战国七雄中每个国家都有不俗的实力 为什么最后会被秦国统一天下呢-看世界

战国七雄中每个国家都有不俗的实力 为什么最后会被秦国统一天下呢

  战国时代,有七个主要的强国,每个国家都有不俗的实力。楚国的面积最大,达100多万平方公里,人口500万;齐国经济实力最强,有人口300多万;魏国最早在战国时期强大起来,占据大量的肥沃土地,有先发优势;赵国建立了强大的骑兵,占据高原俯瞰六国。而秦国在七国中经济文化是相对落后的,为什么可以统一全国呢?关于秦国统一的原因,古人多有论述,小编则总结一些主要的因素,进行深度解析。

  还不知道:秦国为什么能统一天下的读者,下面小编就为大家带来详细介绍,接着往下看吧~

I still don't know why the state of Qin can unify the readers of the world. Here's a brief introduction for you. Let's look at it next~

  ,有七个主要的强国,每个国家都有不俗的实力。的面积最大,达100多万平方公里,人口500万;经济实力最强,有人口300多万;最早在战国时期强大起来,占据大量的肥沃土地,有先发优势;建立了强大的,占据高原俯瞰六国。而秦国在七国中经济文化是相对落后的,为什么可以统一全国呢?关于秦国统一的原因,古人多有论述,小编则总结一些主要的因素,进行深度解析。

There are seven major powers, each of which has its own strength. It has the largest area of more than 1 million square kilometers, with a population of 5 million; it has the strongest economic strength, with a population of more than 3 million; it was first strengthened in the Warring States period, occupying a large number of fertile land, with a first mover advantage; it has established a strong plateau, overlooking the six countries. But Qin's economy and culture are relatively backward among the seven countries. Why can we unify the whole country? About the reasons of Qin's unification, the ancients have discussed more, while the minor edition summarizes some main factors and makes in-depth analysis.

  一,独以一面制诸侯的地理优势

First, the geographical advantages of one-sided system

  秦国位于关中地区,是著名的天府之国。关中自古为四塞之地,东边有、崤关、武关、潼关等要塞扼制通往关东的要道,易守难攻;北边是沟壑纵横的黄土高原,在匈奴崛起之前,该地区是没有任何强大的威胁;南边是秦岭、大巴山,道路难行,难以对关中造成威胁;西边则是西羌、义渠、西戎等族的活动区域。

The state of Qin is located in Guanzhong area, which is a famous land of abundance. Guanzhong has been the place of four fortresses since ancient times. In the East, there are fortresses such as Guguan, Wuguan and Tongguan, which are easy to defend and hard to attack. In the north, there are Gullied Loess Plateau. Before the rise of Xiongnu, there is no strong threat to the area. In the south, there are Qinling Mountains and Daba Mountains, which are hard to walk and hard to threaten Guanzhong. In the west, there are active areas of Xiqiang, Yiqu and Xirong ethnic groups Domain.

  战国局势

The situation of the Warring States

  在秦国强大之前,其威胁主要来自于西边的游牧民族,而秦国也是和这些游牧民族的斗争中不断崛起的。春秋时期,秦国主要和西戎作战,“益国十二,开地千里”,大大削弱了西戎的威胁。战国时期,又兼并了义渠之戎,使得秦国的后方在无威胁。因此,在战国的时候,秦国的威胁基本来自于关东地区,因此形成了“阻三面而守,独以一面东制诸侯”的局面。而兼并了西戎地区,也使得秦国拥有了天然的养马之地,“北有胡貉、代马之用”,为建立强大的骑兵提供了保障。

Before the Qin state was strong, its threat mainly came from the nomads in the west, and the Qin state also rose in the struggle with these nomads. During the spring and Autumn period, the state of Qin mainly fought against Xirong, which greatly weakened the threat of Xirong. During the Warring States period, the army of Yiqu was annexed, which made the rear area of the Qin state free from threat. Therefore, in the Warring States period, the threat of Qin state basically came from the eastern region of Guandong, so it formed a situation of "blocking three sides and defending, only one side dominating the princes in the East". The annexation of Xirong area also made the state of Qin have a natural place to raise horses, and "there are raccoons in the north, which can be used to replace horses", providing a guarantee for the establishment of a strong cavalry.

