杀死商鞅的真凶到底是谁?秦孝公是怎么逼死商鞅的?-看世界

杀死商鞅的真凶到底是谁?秦孝公是怎么逼死商鞅的?

  变法对一个国家来说,虽然是一场阵痛,可是阵痛过后,却能够让这个国家变得超乎过去的强大。历朝历代都在变法,其实最初变法的还不是商鞅,而是魏文侯时期的李悝。

  变法的故事大家真的了解吗?今天小编给你们带来全新的解读~

Do you really understand the story of reform? Today's edition brings you a new interpretation~

  变法对一个国家来说,虽然是一场阵痛,可是阵痛过后,却能够让这个国家变得超乎过去的强大。历朝历代都在变法,其实最初变法的还不是商鞅,而是时期的李悝。

Reform is a pain for a country, but after the pain, it can make the country stronger than before. In fact, Shang Yang was not the first to change the law, but Li Xuan of the period.

  商鞅的理论知识,基本上也是从李悝变法之中学习过来的。可是理论永远只停留在书面上,变法的核心要点并不是理论,而是实践。

Shang Yang's theoretical knowledge is basically learned from Li's reform. But the theory always stays on the paper, the core point of reform is not theory, but practice.

  只有实践才能出真知,很可惜的是,很少有国家愿意做这些实践探索。跟其他人不一样,他愿意探索,可是他没有方法。

Only practice can produce true knowledge. Unfortunately, few countries are willing to do these practical explorations. Unlike others, he is willing to explore, but he has no way.

  于是乎商鞅便应运而生,成为了改变秦国命运的那个人。他不仅有变法的理论知识,他还有变法的实践能力,这是至关重要的。

So Shang Yang came into being and became the man who changed the fate of Qin. He has not only the theoretical knowledge of reform, but also the practical ability of reform, which is very important.

  01商鞅变法,让秦国走向强大。

Shang Yang's reform made the state of Qin powerful.

  秦孝公之前,也出现了不少明君,可是很可惜的是,他们没有遇到过商鞅这样的人才。所以秦孝公之前,秦国是非常弱小的。

Before Qin Xiaogong, there were many Mingjun, but unfortunately, they didn't meet such talents as Shang Yang. So before Qin Xiaogong, the state of Qin was very weak.

  被强大的欺负也就算了,就连巴蜀、匈奴和义渠都不把秦国放在眼里,这是秦国最昏暗的一段时日。

Even if they were bullied by powerful forces, even Bashu, Xiongnu and Yiqu did not pay attention to the state of Qin, which was the darkest period of time in the state of Qin.

  商鞅来了以后,说服了秦孝公开始变法。秦孝公很有分寸,但凡是变法的所有事务,全都交给商鞅来处理。

When Shang Yang came, he persuaded Qin Xiaogong to change his ways. Qin Xiaogong was very prudent, but all the affairs of the reform were left to Shang Yang.

  而且商鞅拥有绝对的权力,除了秦孝公,在秦国那就是他说了算。这可不得了,要知道商鞅是人,而秦国那么多王室贵族,却需要听从一个卫国人的命令。

Moreover, Shang Yang has absolute power. In addition to Qin Xiao Gong, he has the final say in Qin state. It's amazing to know that Shangyang is a man, but so many royal families and nobles in Qin need to obey the order of a defender.

  公叔既死,公孙鞅闻秦孝公下令国中求贤者,将修缪公之业,东复侵地,乃遂西入秦,因孝公宠臣景监以求见孝公。孝公既见卫鞅,语事良久,孝公时时睡,弗听。后五日,复求见鞅。鞅复见孝公,益愈,然而未中旨。罢而孝公复让景监,景监亦让鞅。鞅复见孝公,孝公善之而未用也。罢而去。卫鞅复见孝公。公与语,不自知厀之前于席也。语数日不厌。---《》

When Gongshu died, gongsunyang heard that Duke Xiaogong of Qin ordered those in the state who wanted to be wise to repair Miao's business and invade the land in the East, so he went to Qin in the west, because Duke Xiaogong favored his official Jingjian to seek to see Duke Xiaogong. Xiaogong has seen Weiyang for a long time. He always sleeps and listens. In the next five days, I'll see Yang again. Yang sees filial piety again, benefits more, but does not reach the purpose. Then Xiao Gong gave way to Jing Jian, who also gave way to Yang. Yang sees filial piety again, filial piety is good and useless. Go away. Wei Yang meets Xiao Gong again. Public and language, do not know before the table. The language lasts for days. ---

  很多贵族都表示反对,可这是秦孝公的意思,没有人可以改变。甚至在秦孝公的儿子犯了罪以后,也需要服从商鞅的管理。

Many nobles objected, but this was the meaning of Qin Xiaogong. No one can change it. Even after Qin Xiaogong's son has committed a crime, he needs to obey Shang Yang's management.

