揭秘贞观之治的真相 这个盛世真的是一个虚假的吗-看世界

揭秘贞观之治的真相 这个盛世真的是一个虚假的吗

  唐太宗李世民,陇西成纪(今甘肃省秦安县)人。唐朝的第二位皇帝,杰出的政治家、战略家、军事家、诗人,唐高祖李渊的嫡次子,母为太穆皇后窦氏。

  很多人都不了解历史上的虚假盛世的事情,接下来跟着小编一起欣赏。

A lot of people don't know about the false golden age in history. Let's enjoy it with Xiaobian.

  唐太宗,陇西成纪(今甘肃省秦安县)人。的第二位,杰出的政治家、战略家、军事家、诗人,的嫡次子,母为。

Taizong of Tang Dynasty was born in the Chengji period of Longxi (now Qin'an County, Gansu Province). The second son and mother of an outstanding politician, strategist, strategist and poet.

  唐太宗在位期间,任人廉能,知人善用;,尊重生命,自我克制,虚心纳谏;并采取了以农为本,厉行节约,休养生息,文教复兴,完善制度等政策,使得社会出现了安定的局面;并大力平定外患,尊重边族风俗,稳固边疆,最终取得天下大治的理想局面。

During the reign of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, he was honest, knowledgeable and good at using; he respected life, self-restraint and accepted advice with modesty; he adopted policies such as agriculture-oriented, strict economy, recuperation, cultural and educational rejuvenation and system improvement, which made the society stable; he made great efforts to pacify foreign invasion, respect border customs, stabilize border areas, and finally achieved the ideal situation of world governance.

  因其时年号为“贞观” ,出自《易·系辞下》:“天地之道,贞观者也。”意即:以正道示人。所以,他统治的这一时期史称“”。

At that time, it was named "Zhenguan", which came from the book of changes: the way of heaven and earth, so did Zhenguan That is to say: show people the right way. Therefore, the history of his reign is called.

  后世之人一直认为:贞观之治是唐朝初年唐太宗在位期间出现的清明政治,经济复苏,文化繁荣的局面。

Later generations have always believed that the governance of Zhenguan was the situation of Qing Ming politics, economic recovery and cultural prosperity during the reign of Emperor Taizong in the early Tang Dynasty.

  且在《》中有这样的叙述,大意如下:“贞观四年,市场上的米价为每斗四钱到五钱,外出几个月的百姓均无需闭户,街面上随处可见牛马等牲畜,百姓外出几千里都无需储备干粮。”从这段记载可以看出,贞观四年的时候,唐朝的生产力已经达到了鼎盛,至少已从此前的战乱中有了根本性的复苏。

And there is such a narrative in Zhenguan. The general idea is as follows: "in the four years of Zhenguan, the price of rice on the market is four to five yuan per bushel. People who go out for several months do not need to close their houses. Cattle, horses and other livestock can be seen everywhere on the street. People do not need to store dry food for thousands of miles." It can be seen from this record that in the four years of Zhenguan, the productivity of the Tang Dynasty had reached its peak, at least it had a fundamental recovery from the previous war.

  熟悉经济学的朋友都知道,用粮食价格来衡量社会状况显然是不准确的,也不具备说服力。用《汉书》中的一句话来反证,就是“籴甚贵,伤民;甚贱,伤农。民伤则离散,农伤则国贫。”大意为:粮食的价格低得不合理,就会使农民的根本利益受到损害;粮食的价格高得离谱,更会危害社会的经济命脉。

Friends who are familiar with economics all know that it is obviously not accurate or convincing to use grain prices to measure social conditions. To counter it with a sentence in the book of Han, it means that "buying is very expensive, hurting the people; buying is very cheap, hurting the farmers.". People's injuries are scattered, while agriculture's injuries are poor. " If the price of grain is too low and unreasonable, the fundamental interests of farmers will be damaged; if the price of grain is too high, it will even endanger the economic lifeline of society.