  秦国在地理上另外一大优势就是拥有两大农业产区,为战争提供了充足的粮食保障。关中地区,位于渭河流域,地势平坦,沃野千里,十分适合于农业生产,因此被称为“天府之国”。变法时期,颁布“垦令”,鼓励农耕,招徕移民,大大促进了关中地区农业的开发。战国后期,渠修建,“溉泽卤之地四万余顷,收皆亩一钟,于是关中为沃野,无凶年,秦以富强”。另外一大农业区是巴蜀。前316年,秦国灭吞并巴蜀。此国在这里不断进行开发,有著名的父子修建了,使得成都平原成为了第二个“天府之国”。

Another geographical advantage of Qin state is that it has two major agricultural production areas, which provides sufficient food security for the war. Guanzhong area, located in the Weihe River Basin, is flat and fertile, which is very suitable for agricultural production, so it is called "land of abundance". During the reform period, the "reclamation order" was issued to encourage farming and attract immigrants, which greatly promoted the development of agriculture in Guanzhong area. In the late Warring States period, the canal was built to "irrigate more than 40000 hectares of bittern and harvest an acre of land for one hour. Therefore, Guanzhong was a fertile area without a bad year and Qin was rich and strong.". Another big agricultural area is Bashu. In 316 BC, the state of Qin annexed Bashu. This country is developing continuously here, and famous father and son have built it, which makes Chengdu Plain become the second "land of abundance".

  成都平原

Chengdu Plain

  和秦国相比,关东六国基本平原相连,缺乏秦国的优势。魏国虽然占据的平原地区较多,但是处于,又险可守,导致兵力分散。最终魏国因为周边的齐、秦、楚进攻而衰落。燕赵大地多山区,虽然可以俯瞰天下,但是农业生产不够稳定,同时也面临齐国的威胁。齐国地处山东半岛,但是也同时和燕、赵、魏接壤,最终因为五国联合进攻而衰落。楚国虽然面积大,但是境内土地大多数没有得到开发,出现了的局面。楚国北部边界线太长,同时要防御秦、魏、齐三大强国,也造成兵力分散。而太小,没有多少竞争力。

Compared with the Qin state, the six countries in the east of Guandong are connected by the basic plains, lacking the advantages of the Qin state. Although the state of Wei occupied a lot of plain areas, it was in danger and could be defended, resulting in the dispersion of forces. Finally, Wei declined because of the attack of Qi, Qin and Chu. There are many mountainous areas in yanzhao, although overlooking the world, but the agricultural production is not stable, but also facing the threat of Qi. Qi is located in Shandong Peninsula, but it also borders Yan, Zhao and Wei, and finally declines because of the joint attack of the five countries. Although Chu state has a large area, most of its land has not been developed. The northern boundary line of Chu state is too long. At the same time, it needs to defend the three great powers of Qin, Wei and Qi, which also causes the dispersion of forces. And it's too small to be competitive.

  二,秦国的集权程度化最高

Second, the state of Qin has the highest degree of centralization

  时期,各国在政治上的总体发展趋势就是分封制不断被中央集权制取代,贵族制度逐渐被官僚制度取代。分封制度严重削弱了国家的力量,因此进入战国后,各国都推行了大规模的改革,魏国有李悝变法、楚国有变法、齐国有新政等。不过列国的变法中,秦国是最彻底的。

During this period, the general trend of political development in various countries was that the system of enfeoffment was constantly replaced by the centralized system, and the aristocratic system was gradually replaced by the bureaucratic system. The system of enfeoffment seriously weakened the power of the state, so after entering the Warring States period, many countries carried out large-scale reforms, including Li Xuan's reform, Chu's reform and Qi's new deal. However, among the reforms of other countries, Qin is the most thorough.

