清朝前期原本有四个藩王 除了吴三桂,耿精忠,尚可喜外第四个人是谁-看世界

清朝前期原本有四个藩王 除了吴三桂,耿精忠,尚可喜外第四个人是谁

  三藩指清初吴三桂、耿精忠、尚可喜三位藩王所辖藩镇。清朝初年,由于清朝的力量不足以直接南方地区,所以,类似于西周初期将部分边远地区分封给功臣、宗室来建立诸侯国一样,清朝也选择将部分南方省份分封给明朝降将来镇守。其中,吴三桂封平西王,镇守云南,兼辖贵州;尚可喜封平南王,镇守广东;耿仲明封靖南王,死后,其子耿继茂袭封,镇守福建。在此基础上,吴三桂、耿精忠、尚可喜三位藩王被称之为“三藩”,乃至于在清朝康熙皇帝决定撤藩后,三藩起兵造反,从而形成了“三藩之乱”。值得注意的是,清朝初期原本有四个藩王,可最后只是形成了三藩的格局,那么,另外一位藩王是怎么回事呢?

  还不知道:的第四个的读者,下面小编就为大家带来详细介绍,接着往下看吧~

I don't know yet: the fourth reader of, the following small edition will give you a detailed introduction, and then look down~

  三藩指清初、耿精忠、三位藩王所辖藩镇。清朝初年,由于清朝的力量不足以直接南方地区,所以,类似于西周初期将部分边远地区分封给功臣、宗室来建立诸侯国一样,清朝也选择将部分南方省份分封给降将来镇守。其中,吴三桂封平西王,镇守云南,兼辖贵州;尚可喜封平南王,镇守广东;封靖南王,死后,其子袭封,镇守福建。在此基础上,吴三桂、耿精忠、尚可喜三位藩王被称之为“三藩”,乃至于在清朝决定撤藩后,三藩起兵造反,从而形成了“”。值得注意的是,清朝初期原本有四个藩王,可最后只是形成了三藩的格局,那么,另外一位藩王是怎么回事呢?

Three vassals refer to the vassals of the early Qing Dynasty, Geng Jingzhong and the three princes. In the early years of the Qing Dynasty, because the power of the Qing Dynasty was not enough to direct the southern areas, so, similar to the early Western Zhou Dynasty, which divided some remote areas into meritorious officials and clans to establish vassal states, the Qing Dynasty also chose to divide some southern provinces into future towns. Among them, Wu Sangui, the king of Pingxi, was in charge of Yunnan and Guizhou; Xi Feng, the king of Pingnan, was in charge of Guangdong; Feng Jing, the king of Nanwang, was in charge of Fujian after his death. On this basis, the three vassals, Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong and Shang Kexi, were called "San fan", and even after the Qing Dynasty decided to withdraw the vassals, San fan set out to revolt, thus forming "San fan". It's worth noting that there were four vassals in the early Qing Dynasty, but only three vassals were formed in the end. What about the other vassals?

  一

One

  首先,根据《清史稿》等史料的记载,三藩的建立和其势力的养成,是清廷利用明朝降将平定及镇守南方的结果。在皇帝自尽后,率领大军攻占明朝都城。但是,不久之后,清朝就成功入主中原。在此背景下,因为兵力不足,为了对付李自成的起义军和南明等势力,清朝不得不依靠明朝的降将来。在明朝降将中,以、耿仲明、尚可喜、吴三桂四人替清朝出力最大,所以均受封为王。在此基础上,孔有德、耿仲明、尚可喜、吴三桂原本应该成为清朝初期的四大藩王。那么,问题来了,为何在后来的三藩之乱中,却没有孔有德的身影呢?

First of all, according to the records of historical materials such as the draft of Qing Dynasty, the establishment of San Francisco and the formation of its forces were the result of the Qing government's use of Ming Dynasty's surrender to pacify and defend the south. After the emperor killed himself, he led a large army to capture the capital of the Ming Dynasty. However, it was not long before the Qing Dynasty succeeded in dominating the Central Plains. In this context, the Qing Dynasty had to rely on the Ming Dynasty's surrender to the future in order to deal with Li Zicheng's insurgents and Nanming forces because of the shortage of troops. Among the generals of the Ming Dynasty, Geng Zhongming, Shang Kexi and Wu Sangui contributed the most to the Qing Dynasty, so they were all appointed king. On this basis, Kong Youde, Geng Zhongming, Shang Kexi and Wu Sangui should have been the four vassals in the early Qing Dynasty. So, the question is, why didn't Kong Youde appear in the later San Francisco rebellion?

