后周太祖郭威简介 灭后汉诛隐帝 建立后周政权-看世界

后周太祖郭威简介 灭后汉诛隐帝 建立后周政权

  简介

  (904年9月10日-954年2月22日),邢州尧山(今邢台市隆尧县西)人,字文仲,小名“郭雀儿”,五代后周的建立者。郭威出身于贫苦人家,读过些书,知道民间疾苦。即位后,减轻赋税,削减严刑峻法,他生性节俭、虚心纳谏、他又能留心搜罗人才,所任用的魏仁浦、李毂、王溥、范质等人都能忠于职守,遵守法度,君臣合力,逐渐改革了一些弊政,使北方地区的经济,政治形势渐渐趋向好转。郭威在时期,是一个清廉勤政的好。去世后,因亲生儿子全都被刘承祐杀害,由妻侄柴荣继位。

From September 10, 904 to February 22, 954, he was born in Yaoshan, Xingzhou (now west of Longyao County, Xingtai City), with the word Wenzhong and the small name "Guo queer". He was the founder of the Later Zhou Dynasty of the Five Dynasties. Guo Wei was born in a poor family. He read some books and knew the hardships of the people. After assuming the throne, he reduced taxes and severe punishment. He was thrifty and modest, and he was able to look for talents. All the appointed Wei Renpu, Li Hu, Wang Pu, Fan Zhi and others were loyal to their duties, obeyed the law, and the monarchs and ministers worked together to gradually reform some bad policies, so that the economic and political situation in the northern region gradually tended to improve. Guo Wei in the period, is a clean and diligent good. After his death, all his sons were killed by Liu Chengyou, and his wife and nephew Chai Rong succeeded him.

  简介

Brief introduction

  邢州尧山(今河北省隆尧县西)人。年少时孤贫,初为军吏,后汉时拜为枢密副使。

Yao mountain, Xingzhou (now west of Longyao County, Hebei Province). When he was young, he was lonely and poor. At the beginning, he was an officer of the army. In the later Han Dynasty, he was worshipped as a privy deputy.

  公元948年,他奉命讨平了李守贞的叛乱,后封为邺都留守兼天雄军节度使。公元950年,后汉隐帝刘承祐猜忌他,派使者要到魏州杀郭威。郭威起兵反汉,下令攻进了京城,允许士兵大抢10天。7天后郭威进入汴京,纵军大肆抢掠,并逼任他为“监国”,夺得国政。公元951年正月丁卯日,他又称帝,国号大周,定都汴京,改元“广顺”,史称后周。 简介:郭威生年未详,卒于后周显德元年(公元954年)。五代时后周开国皇帝,庙号“太祖”。郭威字文仲,邢州尧山人,本姓常,幼时随母亲适郭氏,故改姓郭。父郭简曾为顺州刺史。刘文恭攻破顺州,郭简被杀,郭威年方数岁,其母不久也死去,郭威只得依潞州姨母韩氏为生。十八岁投潞州留守李继韬部下为军卒。

In 948 A.D., he was ordered to pacify Li ShouZhen's rebellion, and later became the left behind yedU and the commander of Tianxiong army. In 950 ad, Liu Chengyou, the hidden emperor of the later Han Dynasty, suspected him and sent an emissary to kill Guo Wei in Weizhou. Guo Wei set out to fight against Han Dynasty, ordered to invade the capital city, and allowed the soldiers to rob for 10 days. Seven days later, Guo Wei entered Bianjing, plundered by the army, and forced him to be the "supervisor" of the state and win the State Administration. In the first month of 951 A.D., Ding Maori was also called emperor. His country was named the great Zhou Dynasty, and his capital was Bianjing. He was changed to Guangshun and later Zhou Dynasty. Introduce: Guo Weisheng year is not detailed, die in the first year of Zhou Xiande (AD 954). During the Five Dynasties, the founding emperor of the Later Zhou Dynasty and the temple name "Taizu". Guo Wei is Wenzhong, from Yaoshan, Xingzhou. His surname is Chang. When he was a child, his mother took the surname of Guo, so he changed his surname to Guo. Guo Jian, the father, was a governor of shunzhou. Liu Wengong breaks through shunzhou, and Guo Jian is killed. Guo Wei is several years old, and his mother soon dies. Guo Wei has to live on Han's aunt in Luzhou. At the age of 18, he left Luzhou to serve as a soldier under Li Jitao.