  商鞅

Shang Yang

  商鞅变法的一个核心就是加强集权。他经济上废除了公社残余的,推行了土地私有制,也就瓦解了贵族的经济基础;废除分封制,推行了郡县制,使得地方垂直控制于君主的手中;实行“一法而治”,也就是废除了过去“刑不上大夫”的礼治,加强了君主和国家的权威;废除旧,推行军功授爵制,也就是将贵族世袭的权力取缔了。这些政策,使得秦国的贵族势力遭到了惨重的打击,而君主的专制得到了加强。君主专制,中央集权,也就有利于集中国家的人力、物力、财力,进行了大规模的工程建设,也可以进行了大规模的对外征战。

The core of Shang Yang's reform is to strengthen centralization of power. He abolished the remnants of the commune and the private ownership of land, which broke the economic foundation of the aristocracy; he abolished the system of enfeoffment and the system of counties, which made the local area controlled vertically in the hands of the monarch; he implemented "one law for governance", that is to say, he abolished the rule of etiquette, which was not punishable by a great man in the past, and strengthened the authority of the monarch and the state; he abolished the old system and carried out the system of conferring military titles, that is to say The hereditary power of the nobility was abolished. These policies made the aristocratic forces of the state of Qin suffered a heavy blow, and the autocracy of the monarch was strengthened. Autocratic monarchy and centralized power are conducive to the concentration of the country's human, material and financial resources, the construction of large-scale projects and the large-scale foreign wars.

  郑国渠

Zhengguoqu

  商鞅变法的另外一个核心就是“一民”政策,也就是严格控制平民的生产、生产、思想。“一民”的方法在于操纵赏罚的杠杆,“开必得之门,明必死之路”,通过一些非常手段来引导百姓顺从。“赏”是利用民众的功利心理来进行诱导,“罚”就是使用强制措施进行禁止。农战政策就是“一民”政策的具体体现,他想规定百姓必须从事于农业或者战争,严厉打击工商业、业等。通过参战,可以得到了更多的物质、权力奖励。为防止百姓偏离“一民”轨道,就出台严刑峻法来限制。农战政策一是提高了秦国的粮食产量,二是提高了军队的战斗力,民之见战也,如饿狼之见肉”,成为了的“虎狼之师”。秦国的国家基本为农业和战争服务,演变为战争机器。

Another core of Shang Yang's reform is the policy of "one people", that is, to strictly control the production, production and thought of civilians. The method of "one people" is to manipulate the lever of reward and punishment, "open the door that must be obtained, clear the road that must be dead", and guide the people to obey through some special means. "Reward" is to use people's utilitarian psychology to induce, "punishment" is to use coercive measures to prohibit. The agricultural war policy is the concrete embodiment of the "one people" policy. He wants to stipulate that the people must be engaged in agriculture or war, and severely crack down on industry, commerce and industry. Through participating in the war, we can get more material and power rewards. In order to prevent the people from deviating from the "one people" track, severe punishment laws have been issued to limit it. The agricultural war policy first increased the grain production of Qin, and second increased the combat effectiveness of the army. The people saw the war, such as the hungry wolf saw the meat, and became the "tiger wolf division". The state of Qin basically served for agriculture and war, and evolved into a war machine.

  秦法

Qin fa

  商鞅被车裂之后,商鞅制定的制度和法令得到了长期的贯彻和执行。直到建立了,其基本的政策依然沿用了商鞅制定的政策。《》给了商鞅变法十分肯定的评价:“行之十年,秦民大说,道不拾遗,山无盗贼,家给人足。民勇於公战,怯於私斗,乡邑大治”。不过这种所谓“秦民大说”乃是变法最初的带来的效果,这种政策长期推行必然带来“天下苦秦久矣”的反面作用。

After Shangyang was split, the system and laws formulated by Shangyang have been implemented and implemented for a long time. Until it was established, its basic policies still follow the policies formulated by Shang Yang. The book gives Shang Yang a very positive evaluation of the reform: "in the ten years of traveling, Qin Minda said that there is no trace of the road, no thief in the mountain, and enough for everyone. The people are brave in the public war, timid in the private struggle, and the town is under great governance. ". However, the so-called "Qin people's great theory" is the result of the initial reform. The long-term implementation of this policy will inevitably bring about the negative effect of "the world has been suffering for a long time".

