I still don't know why the state of Qin can unify the readers of the world. Here's a brief introduction for you. Let's look at it next~
，有七个主要的强国，每个国家都有不俗的实力。的面积最大，达100多万平方公里，500万;经济实力最强，有 300多万;最早在战国时期强大起来，占据大量的肥沃土地，有先发优势;建立了强大的，占据高原俯瞰六国。而秦国在七国中经济 是相对落后的，为什么可以统一全国呢?关于秦国统一的原因，古人多有论述，小编则总结一些主要的因素，进行深度解析。
There are seven major powers, each of which has its own strength. It has the largest area of more than 1 million square kilometers, with a population of 5 million; it has the strongest economic strength, with a population of more than 3 million; it was first strengthened in the Warring States period, occupying a large number of fertile land, with a first mover advantage; it has established a strong plateau, overlooking the six countries. But Qin's economy and culture are relatively backward among the seven countries. Why can we unify the whole country? About the reasons of Qin's unification, the ancients have discussed more, while the minor edition summarizes some main factors and makes in-depth analysis.
First, the geographical advantages of one-sided system
The state of Qin is located in Guanzhong area, which is a famous land of abundance. Guanzhong has been the place of four fortresses since ancient times. In the East, there are fortresses such as Guguan, Wuguan and Tongguan, which are easy to defend and hard to attack. In the north, there are Gullied Loess Plateau. Before the rise of Xiongnu, there is no strong threat to the area. In the south, there are Qinling Mountains and Daba Mountains, which are hard to walk and hard to threaten Guanzhong. In the west, there are active areas of Xiqiang, Yiqu and Xirong ethnic groups Domain.
The situation of the Warring States
Before the Qin state was strong, its threat mainly came from the nomads in the west, and the Qin state also rose in the struggle with these nomads. During the spring and Autumn period, the state of Qin mainly fought against Xirong, which greatly weakened the threat of Xirong. During the Warring States period, the army of Yiqu was annexed, which made the rear area of the Qin state free from threat. Therefore, in the Warring States period, the threat of Qin state basically came from the eastern region of Guandong, so it formed a situation of "blocking three sides and defending, only one side dominating the princes in the East". The annexation of Xirong area also made the state of Qin have a natural place to raise horses, and "there are raccoons in the north, which can be used to replace horses", providing a guarantee for the establishment of a strong cavalry.
Another geographical advantage of Qin state is that it has two major agricultural production areas, which provides sufficient food security for the war. Guanzhong area, located in the Weihe River Basin, is flat and fertile, which is very suitable for agricultural production, so it is called "land of abundance". During the reform period, the "reclamation order" was issued to encourage farming and attract immigrants, which greatly promoted the development of agriculture in Guanzhong area. In the late Warring States period, the canal was built to "irrigate more than 40000 hectares of bittern and harvest an acre of land for one hour. Therefore, Guanzhong was a fertile area without a bad year and Qin was rich and strong.". Another big agricultural area is Bashu. In 316 BC, the state of Qin annexed Bashu. This country is developing continuously here, and famous father and son have built it, which makes Chengdu Plain become the second "land of abundance".
Compared with the Qin state, the six countries in the east of Guandong are connected by the basic plains, lacking the advantages of the Qin state. Although the state of Wei occupied a lot of plain areas, it was in danger and could be defended, resulting in the dispersion of forces. Finally, Wei declined because of the attack of Qi, Qin and Chu. There are many mountainous areas in yanzhao, although overlooking the world, but the agricultural production is not stable, but also facing the threat of Qi. Qi is located in Shandong Peninsula, but it also borders Yan, Zhao and Wei, and finally declines because of the joint attack of the five countries. Although Chu state has a large area, most of its land has not been developed. The northern boundary line of Chu state is too long. At the same time, it needs to defend the three great powers of Qin, Wei and Qi, which also causes the dispersion of forces. And it's too small to be competitive.
Second, the state of Qin has the highest degree of centralization
During this period, the general trend of political development in various countries was that the system of enfeoffment was constantly replaced by the centralized system, and the aristocratic system was gradually replaced by the bureaucratic system. The system of enfeoffment seriously weakened the power of the state, so after entering the Warring States period, many countries carried out large-scale reforms, including Li Xuan's reform, Chu's reform and Qi's new deal. However, among the reforms of other countries, Qin is the most thorough.
The core of Shang Yang's reform is to strengthen centralization of power. He abolished the remnants of the commune and the private ownership of land, which broke the economic foundation of the aristocracy; he abolished the system of enfeoffment and the system of counties, which made the local area controlled vertically in the hands of the monarch; he implemented "one law for governance", that is to say, he abolished the rule of etiquette, which was not punishable by a great man in the past, and strengthened the authority of the monarch and the state; he abolished the old system and carried out the system of conferring military titles, that is to say The hereditary power of the nobility was abolished. These policies made the aristocratic forces of the state of Qin suffered a heavy blow, and the autocracy of the monarch was strengthened. Autocratic monarchy and centralized power are conducive to the concentration of the country's human, material and financial resources, the construction of large-scale projects and the large-scale foreign wars.