  二

Two

  对此,原因非常简单,因为孔有德很早之前就被逼自尽了。孔有德(1602年?—1652年),字瑞图,辽东盖州卫(今辽宁省盖县)人,原籍山东,明末清初将领。根据《明清史料》、《清史稿》等史料的记载,孔有德、耿仲明、尚可喜原本都是的手下。在斩杀毛文龙之后,孔有德自然是非常生气,也即对明朝朝廷也比较失望。于是,在崇祯四年(1631年),孔有德这位武将发动吴桥兵变,不久投降后金。崇祯九年(1636年),孔有德受封为恭顺王,出征锦州、松山等地,成为后金以及清朝的一员大将。元年(1644年),清军入关后,孔有德随追剿李自成及南明力量。

The reason for this is very simple, because Kong Youde was forced to commit suicide a long time ago. Kong Youde (1602-1652), with the word ruitu, was born in Gaizhou Wei (now Gaixian County, Liaoning Province) in Liaodong, and was born in Shandong Province. He was a general at the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty. According to the records of historical materials such as the historical materials of Ming and Qing Dynasties and the historical manuscripts of Qing Dynasty, Kong Youde, Geng Zhongming and Shang Kexi were all subordinates. After killing Mao Wenlong, Kong Youde was naturally very angry, that is to say, he was also disappointed with the Ming Dynasty. Therefore, in 1631, the fourth year of Chongzhen, Kong Youde, the general of the army, launched the Wuqiao mutiny and soon surrendered to the later Jin Dynasty. In 1636, in the ninth year of Chongzhen, Kong Youde was granted the title of King gongshun. He went to Jinzhou, Songshan and other places and became a general of later Jin Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. In the first year (1644), after the entry of the Qing army, Kong Youde pursued Li Zicheng and Nanming forces.

  三

Three

  顺治三年(1646年)授平南大将军,进攻南明永历势力。而这,是孔有德单独领兵的开始。对此,在笔者看来,这意味着孔有德获得了清朝朝廷的进一步信任。也即因为多年积累的战功,清朝决定给予孔有德更大的发挥空间,一个更能展示自身才华的舞台。顺治五年(1648年),封他为定南王,率军二万出征广西,并携家镇守。由此,按照清朝朝廷的安排,是让孔有德这位藩王镇守广西的话,以此和吴三桂、耿精忠、尚可喜三位藩王形成四藩拱卫南方的格局。在清朝的加官进爵之下,孔有德的冲劲自然更足了。

In the third year of Shunzhi (1646), the general of Pingnan was given to attack Yongli forces of Nanming. This is the beginning of Kong Youde's solo lead. In my opinion, this means that Kong Youde gained the further trust of the Qing Dynasty. That is to say, the Qing Dynasty decided to give Kong Youde more space to play and a stage to show his talent. In the fifth year of Shunzhi (1648), he was appointed king of Dingnan. He led 20000 troops to Guangxi and took his family to guard. Therefore, according to the arrangement of the Qing Dynasty, Kong Youde, the vassal king, was allowed to guard Guangxi, so as to form a pattern of four vassals defending the South with Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong and Shang Kexi. In the Qing Dynasty, Kong Youde's drive was more powerful.

  四

Four

  最后,顺治七年(1650年)十一月,孔有德率清军破桂林,俘虏南明重臣张同敞、及靖江王朱亨歅等,在此基础上,孔有德住进了靖江王府,改为定南王府。但是,的是,顺治九年(1652年),孔有德被南明将领李定国打败,被困桂林。面对重重包围的南明大军,孔有德自知走投无路,于是选择自尽。在孔有德死后,其子孔廷训逃跑过程中被明军俘获,仅有一女逃脱。此外,孔有德之子孔廷训在顺治十五年(1659年)被李定国下令处斩。由此,非常明显的是,在孔有德父子相继去世后,即便清朝朝廷想要保留孔有德的王爵,自然也没有合适的人选来袭爵了。基于此,清朝初期四藩的格局,在孔有德自尽后,自然也就形成了吴三桂、耿精忠、尚可喜三藩的格局。进一步来说,如果孔有德没有被逼自尽,并且和吴三桂一起起兵的话,或许会提高其面对清朝康熙的胜算。对此,你怎么看呢?

Finally, in November of the seventh year of Shunzhi (1650), Kong Youde led the Qing army to break through Guilin, and captured Zhang Tongchang, the important Minister of Nanming, and Zhu Hengyi, the king of Jingjiang. On this basis, Kong Youde lived in the prince's mansion of Jingjiang and changed it into the Prince's mansion of Dingnan. However, in the ninth year of Shunzhi (1652), Kong Youde was defeated by Li Dingguo, the general of Nanming Dynasty, and trapped in Guilin. Facing the surrounded Nanming army, Kong Youde knew he had no way to go, so he chose to commit suicide. After the death of Kong Youde, his son Kong tingxun was captured by the Ming army in the process of escape, and only one woman escaped. In addition, Kong tingxun, the son of Kong Youde, was executed by Li Dingguo in 1659. Therefore, it is very obvious that after the successive death of Kong Youde's father and son, even if the Qing Dynasty wanted to retain Kong Youde's king, there was no suitable person to attack the king. Based on this, the pattern of the four vassals in the early Qing Dynasty, after Kong Youde killed himself, naturally formed the pattern of Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong and Shang Kexi San vassals. Furthermore, if Kong Youde had not been forced to commit suicide and set up the army with Wu Sangui, he might have improved his odds against Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty. What do you think of this?

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