  和秦国相比,关东六国的改革就显得不那么的彻底和激进了,其中齐、楚两国保留了大量的分封制残余,国内的力量难以统筹。根据发现,关东六国的墓葬从君主到平民呈现几个等级差距,而秦国的墓葬则是君主墓葬独大,这恰恰反应了东方六国的君主权威还未达到高度的集中。如楚国,严重威胁到了贵族利益,最终被处死,变法也被废除。战国中后期,“齐有孟尝,赵有平原,楚有春申,魏有信陵”等封君,他们拥有很大的权威,甚至高于君主,这就是分封制残余代表。

Compared with the Qin state, the reform of the six countries in Guandong is not so thorough and radical, in which Qi and Chu retain a large number of remnants of the enfeoffment system, and domestic forces are difficult to coordinate. According to the findings, the tombs of the six countries in Guandong show several hierarchical differences from the monarch to the common people, while the tombs of Qin are the only ones, which just reflects that the monarch authority of the six countries in the East has not reached a high concentration. For example, the Chu state seriously threatened the interests of the nobility, and was finally executed, and the reform was abolished. In the middle and later period of the Warring States period, "there were Mengshi in Qi, Pingyuan in Zhao, Chunshen in Chu and Xinling in Wei". They had great authority, even higher than the monarch, which was the residual representative of the enfeoffment system.

  三,国家政策的连贯性和持续性

Third, coherence and sustainability of national policies

  在君主国家,君主对一个国家的发展起到相当关键的作用。这方面,秦国无疑是相对幸运的,秦国从开始,经历的惠文王、、昭襄王、庄襄王、秦始皇都是十分出色的君主。这也就是避免了秦国在某一代出现崩溃和大面积腐败的局面。这一点,东方六国就没那么幸运了。楚国从开始,基本都是昏庸无能之君,齐国从开始就基本是庸君,魏国只有战国初期的才算一带雄主,之后的君主严么昏庸,要么出现了重大的失误,而燕赵出色的君主只有和灵王。

In a monarchy, the monarch plays a key role in the development of a country. In this respect, the state of Qin is undoubtedly relatively lucky. From the beginning, the experienced kings of Huiwen, Zhaoxiang, Zhuangxiang and Qinshihuang are all outstanding monarchs. This is to avoid the collapse and widespread corruption of Qin in a certain generation. At this point, the six Eastern countries are not so lucky. From the beginning of Chu state, it was basically the fatuous and incompetent monarch. From the beginning of Qi State, it was the fatuous monarch. Only in the early Warring States period did Wei state count as the leader of the area. Later, the monarch was Yan Mo fatuous, or made a major mistake, while the outstanding monarch of Yanzhao was he Lingwang.

  秦孝公

Qin Xiaogong

  国家的君主没有远见,不仅严重削弱了国家的实力,也导致外交政策的不稳定。秦国强大起来后,形成了“合纵”和“连横”斗争的局面。“合纵”就是关东六国形成联盟共同对付秦国,“连横”就是秦国拉拢东方一国来破坏“合纵”。在初期,合纵多次显示出了力量,前296年,联合齐、魏、韩伐秦,秦国被迫归还侵占的土地。但是合纵的政策并没有得到坚持,后来楚国背叛联盟,导致齐楚联盟破灭,楚国被齐、秦两国进攻,实力衰落。此后的合众都是不成气候的。

The lack of vision of the monarch not only seriously weakened the strength of the country, but also led to the instability of foreign policy. After Qin became strong, a situation of "United vertical" and "United horizontal" struggle was formed. "He Zong" means that the six countries of Guandong form an alliance to deal with the Qin state together, and "Lian Heng" means that the Qin State draws one country from the east to destroy the "he Zong". In the early stage, he Zong showed his strength for many times. In 296 BC, he United Qi, Wei and Han to attack Qin, and Qin was forced to return the occupied land. However, the policy of alliance was not maintained. Later, Chu betrayed the alliance, leading to the collapse of the alliance. Chu was attacked by Qi and Qin, and its strength declined. Since then, there has been no community.