Another core of Shang Yang's reform is the policy of "one people", that is, to strictly control the production, production and thought of civilians. The method of "one people" is to manipulate the lever of reward and punishment, "open the door that must be obtained, clear the road that must be dead", and guide the people to obey through some special means. "Reward" is to use people's utilitarian psychology to induce, "punishment" is to use coercive measures to prohibit. The agricultural war policy is the concrete embodiment of the "one people" policy. He wants to stipulate that the people must be engaged in agriculture or war, and severely crack down on industry, commerce and industry. Through participating in the war, we can get more material and power rewards. In order to prevent the people from deviating from the "one people" track, severe punishment laws have been issued to limit it. The agricultural war policy first increased the grain production of Qin, and second increased the combat effectiveness of the army. The people saw the war, such as the hungry wolf saw the meat, and became the "tiger wolf division". The state of Qin basically served for agriculture and war, and evolved into a war machine.
After Shangyang was split, the system and laws formulated by Shangyang have been implemented and implemented for a long time. Until it was established, its basic policies still follow the policies formulated by Shang Yang. The book gives Shang Yang a very positive evaluation of the reform: "in the ten years of traveling, Qin Minda said that there is no trace of the road, no thief in the mountain, and enough for everyone. The people are brave in the public war, timid in the private struggle, and the town is under great governance. ". However, the so-called "Qin people's great theory" is the result of the initial reform. The long-term implementation of this policy will inevitably bring about the negative effect of "the world has been suffering for a long time".
Compared with the Qin state, the reform of the six countries in Guandong is not so thorough and radical, in which Qi and Chu retain a large number of remnants of the enfeoffment system, and domestic forces are difficult to coordinate. According to the findings, the tombs of the six countries in Guandong show several hierarchical differences from the monarch to the common people, while the tombs of Qin are the only ones, which just reflects that the monarch authority of the six countries in the East has not reached a high concentration. For example, the Chu state seriously threatened the interests of the nobility, and was finally executed, and the reform was abolished. In the middle and later period of the Warring States period, "there were Mengshi in Qi, Pingyuan in Zhao, Chunshen in Chu and Xinling in Wei". They had great authority, even higher than the monarch, which was the residual representative of the enfeoffment system.
Third, coherence and sustainability of national policies
In a monarchy, the monarch plays a key role in the development of a country. In this respect, the state of Qin is undoubtedly relatively lucky. From the beginning, the experienced kings of Huiwen, Zhaoxiang, Zhuangxiang and Qinshihuang are all outstanding monarchs. This is to avoid the collapse and widespread corruption of Qin in a certain generation. At this point, the six Eastern countries are not so lucky. From the beginning of Chu state, it was basically the fatuous and incompetent monarch. From the beginning of Qi State, it was the fatuous monarch. Only in the early Warring States period did Wei state count as the leader of the area. Later, the monarch was Yan Mo fatuous, or made a major mistake, while the outstanding monarch of Yanzhao was he Lingwang.
The lack of vision of the monarch not only seriously weakened the strength of the country, but also led to the instability of foreign policy. After Qin became strong, a situation of "United vertical" and "United horizontal" struggle was formed. "He Zong" means that the six countries of Guandong form an alliance to deal with the Qin state together, and "Lian Heng" means that the Qin State draws one country from the east to destroy the "he Zong". In the early stage, he Zong showed his strength for many times. In 296 BC, he United Qi, Wei and Han to attack Qin, and Qin was forced to return the occupied land. However, the policy of alliance was not maintained. Later, Chu betrayed the alliance, leading to the collapse of the alliance. Chu was attacked by Qi and Qin, and its strength declined. Since then, there has been no community.
The monarch of Qin has always insisted on the policy of supporting the weak countries in the east to attack the powerful countries. After the state of Wei was attacked, the state of Wei became the main target of the state of Qin. With the state of Wei as a buffer, it is difficult for the six states to directly attack the state of Qin. The state of Qi is the target of Lian Heng. Although the state of Qin did not directly send troops to attack Qi, Lian Heng's basic policy was to fight against Qi. In 284 BC, he led the five kingdoms of Yan, Zhao, Chu, Han and Wei to attack Qi, which led to the decline of Qi. This was a key battle for the change of the situation in the Warring States period, and also marked the victory of the strategy of the Qin state. Since then, the state of Qin has turned to adopt the policy of "" to stabilize the state of Qi and break each other.
Talent is a rare resource in the Warring States period. There is a growing trend of supporting people in various countries. The so-called "all the princes in the world want to fight for heroes to support themselves.". This is the autumn when a man gains wealth and a man loses wealth. However, the local culture of Qin is relatively backward, resulting in the lack of talents. However, Qin introduced talents from other countries extensively, such as Shang Yang, Hui Wenwang, Zhao Xiangwang, and so on. These talents all came from other countries but worked for Qin. At the time of Ying Zheng's reign, Li Si issued a letter of "remonstrating and pursuing guests" to discuss the importance of talents from other countries to Qin state, which made Ying Zheng withdraw his order.
The six countries in Guandong are different. Wei was once a great country of talents. Wei Wenhou was powerful because of the importance of talents. But later, Wu Qi, Shang Yang, Zhang Yi and fan Ju were all excluded from Wei, and the brain drain was serious. Qi was a place for talents in the Warring States period, but they studied more academic activities and seldom participated in political activities, which was difficult to play a role in the national policies. In Yan Zhaowang's time, he recruited talents widely, but mainly used to attack the state of Qi. Since then, the monarchs have no similar behavior.
The overall policy of Qin is good and sustainable, so the territory of Qin in the Warring States period is expanding. By the middle of the Warring States period, the area of Qin state was second only to that of Chu state, with a population of 5 million, equivalent to that of Chu state. The other six countries are hard to compete with Qin in area and population. With the continuous military and diplomatic victories of Qin state, Qin state finally formed a situation of hegemony, which is irreversible.
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