brief investigation on them according to the existing historical clues.


(1) Lin jiangxue, the top player in the 1898 spring League


In the existing "Game Daily" data, there are relatively more records about Lin jiangxue. She was the number one scholar in the flower list in the 24th year of Guangxu (1898 A.D.), and the second "Peony" in the spring of the next year.


After Ding you (1897 AD) put on the flower list, only one year later, many prostitutes on the list were famous for their flowers and were suitable for people. As a result, the game newspaper once again bloomed in July 1898. This time, the top three are: Lin jiangxue, the top one, Hua Lijuan, Shen Erbao, and Xie qianyun.


From the beginning of this flower list, photos are also attached to the newspaper. The newspaper cooperates with Xiangguan to take and print 10000 photos of famous flowers, which are among the best. They are regularly posted in the newspaper and attached daily. Because there are too many newspapers and the photos can't be pasted, the readers are required to pay for them. The mass reproduction of these famous prostitutes' photos makes them more popular as social stars.


This picture of Lin jiangxue in the palace museum may be one of the ten thousand photos taken and printed at that time. It was only in July of that year that the 1898 flower list was launched, and the text below the photo was "top one in the 1898 spring list". The "spring list" here seems to be the mistake of "summer list".


In addition to opening the list, the game daily also holds "flower selection" on a regular basis. It is to select 12 prostitutes according to the order of December (one more prostitute in case of leap month), and then combine each person's attitude and character to make each department spend one flower every month, with plum blossom as the leader, followed by peony. Since the year of Qihai (1899 A.D.), flower selection has been fixed on the lunar calendar

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