  因此,粮食的价格处于不正常水平,这说明:贞观四年王朝的政绩仍是不成功的,反倒有可能造成大规模的经济危机。更何况,唐朝时期的首都很难出现每斗米四钱的怪事。想要了解真相,我们不妨继续拿《新唐书》中的内容来举例。

Therefore, the price of grain is at an abnormal level, which shows that the achievements of Zhenguan's four-year Dynasty are still unsuccessful, but may cause a large-scale economic crisis. What's more, it's hard for the capital of Tang Dynasty to have the strange phenomenon of four yuan per Dou of rice. To understand the truth, we can continue to take the content of the new Tang Dynasty book as an example.

  在《新唐书》的某部分中,有这样的记载,意为:唐朝时期的长安附近的土地虽然肥沃,但是,可供耕种的土地非常稀少,根本无法满足都城的日常需要。

In a part of the book of the new Tang Dynasty, there is such a record, which means that although the land near Chang'an in the Tang Dynasty was fertile, the land available for cultivation was very scarce, which could not meet the daily needs of the capital at all.

  因此,长安的粮食往往需要通过漕运这种方式从各个地方调运。

Therefore, Chang'an's grain often needs to be transported from various places by water transport.

  众所周知,漕运粮食需要耗费相当数量的运费,由于唐朝时期的交通不便,通常一斗米的运输成本要达到三钱左右。按照《新唐书》中,长安每斗米仅需四钱的说法来看,莫非这些粮食在出产地售卖的价格仅需一文一斗?显然这是不符合常理的,这也是《新唐书》中自相矛盾的地方。

As we all know, grain transportation by water costs a considerable amount of freight. Due to the inconvenient transportation in Tang Dynasty, the transportation cost of a bucket of rice is usually about three yuan. According to the saying in the new Tangshu that Chang'an only needs four yuan for a bucket of rice, is it possible that the price of these grains sold in the place of production is only one paper per bucket? Obviously, this is not in line with the common sense, and this is also the contradictory place in the new Tangshu.

  “长安米贵”这句话,用来形容唐朝时期的长安经济再合适不过。

The sentence "Mi GUI in Chang'an" is suitable to describe the economy of Chang'an in Tang Dynasty.

  早年,拜访前辈时,就曾听到过“长安米贵,居大不易”,这样的风凉话。此外,贞元年间有据可考的关中最高米价为每斗千钱,而当时长安地区储备粮最大的粮仓——太仓,仅储备了供天子六宫食用十天的粮食。从唐太宗到,短短几十年,米价就从四钱涨到千钱,显然这也是不符逻辑的。

In the early years, when I visited my predecessors, I heard such cool words as "rice is expensive in Chang'an, and it's hard to live in a big place". In addition, the highest rice price in Guanzhong was 1000 yuan per bushel. At that time, Taicang, the largest grain storehouse in Chang'an area, only stored food for the sixth palace of the emperor for ten days. From Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, in just a few decades, the price of rice has risen from four yuan to one thousand yuan, which is obviously illogical.

  其实,贞元年间,长安地区粮食的价格也曾创过“历史新低”,这是一次的特例。

In fact, during the Zhengyuan period, the price of grain in Chang'an region also hit a "new historical low", which is a special case.

  根据相关的史料记载,贞元初年宰相陆贽曾建议朝廷向民间购买低价米,扩充太仓的粮食储备。随后,朝廷就在关中地区收购了大量的谷子,而这些未脱壳的谷子仍需七十钱一斗。在高宗登基之初,且史书中明确记载的“谷贱”时期,谷价就已达到了七十钱一斗,与前文中所提的贞观年间米价四钱相距甚远。

According to the relevant historical records, Lu Zhi, the prime minister in the early years of Zhengyuan Dynasty, suggested that the court buy low-cost rice from the people and expand the grain reserve of Taicang. Later, the imperial court purchased a large number of grains in Guanzhong area, and those grains that were not shelled still needed 70 yuan for a fight. At the beginning of Emperor Gaozong's accession to the throne, and during the period of "low price of rice" clearly recorded in historical books, the price of rice had reached 70 yuan a battle, which was far from the price of rice in Zhenguan period mentioned above.