  最著名的莫过于秦孝公的哥哥嬴虔,因为他是秦孝公儿子的师傅,所以要替公子受到处罚,结果嬴虔这位大贵族,居然被商鞅给削了鼻子。

The most famous one is Ying Qian, the elder brother of Qin Xiaogong. Because he is the teacher of Qin Xiaogong's son, he will be punished for his son. As a result, Ying Qian, the great aristocrat, has been cut off by Shang Yang.

  就算是这样,秦孝公也没有吭声,继续让商鞅实行变法。商鞅变法的具体内容我们不提,其实很显然,大多数都是针对贵族特权的变法。

Even so, Qin Xiaogong didn't say a word, and he continued to let Shang Yang reform. We will not mention the specific content of Shang Yang's reform, but it is clear that most of them are aimed at the reform of aristocratic privileges.

  贵族除了享受荣华富贵,对一个国家的强盛,确实没有什么好处。所有商鞅要改变的就是这一点,让贵族跌落神坛,让对国家有作用的人才,走上神坛。

Apart from enjoying the splendor and wealth, nobles are not really good for the prosperity of a country. This is what all Shangyang wants to change. Let the noble fall to the altar, and let the talents who have an effect on the country go to the altar.

  而他所做的一切,的确让秦国强大了起来。后来之所以有实力跟六国相抗衡,其实少不了商鞅在这段时间为他做的铺垫。

What he did made Qin stronger. Later, the reason why he had the strength to compete with the six countries was that Shang Yang had laid the groundwork for him during this period.

  02秦孝公临死前,为什么要传位给商鞅?

Why did Qin Xiaogong pass on the throne to Shang Yang before he died?

  商鞅是卫国人,原本叫未鞅,或者说是公孙鞅。这么一个人可以做秦国的大王吗?显然是不现实的。

Shangyang is from Wei state, originally called Weiyang, or gongsunyang. Can such a person be the king of Qin? It's obviously unrealistic.

  可是秦孝公为了报答商鞅为秦国所做的贡献,居然声称要把王位传给商鞅。那么秦孝公的目的是什么呢?我认为是为了逼死商鞅。

However, in order to repay Shang Yang's contribution to the Qin state, Qin Xiaogong claimed to pass the throne to Shang Yang. So what is the purpose of Qin Xiaogong? I think it is to force Shang Yang to die.

  退一万步讲,就算商鞅坐上了秦国国君的宝座,那么他坐得稳吗?除非他杀光了嬴氏一族的所有人,否则就别想让他坐稳这个位置。

To say the least, even if Shang Yang is the king of the state of Qin, is he stable? Unless he kills all the people of the Ying family, he will not be allowed to sit in this position.

  宗室非有军功论,不得为属籍。明尊卑爵秩等级,各以差次名田宅,臣妾衣服以家次。有功者显荣,无功者虽富无所芬华。---《史记》

A patriarchal clan is not allowed to be a subordinate unless it has military merit. In the Ming Dynasty, the rank of nobility and nobility was ranked, and each of them was named after the land and the house, and each of their concubines was named after the family. Those who have done meritorious deeds are proud, while those who have not done meritorious deeds are rich. ---Historical records

  我想当时秦孝公的真实心情应该是这样的:你商鞅在秦国的权威实在是太大了,你要是活着,我儿子压根就坐不稳这个位置。可是要让我杀你,好像还真的找不到什么正儿八经的理由,那就只能让我儿子和兄弟们杀了你了。

I think the real mood of Qin Xiaogong at that time should be like this: your authority in Qin is too great, if you live, my son will not be able to sit in this position at all. But if I want to kill you, I don't think I can find any serious reason, then I can only let my son and brothers kill you.