  郭威勇武有力,豪爽负气,深为李继韬所赏识。有一次,郭威酒醉杀人,为官府拘押。李继韬暗中将其放走,后又招至麾下。后李继韬为唐庄宗所杀,其部众悉为收编。郭威因略通文墨、书算,升为军吏。及至后晋为契丹所灭,郭威归附部下。刘知远起兵太原,即位称帝,封郭威为执掌挥务的枢密副使,并在临终时将太子刘承祐托孤于郭威和史弘肇。刘知远在位一年便因病逝世。太子刘承祐即位,是为后汉隐帝,进封郭威为枢密使。当时河中节度使李守贞、永兴节度使赵思绾、凤翔节度使王景崇相继拥兵造反。朝廷屡次出兵讨伐,均无功而返。

Guo Wei is brave and powerful, straightforward and full of courage. He is deeply appreciated by Li Jitao. Once, Guo Wei was drunk and killed. He was detained by the government. Li Jitao secretly let him go, and then recruited him. Later, Li Jitao was killed by the emperor Zhuangzong of Tang Dynasty, and his department was accepted. Guo Wei was promoted to a military official because he had a good command of literature and calligraphy. When the later Jin Dynasty was destroyed by Khitan, Guo Wei was attached to his subordinates. Liu Zhiyuan started his army in Taiyuan and became emperor. He appointed Guo Wei as the deputy in charge of the military affairs. At the end of his life, Liu Chengyou, the crown prince, was entrusted to Guo Wei and Shi Hongzhao. Liu Zhiyuan died of illness after one year in office. The crown prince Liu Chengyou ascended the throne for the hidden emperor of the later Han Dynasty and granted Guo Wei the Privy envoy. At that time, Li ShouZhen, Zhao Siwan and Wang Jingchong, the governors of Hezhong, Yongxing and Fengxiang, supported the army to revolt one after another. The imperial court sent troops to fight for many times, but failed to return.

  隐帝刘承祐遂命郭威率兵出征。郭威至河中后立栅筑垒,分兵围困。李守贞屡次突围,均被挫败,相持日久,城中粮草俱尽。郭威遂下令四面攻打,一举攻进城中,李守贞自焚而死。永兴赵思绾、凤翔王景崇相继归降,使风雨飘摇的后汉政权转危为安。 之后,郭威又移师北伐,大败契丹,以功进封邺都留守、天雄军节度使,兼枢密使,河北诸州郡皆听郭威节制。 后汉隐帝与其宠臣对郭威等有功大将十分疑忌。于是隐帝与亲信李业密谋,诏令马军指挥使郭崇诛杀宣徽使王峻,郭威等;诏令镇宁军节度义诛杀侍卫步军指挥使王殷,以企一举铲除前朝旧将势力。不料李弘义反以诏书密示于王殷。王殷即派人向郭威告急。郭威见事情紧急,即采用谋士魏仁浦之计,伪作诏书,宣称隐帝令郭威诛杀诸位将领。于是群情激愤,推举郭威起兵讨伐,以“清君侧”。

Liu Chengyou, the hidden emperor, ordered Guo Wei to send his troops to the army. Guo Wei built a barricade in the middle of the river and besieged by soldiers. Li ShouZhen broke through the siege many times and was defeated. After a long time of stalemate, all the food and grass in the city were exhausted. Guo Wei then ordered the attack on all sides and attacked the city at one stroke. Li ShouZhen burned himself to death. Yongxing Zhao Siwan and Fengxiang Wang Jingchong returned one after another, which made the precarious regime of the later Han Dynasty safe. After that, Guo Wei moved to the Northern Expedition and defeated Qidan. He was granted the title of yedU garrison, the governor of Tianxiong army, and the emissary. All the counties in Hebei listened to Guo Wei's restraint. Later emperor Yin and his favorite officials were suspicious of Guo Wei and other great generals. So emperor Yin conspired with Li Ye, his close friend, to order the commander of Ma Jun, Guo Chongzhu, to kill Wang Jun and Guo Wei, the commander of xuanhui, and Wang Yin, the commander of bodyguard Bu Jun, the commander of Zhenning army, to eliminate the influence of the old generals of the previous Dynasty. However, Li Hongyi revealed the imperial edict to Wang Yin. Wang Yin sent someone to rush Guo Wei. When Guo Wei saw the emergency, he adopted the plan of Wei Renpu, a counselor, and pretended to make an imperial edict, claiming that the hidden emperor ordered Guo Wei to kill the generals. Therefore, the group was furious and recommended Guo Wei to start a crusade to "clear the monarch's side".

