孔子周游列国十四年之久 为什么他唯独没有去过秦国呢-看世界

孔子周游列国十四年之久 为什么他唯独没有去过秦国呢

  鲁定公十四年(前496),已是高龄的孔子离开了自己的故乡鲁国,前往卫国,并开始了一段长达十四年的对列国的“考察”。孔子带领他的弟子,先后到达了卫国、曹国、宋国、郑国、陈国、蔡国、楚国等国家,面见一些国家的国君,抒发自己的政治见解。可能会有些读者朋友们有这样的疑惑:“为什么周游列国十四年的孔子,唯独没有去秦国呢?”

  为什么不去秦国,这是很多读者都比较关心的问题,接下来就和各位读者一起来了解,给大家一个参考。

Why not go to the state of Qin? This is a question that many readers are concerned about. Next, we will work with you to understand and give you a reference.

  十四年(前496),已是高龄的孔子离开了自己的故乡,前往,并开始了一段长达十四年的对列国的“考察”。孔子带领他的弟子,先后到达了卫国、、、、陈国、、等国家,面见一些国家的国君,抒发自己的政治见解。可能会有些读者朋友们有这样的疑惑:“为什么十四年的孔子,唯独没有去秦国呢?”

Fourteen years ago (496 BC), Confucius left his hometown, went to, and began a period of 14 years of "investigation" to the other countries. Confucius led his disciples to the Wei, the,,, the Chen, and other countries, where they met with the monarchs of some countries and expressed their political opinions. Some readers may have such doubts: "why didn't Confucius go to the state of Qin for 14 years?"

  一、夸大其词,望文生义

I. exaggeration

  可能从“列国”这两个字,有些读者朋友就认为孔子把东周时所有国家跑遍了,而因为秦国和《孔子历史地图集》内没有记载孔子去过秦国,因此会脑补成“因为秦国是蛮夷小国,重视礼乐制度的孔子不屑于前往,所以孔子没有动身前往秦国。”

Maybe from the words of "other countries", some readers think that Confucius ran all the countries in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, but because there is no record that Confucius has been to the Qin State in the Qin State and the Historical Atlas of Confucius, they will make up the following sentence: "because the Qin state is a small country of barbarians, Confucius, who attaches great importance to the etiquette and music system, doesn't care about going there, so Confucius didn't leave for the Qin state."

  但事实不是这样的,首先,作为我国最伟大的教育家之一,孔夫子是很喜欢“教诲”学生的,从他倡导“有教无类”、创办私学、广收学生就可以看出,他是很喜欢当“老师”的,因此没有去秦国并不是因为鄙视秦人,也不是视他们为“蛮夷”而不想传化他们。其二,从《孔子历史地图集》中孔子与弟子周游列国的路线可以看出,他的考察范围主要是鲁国附近的国家,而且大部分是小国,“周游列国”说得有些夸张,因为孔子与其弟子并没有去往所有的诸侯国,也没有“唯独”秦国没去,比如,孔子也只是望河生叹:“美哉!水洋洋乎,丘之不济,命也夫!”却连黄河也没有渡过。

But it's not true. First of all, as one of the greatest educators in our country, Confucius likes "teaching" students very much. From his advocacy of "teaching without class", the establishment of private schools and the wide acceptance of students, we can see that he likes to be a "teacher". Therefore, he didn't go to Qin because he despised the Qin people or regarded them as "barbarians" and didn't want to spread them 。 Secondly, it can be seen from the route of Confucius and his disciples traveling around the world in the Historical Atlas of Confucius that his inspection scope is mainly the countries near the state of Lu, and most of them are small countries. It's a bit exaggerated that Confucius and his disciples didn't go to all the vassal states, nor did they go to the state of Qin alone. For example, Confucius just looked at Hesheng and sighed:“ Beautiful! The water is vast, the hills are not good, life is not good! "But even the Yellow River has not crossed.

  上图为孔子人生轨迹,数字是年龄

The figure above shows Confucius' life track, and the number is age

  二、西陲多战,道阻且长

2. There are many battles in the western border, and the road is blocked and long

  秦国发迹于西陲,自立国以来,这个国家便一直处于战事之中。时,大破西戎,得封祖地;时,襄公护送迁都有功,受封岐山以西之地,秦始建国;时,“文公以兵伐戎,戎败走。於是文公遂收周馀民有之,地至岐,岐以东献之周”,秦人真正掌握自己的土地;时,秦国制定东出之策,高速发展的秦国遇到了同样有之志的宿敌晋国,双方磕磕碰碰又是百年战事,可以说这个自西陲而起的国家,从来没有安分过,而是一直在“修我戈矛,与子同袍。”

The state of Qin, which originated in the west, has been in war since it established itself. At that time, he broke Xirong and was granted the ancestral land; at that time, Xianggong had the honor of escorting and moving the capital, which was the land to the west of Qishan and was founded in Qin Dynasty; at that time, "Wengong fought for the army and the army was defeated. When the state of Qin formulated the policy of going east, the rapid development of the state of Qin met the same determined old enemy, Jin State, and the two sides bumped and bumped for another hundred years. It can be said that this country, starting from the western border, has never settled down, but has been "building our spears and swords, and sharing with our children" Robe. "