  商鞅一个劲儿地推辞,其实也有他的目的。他知道秦孝公是要把他置于死地,所以商鞅这是在央求秦孝公:我说大王啊,我辛辛苦苦为秦国做了那么多事情,你干嘛非要整死我啊?大不了我回家种地好了,你可别把这口锅甩给我啊。

In fact, Shang Yang's purpose is to refuse. He knew that Qin Xiaogong was going to put him to death, so Shang Yang was begging Qin Xiaogong: I said, king, I've done so many things for Qin country, why do you have to kill me? I'll go home and plant the land. Don't leave this pot to me.

  其实当秦孝公说出这个要求的时候,商鞅就已经必死无疑了。那么千古迷案就此解开,害死商鞅的,不是酒店老板,也不是商鞅的法令,而是秦孝公本尊。

In fact, when Qin Xiaogong said this request, Shang Yang would surely die. Then the mystery case will be solved. It's not the hotel owner or Shang Yang's law that killed Shang Yang, but Qin Xiaogong.

  03秦孝公担心儿子坐不稳王位,杀商鞅早就是他的计划之一了。

Qin Xiaogong is worried about his son's unstable throne. Killing Shang Yang has long been one of his plans.

  秦孝公的儿子嬴驷,小时候是一个非常难管教的孩子。曾经不止一次地犯下杀头的大罪,秦孝公也差点就下手宰了嬴驷,最终将他放逐。

Ying Si, the son of Qin Xiaogong, was a very difficult child when he was a child. More than once, Qin Xiaogong almost killed Ying Si and finally exiled him.

  可是秦孝公真的舍得自己的儿子吗?其实不然。当时正好是商鞅变法的高潮时期,如果嬴驷犯了罪,不受到处罚的话,那么变法就搞不下去。

But is Qin Xiaogong really willing to give up his son? In fact, he is not. At that time, it was the climax of Shang Yang's reform. If Ying Si committed a crime and was not punished, then the reform would not continue.

  这不是商鞅的事情,这是秦孝公自己家里的事情。首先有一个底线,秦孝公不会割了自己儿子的鼻子,更不会杀了自己儿子。

This is not the business of Shang Yang, this is the business of Qin Xiaogong's own family. First of all, there is a bottom line. Qin Xiaogong will not cut his son's nose, let alone kill his son.

  所以商鞅采取了折中的做法,让嬴虔代替嬴驷受罚。大王的哥哥居然被割了鼻子,这下子秦国的贵族们一个个都开始颤抖了。

Therefore, Shang Yang adopted a compromise approach and let Ying Qian take the place of Ying Si to be punished. The king's brother had his nose cut, and all the nobles of Qin began to tremble.

  曰:商君,其天资刻薄人也。迹其欲干孝公以帝王术,挟持浮说,非其质矣。且所因由嬖臣,及得用,刑公子虔,欺魏将昂,不师赵良之言,亦足发明商君之少恩矣。余尝读商君开塞耕战书,与其人行事相类。卒受恶名於秦,有以也夫!---《史记》

Said: Shang Jun, his talent is mean. It's not the essence to trace the emperor's desire to do filial piety and use imperial skills to hold the floating theory. The reason for this was that he was loyal to his officials and was able to use it. If he did not follow Zhao Liangzhi's advice, he would be able to invent the lack of grace of Shang Jun. I read the book of kaisaigeng, the emperor of Shang Dynasty, which was similar to his actions. A soldier is notorious in the Qin Dynasty. He is also a man! -- records of history

  他们终于意识到,商鞅这家伙太厉害了,真不是闹着玩的。其实他们不知道,真正厉害的是秦孝公罢了。

They finally realized that Shangyang was too good to play. In fact, they don't know. What's really powerful is Qin Xiaogong.

  如果没有秦孝公的首肯,嬴虔会主动让商鞅割了鼻子吗?显然不会。嬴虔就算是被杀了,也不会让自己受到如此奇耻大辱。

If not for Qin Xiaogong's approval, would Ying Qian take the initiative to let Shang Yang cut his nose? Obviously not. Even if Ying Qian was killed, he would not let himself be so humiliated.

  但是他必须要活着受刑,只有他毫不抱怨地受刑,才能够成为典型,才能够让秦国的所有贵族们信服。

But he must live to be punished. Only when he is punished without complaining can he become a model and convince all the nobles of the Qin state.