  拨开重重迷雾,我们不妨继续推敲。在《新唐书》中,不可信的数字究竟说明了什么?笔者认为:完全是史官从中伪饰,所以,才为后人呈现了“米价四钱”的荒诞笑话。我们仅通过此一事,就有充足的理由怀疑发生在初唐时期的那场盛世。

Clear the fog, we may as well continue our deliberation. In the book of the new Tang Dynasty, what does the untrustworthy figures show? The author believes that it is the Historiographer who pretends to act as a fake, so it presents the absurd joke of "rice is worth four coins" for later generations. Through this event alone, we have good reason to suspect that it happened in the early Tang Dynasty.

  那么,一个国家的国力究竟如何?

So, what is the national strength of a country?

  仅靠史官寥寥数笔是无法详细叙述的,还需看外人的评价。当时与唐朝交情匪浅的王鞠文泰,曾说过这样的话:“往吾入朝,见秦、陇之北,城邑萧条,非复有隋之比也。”

It can't be described in detail only by a few historiographers. It needs to see the evaluation of outsiders. At that time, Wang Ju Wentai, who had a good relationship with Tang Dynasty, once said: "when I entered the dynasty, I saw the north of Qin and long, the city was depressed, and there was no comparison between Sui and Sui."

  那么,这句话是什么意思呢?

So what does that mean?

  无非就是说:初唐的经济水平比不上前朝罢了。

In other words, the economic level of the early Tang Dynasty was not comparable to that of the previous dynasty.

  实际上,终李世民的一辈子,也没能让唐朝的经济追赶上,在人口上更是与隋朝相距甚远。在李世民驾崩三年后,某日,曾向户部官员询问今年人口的增长量,偶然得知,隋朝时期全国总人口有八百余万户,而如今唐朝人口仅有不到四百万户。

In fact, in his whole life, Li Shimin failed to catch up with the economy of the Tang Dynasty and was far away from the Sui Dynasty in terms of population. Three years after Li Shimin's death, one day, he asked the officials of the Ministry of housing about the population growth of this year. He came to know by chance that there were more than 8 million households in the Sui Dynasty, compared with less than 4 million in the Tang Dynasty.

  由此可见,李世民奋斗了一辈子,也没能让国家的人口追赶上前朝,甚至连一半都不如。

It can be seen that Li Shimin has been fighting for his whole life, but he has not been able to make the country's population catch up with the former dynasty, or even half of it.

  伪造盛世古而有之,其实,早在贞观之前,就已有统治者通过这种方式为自己的王朝贴金了,相比之下,唐朝只能算作“后来者”。在《晋纪总论》中,曾如此评价过太康时期的社会状况:

In fact, long before Zhenguan, rulers had already paid gold for their own dynasties in this way. In contrast, Tang Dynasty can only be regarded as "the latecomer". In Jin Ji zonglun, the social situation of Taikang period was evaluated as follows:

  “牛马被野,余粮栖亩,行旅草舍,外闾不闭,民相遇者如亲,其匮乏者取资于道路。”

"The cattle and horses are wild, the surplus grain is mu, and they travel in grass houses. The outer edge is not closed. The people who meet are like relatives. The people who are short of them take money from the road."

  那么,太康时期的国家真的如此繁盛吗?显然,这非常值得推敲。如果真的像这段内容中所说,太康又怎会三代而亡国呢?显然,这是不切实际的。

So, is Taikang really such a prosperous country? Obviously, it's worth considering. If it's true that Taikang will die for three generations, as mentioned in this paragraph, it's obviously unrealistic.

  由此看来,李世民不过是照搬了先人的套路,在史书中为自己的脸上贴金罢了。

From this point of view, Li Shimin just copied the way of his ancestors and put gold on his face in the history books.

  参考资料:

Reference:

  【《新唐书·志四十一》、《贞观政要·卷一·政体》、《》】

[zhi41, new Tangshu, Zhenguan politicians, Volume 1, government],]

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