  孔子周游列国之际,秦国正是秦惠公为国君,此时的秦国国势并不好,一方面秦穆公开创的霸业局面已经不复存在,秦国发展受晋国阻挠,另一方面天下也不太平,这段时间战事频发不说,很多国家都面临着政局不稳的问题,许多卿大夫掌握实权,很多国家政令瘫痪,其中秦东出之门户晋国就是典例,朝中六卿权力膨胀,互相诘难。孔子也不是没有动前往秦国的念头,但中途还是放弃了,其根本原因就在于路程太长了,孔子等人哪怕走在鲁国周边的国家都能遭遇不测,不是被恶意囚禁,就是缺粮挨饿,更别说前往远在千里之外的秦国,这条路上是何等凶险,都是未知数。

When Confucius traveled around the world, Qin was the king of Qin Huigong. At that time, the state of Qin was not in a good position. On the one hand, the hegemony created by Qin Mugong was no longer there. The development of Qin was blocked by Jin, and on the other hand, the world was not peaceful. During this period of time, wars happened frequently. Many countries were faced with unstable political situation. Many officials held real power and many countries were in politics To paralyze, Jin Kingdom, the gateway of Qin Dong, is a typical example. Six Qing's power expands and they question each other. Confucius didn't want to go to the state of Qin, but he gave up in the middle of the journey. The root cause is that the journey is too long. Even if Confucius and others walk around the country of Lu, they can encounter accidents. They are either imprisoned maliciously or starved. Let alone go to the state of Qin thousands of miles away. How dangerous the road is is unknown.

  三、为政以德,不符霸业

Third, to be political and virtuous is not in line with hegemony

  孔子周游列国,不仅在于传道、授业、解惑,其实他最大的愿望还是希望能在一国之君的赏识重用下,展现自己的政治抱负,让自己理想中的“大同”社会重新取代乱世。但孔子提出的“礼”“仁”都过于超前了,也不符合当时兼并战争的背景,因此孔子处处碰壁,到的很多国家都只是“敬而不用”,的孔子最后还是回到了鲁国,潜心致力于教育事业。

Confucius traveled around the world, not only to preach, teach and solve puzzles, but also to show his political ambition under the recognition and reuse of the king of a country, so that his ideal "Datong" society can replace the troubled times. However, the "Rites" and "benevolence" proposed by Confucius were too advanced, and did not meet the background of the merger war at that time. Therefore, Confucius ran into walls everywhere, and many countries he went to were just "respect but not use". Finally, Confucius returned to the state of Lu and devoted himself to the cause of education.

  而在这段时期,最受列国欢迎的是法家思想,通过国家推行变法,能够迅速提升整个国家的经济与军事实力,还能转移国内矛盾。毕竟这段时间内,各国不断发动战争,大国兼并小国,国君剥夺旧贵族权势,这些都离不开法家思想的支持,战国初期的、后期的秦国,都是变法成功的典例。而孔子与其弟子倡导的“仁”、“仁政”、“为政以德”等思想,与国君们崇尚的霸道、王道不符。所以就算孔子最后真的到了秦国,相比也会被奉为座上宾,但绝不重用吧。

In this period, legalist thought is the most popular among the countries. Through the implementation of reform, the economic and military strength of the whole country can be rapidly improved, and domestic conflicts can be transferred. After all, in this period of time, all countries have been waging wars, big countries annexing small countries, and monarchs depriving the old aristocracy of power. All these are inseparable from the support of legalist thought. The early and late Qin states of the Warring States period are examples of successful reform. Confucius and his disciples advocated "benevolence", "benevolence" and "morality for the government", which were not in line with the tyranny and kingliness advocated by the monarchs. So even if Confucius finally came to Qin, he would be regarded as the guest of honor, but he would never be used again.

  孔子不仅是我国最伟大的教育家之一,同时他也可以位列最伟大的政治家之一。的乱世之争让孔子与他所主张的“仁政”、“德政”没有施展的空间,但在他主持鲁国国政期间,鲁国大治,国力得到加强的同时,就连强大的也畏惧孔子的才能。原本孔子周游列国时要去往晋国,却因为楚国忌惮有了孔子国会重拾霸业,因此暗中阻挠。最终孔子回到鲁国潜心教学,再不出仕。

Confucius is not only one of the greatest educators in China, but also one of the greatest politicians. During his reign of the state of Lu, the power of the state of Lu was strengthened, and even the powerful were afraid of Confucius' ability. Originally, Confucius would go to Jin when he traveled around the world, but because Chu was afraid of having Confucius Congress to regain hegemony, he secretly blocked. Finally, Confucius returned to the state of Lu to devote himself to teaching and never to be an official again.

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