  他们所信服的不是商鞅,而是秦孝公的新政。新政的地位稳固以后,那就是传承的事情了。商鞅已经做完了该做的事情,那么他的权威就不应该还这么高,他要一直这么高,那秦孝公的儿子岂不是被他给盖住了?

What they believed was not Shang Yang, but Qin Xiaogong's new deal. After the status of the new deal is stable, that is the matter of inheritance. Shang Yang has finished what he should do, so his authority should not be so high. If he wants to be so high all the time, isn't Qin Xiaogong's son covered by him?

  秦国始终是姓嬴的,为了给儿子扫清障碍,秦孝公只好出此下策。他真切地了解自己儿子的脾性,也了解秦国贵族们的脾性,只要失去秦孝公这个保护伞,那商鞅就完了。

The state of Qin was always surnamed Ying. In order to clear the way for his son, Qin Xiaogong had to make such a decision. He really understood his son's temperament and the aristocracy's temperament. As long as he lost Qin Xiaogong's umbrella, Shang Yang would be finished.

  总结:人之将死,为何认为子孙利益最大化等于是自己的利益呢?

Conclusion: when people are dying, why do we think that maximizing the interests of future generations is equal to our own interests?

  说一个比较深奥的哲学问题。每个人都清楚,任何人只有一生,一般也就七八十年的光景。过完了,也就成了。

Say a more profound philosophical problem. Everyone knows that everyone has only one life, and generally only seven or eight or ten years. After that, it will be.

  可是为什么很多人在临死之前,都要安排这安排那,为自己的子孙谋求福利呢?人生百态,可到了去世之前,几乎全都是在给子孙安排前程。

But why do many people arrange this arrangement for their children before they die? Before they die, they are almost all arranging their future for their children.

  有些人要把生前财产分割给几个子孙,有些人要把房产过户给自己的子孙,有些人希望用自己最后一点面子,帮子孙找一份好工作,还有些人,一生虽碌碌无为,却也把自己的期盼,在临终前告诉子孙。

Some people want to divide their living property into several children, some want to transfer their real estate to their children, some want to use their last bit of face to help their children find a good job, and some people, although they have nothing to do in their life, also tell their own expectations to their children before they die.

  难道子孙们在他们去世后过得好与不好,跟他们有什么必然关联吗?很可惜的是,并没有什么关联。子孙自孙福,这才是真理。

Does it have anything to do with the future generations' good or bad life after their death? Unfortunately, it has nothing to do with it. It is the truth that children are blessed by their grandchildren.

  说到底,每个人都是一个个体,生下来是一个个体,去世时还是一个个体。谁也无法从另外一个生命中,去真实地获得什么。

After all, everyone is an individual, born as an individual, and died as an individual. No one can really get something from another life.

  重要的是过好自己的一生,而不是地想着为后世谋福利,到头来,你会发现,你这一生等于是白过了。

It's important to live a good life, rather than trying to work for the welfare of future generations. In the end, you will find that your life is a white one.

  言归正传,秦孝公在临死前,居然使出了这么一招,间接地把商鞅给害了。他这么做,当然就是为了给子孙谋福利,少一个功高盖主的老臣,那么新君上位就会轻松许多。

Back to the truth, Qin Xiaogong used such a move to kill Shang Yang indirectly before he died. He did so, of course, in order to provide benefits for his descendants. Without an old minister with great achievements, it would be easier for the new monarch to ascend.

  他这么做跟老百姓不一样,他家的确有江山需要继承,还必须要生个男孩才行,这是那个时代的局限性。我可以把这种心态,归结为痴心。

This is different from the common people. His family really needs to inherit and have a boy. This is the limitation of that era. I can attribute this mentality to infatuation.

  秦孝公痴心后世子孙还能记住他,还能在他的坟头上柱香。可这一切能够改变他的现状吗?法国著名的暴君路易十五,很多人可能不太了解。

Qin Xiaogong is infatuated that future generations can remember him and post incense on his grave. But can all this change his current situation? Louis 15, the famous tyrant of France, many people may not understand.

  但是他有一句十分著名的名言:我死后哪怕洪水滔天。就是这么一句话,他被印在了历史的耻辱柱上。其实我认为他是史上少有的明白人,只是百分之九十九的人,不明白而已。

But he has a very famous saying: even after my death, the flood is terrible. That is to say, he was printed on the stigma of history. In fact, I think he is one of the few people in history who understands, only 99% of them don't understand.

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