I don't know yet: the fourth reader of, the following small edition will give you a detailed introduction, and then look down~
Three vassals refer to the vassals of the early Qing Dynasty, Geng Jingzhong and the three princes. In the early years of the Qing Dynasty, because the power of the Qing Dynasty was not enough to direct the southern areas, so, similar to the early Western Zhou Dynasty, which divided some remote areas into meritorious officials and clans to establish vassal states, the Qing Dynasty also chose to divide some southern provinces into future towns. Among them, Wu Sangui, the king of Pingxi, was in charge of Yunnan and Guizhou; Xi Feng, the king of Pingnan, was in charge of Guangdong; Feng Jing, the king of Nanwang, was in charge of Fujian after his death. On this basis, the three vassals, Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong and Shang Kexi, were called "San fan", and even after the Qing Dynasty decided to withdraw the vassals, San fan set out to revolt, thus forming "San fan". It's worth noting that there were four vassals in the early Qing Dynasty, but only three vassals were formed in the end. What about the other vassals?
首先，根据《清史稿》等史料的记载，三藩的建立和其势力的养成，是清廷利用降将平定及镇守南方的结果。在 自尽后，率领大军攻占 都城。但是，不久之后，清朝就成功入主中原。在此背景下，因为兵力不足，为了对付李自成的起义军和南明等势力，清朝不得不依靠明朝的降将来。在明朝降将中，以、耿仲明、尚可喜、吴三桂四人替清朝出力最大，所以均受封为王。在此基础上，孔有德、耿仲明、尚可喜、吴三桂原本应该成为清朝初期的四大藩王。那么，问题来了，为何在后来的三藩之乱中，却没有孔有德的身影呢?
First of all, according to the records of historical materials such as the draft of Qing Dynasty, the establishment of San Francisco and the formation of its forces were the result of the Qing government's use of Ming Dynasty's surrender to pacify and defend the south. After the emperor killed himself, he led a large army to capture the capital of the Ming Dynasty. However, it was not long before the Qing Dynasty succeeded in dominating the Central Plains. In this context, the Qing Dynasty had to rely on the Ming Dynasty's surrender to the future in order to deal with Li Zicheng's insurgents and Nanming forces because of the shortage of troops. Among the generals of the Ming Dynasty, Geng Zhongming, Shang Kexi and Wu Sangui contributed the most to the Qing Dynasty, so they were all appointed king. On this basis, Kong Youde, Geng Zhongming, Shang Kexi and Wu Sangui should have been the four vassals in the early Qing Dynasty. So, the question is, why didn't Kong Youde appear in the later San Francisco rebellion?
The reason for this is very simple, because Kong Youde was forced to commit suicide a long time ago. Kong Youde (1602-1652), with the word ruitu, was born in Gaizhou Wei (now Gaixian County, Liaoning Province) in Liaodong, and was born in Shandong Province. He was a general at the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty. According to the records of historical materials such as the historical materials of Ming and Qing Dynasties and the historical manuscripts of Qing Dynasty, Kong Youde, Geng Zhongming and Shang Kexi were all subordinates. After killing Mao Wenlong, Kong Youde was naturally very angry, that is to say, he was also disappointed with the Ming Dynasty. Therefore, in 1631, the fourth year of Chongzhen, Kong Youde, the general of the army, launched the Wuqiao mutiny and soon surrendered to the later Jin Dynasty. In 1636, in the ninth year of Chongzhen, Kong Youde was granted the title of King gongshun. He went to Jinzhou, Songshan and other places and became a general of later Jin Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. In the first year (1644), after the entry of the Qing army, Kong Youde pursued Li Zicheng and Nanming forces.
In the third year of Shunzhi (1646), the general of Pingnan was given to attack Yongli forces of Nanming. This is the beginning of Kong Youde's solo lead. In my opinion, this means that Kong Youde gained the further trust of the Qing Dynasty. That is to say, the Qing Dynasty decided to give Kong Youde more space to play and a stage to show his talent. In the fifth year of Shunzhi (1648), he was appointed king of Dingnan. He led 20000 troops to Guangxi and took his family to guard. Therefore, according to the arrangement of the Qing Dynasty, Kong Youde, the vassal king, was allowed to guard Guangxi, so as to form a pattern of four vassals defending the South with Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong and Shang Kexi. In the Qing Dynasty, Kong Youde's drive was more powerful.
Finally, in November of the seventh year of Shunzhi (1650), Kong Youde led the Qing army to break through Guilin, and captured Zhang Tongchang, the important Minister of Nanming, and Zhu Hengyi, the king of Jingjiang. On this basis, Kong Youde lived in the prince's mansion of Jingjiang and changed it into the Prince's mansion of Dingnan. However, in the ninth year of Shunzhi (1652), Kong Youde was defeated by Li Dingguo, the general of Nanming Dynasty, and trapped in Guilin. Facing the surrounded Nanming army, Kong Youde knew he had no way to go, so he chose to commit suicide. After the death of Kong Youde, his son Kong tingxun was captured by the Ming army in the process of escape, and only one woman escaped. In addition, Kong tingxun, the son of Kong Youde, was executed by Li Dingguo in 1659. Therefore, it is very obvious that after the successive death of Kong Youde's father and son, even if the Qing Dynasty wanted to retain Kong Youde's king, there was no suitable person to attack the king. Based on this, the pattern of the four vassals in the early Qing Dynasty, after Kong Youde killed himself, naturally formed the pattern of Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong and Shang Kexi San vassals. Furthermore, if Kong Youde had not been forced to commit suicide and set up the army with Wu Sangui, he might have improved his odds against Kangxi in the Qing Dynasty. What do you think of this?
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