  秦国君主一直坚持扶持东方弱国以进攻强国的政策。在魏国遭到打击后,魏国主要成为了秦国的连横对象,有了魏国作为缓冲,六国就难以直接进攻秦国。齐国则是秦国连横针对的对象,虽然秦国并未直接出兵攻打齐国,但是连横以抗衡齐国是基本方针。前284年,带领燕、赵、楚、韩、魏五国攻齐,导致齐国衰落,这是战国局势变化的关键一次战役,也标志着秦国的连横战略取得了胜利。此后,秦国又转而采取“”的政策,稳住齐国,各个击破。

The monarch of Qin has always insisted on the policy of supporting the weak countries in the east to attack the powerful countries. After the state of Wei was attacked, the state of Wei became the main target of the state of Qin. With the state of Wei as a buffer, it is difficult for the six states to directly attack the state of Qin. The state of Qi is the target of Lian Heng. Although the state of Qin did not directly send troops to attack Qi, Lian Heng's basic policy was to fight against Qi. In 284 BC, he led the five kingdoms of Yan, Zhao, Chu, Han and Wei to attack Qi, which led to the decline of Qi. This was a key battle for the change of the situation in the Warring States period, and also marked the victory of the strategy of the Qin state. Since then, the state of Qin has turned to adopt the policy of "" to stabilize the state of Qi and break each other.

  人才是战国不可多得的资源,各国都兴起养士之风,所谓“天下诸侯方欲力争,竞招英雄,以自辅翼。此乃得士则昌,失士则亡之秋也”。而秦国本土由于文化相对落后,造成了人才的缺乏。不过秦国却广泛地引进他国人才,秦孝公时有商鞅、惠文王时、昭襄王时有、时有、等,这些人才都来自于他国,但是为秦国效力。嬴政时,曾下达“”,李斯于是上《谏逐客书》,论述了他国人才对秦国的重要性,让嬴政收回了命令。

Talent is a rare resource in the Warring States period. There is a growing trend of supporting people in various countries. The so-called "all the princes in the world want to fight for heroes to support themselves.". This is the autumn when a man gains wealth and a man loses wealth. However, the local culture of Qin is relatively backward, resulting in the lack of talents. However, Qin introduced talents from other countries extensively, such as Shang Yang, Hui Wenwang, Zhao Xiangwang, and so on. These talents all came from other countries but worked for Qin. At the time of Ying Zheng's reign, Li Si issued a letter of "remonstrating and pursuing guests" to discuss the importance of talents from other countries to Qin state, which made Ying Zheng withdraw his order.

  关东六国则不同。魏国曾是人才大国,魏文侯因为重用人才而强大,但是之后的吴起、商鞅、张仪、范雎、都被排挤出魏国,人才流失严重。齐国是战国时代的人才聚集地,但是他们多研究学术活动,很少参与政治活动,对国家大政方针很难起到作用。在燕昭王时广招贤才,但是却主要用于攻伐齐国,此后的君主也没有类似行为。

The six countries in Guandong are different. Wei was once a great country of talents. Wei Wenhou was powerful because of the importance of talents. But later, Wu Qi, Shang Yang, Zhang Yi and fan Ju were all excluded from Wei, and the brain drain was serious. Qi was a place for talents in the Warring States period, but they studied more academic activities and seldom participated in political activities, which was difficult to play a role in the national policies. In Yan Zhaowang's time, he recruited talents widely, but mainly used to attack the state of Qi. Since then, the monarchs have no similar behavior.

  秦国总体的政策较好,富有持续性,因此秦国在战国时代的疆域就不断扩大。到了战国中期,秦国的面积已经仅次于楚国,人口达到了500万,和楚国相当。而其他六国在面积上和人口上难以和秦国抗衡。随着秦国在军事上、外交上的不断胜利,最终秦国在后形成了独霸的局面,的形势已不可逆转。

The overall policy of Qin is good and sustainable, so the territory of Qin in the Warring States period is expanding. By the middle of the Warring States period, the area of Qin state was second only to that of Chu state, with a population of 5 million, equivalent to that of Chu state. The other six countries are hard to compete with Qin in area and population. With the continuous military and diplomatic victories of Qin state, Qin state finally formed a situation of hegemony, which is irreversible.

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