  隐帝见郭威起兵造反,并派兵抵御郭威。七里坡之战,后汉政府军战败,隐帝被郭允明所杀。郭威带兵入京,觐见太后,让太后临朝听政,并且假意拥立刘氏宗室武宁节度刘赟为帝,随后突然闻报契丹南下,于是率军北上抵御,途径澶州,士兵兵变黄袍加身,郭威返回汴梁,监国,不久正式登基称帝,改国号大周。

Emperor Yin saw Guo Wei set up a rebellion and sent troops against him. In the battle of qilipo, the army of the later Han Dynasty was defeated, and the hidden emperor was killed by Guo Yunming. Guo Wei led his troops to Beijing, met the empress dowager, and let the Empress Dowager face the court, and pretended to hold Liu Yun as the emperor in Wuling. Then he heard that Qidan was suddenly reported to go south, so he led the army to the north to resist, and through the way of Changzhou, the soldiers turned into yellow robes, and Guo Wei returned to Bianliang, where he was in charge of the country. Soon, he officially became the emperor and changed his name to Dazhou.

  郭威生于乱世,长于军伍,勇武有力,豪爽负气,略通兵法,善抚将士,以军功累迁至枢密使高位。终以军事实力为后盾,取后汉而代之,是五代时期军人专权的代表人物。

Guo Wei was born in the turbulent times. He was good at military service. He was brave and powerful. He was bold and upright. He was a little good at martial arts. He was good at caressing soldiers and moved to the high position of emissary with his military skills. Finally, it was the representative of the military dictatorship in the Five Dynasties with the military strength as the backing and the Han Dynasty as the successor.

  离世

Death

  公元954年正月,郭威病重。他自己知道难以恢复,便嘱咐养子柴荣(日后的)说:“我不行了,你赶 快替我修建陵墓,不要让灵柩留在宫中太久。陵墓务必从简,别去惊动,扰害百姓,不要用许多工匠,不要派宫人守陵,也用不着在陵墓前立上石人石兽,只要用纸衣装殓,用瓦棺作椁就可以了。安葬后,可以招募陵墓附近的百姓30户,蠲免他们的徭役,让他们守护陵墓。陵墓前替我立一块石碑,上面刻几句话,就说我平生习惯于节俭,遗诏命令用衣瓦棺。”又告诫郭荣说:“我从前西征时,见到帝王的十八座陵寝统统被人发掘、盗窃,这都是由于陵墓里藏着许多金银财宝的缘故,而汉文帝因为一贯节俭,简单地安葬在霸陵原上,陵墓到今天还完好无损。你到了每年的,可以派人来扫我的墓,如果不派人来,在京城里遥祭也可以。但是,你要叫人在河府(今河北省河间县)、魏府(今河北省大名市东南)各葬一副剑甲,在澶州(今河南省濮阳县)葬一件通天冠绛纱袍,在东京葬一件平天冠衮龙袍。这件事你切不可忘了。”接着,他大封群臣,命郭荣继位说:“我看当世的文才,莫过于范质、王溥,如今他俩并列为宰相,你有了好辅弼,我死也瞑目了。”当晚(壬辰日),郭威病死于汴京宫中的滋德殿。郭威死后的庙号为太祖。

In the first month of 954, Guo Wei was seriously ill. He knew it was hard to recover, so he asked his adopted son Chai Rong (later) to say, "I can't do it. Build a mausoleum for me as soon as possible, and don't leave the coffin in the palace for too long. The mausoleum must be simple, don't disturb the people, don't use many craftsmen, don't send palace people to guard the mausoleum, don't need to set up stone people and animals in front of the mausoleum, just use paper clothes to bury, and use tile coffins as coffins. After the burial, 30 households near the mausoleum can be recruited to avoid their corvee and let them guard the mausoleum. In front of the mausoleum, I set up a stone tablet with a few words engraved on it, saying that I was used to thrift all my life, and the imperial edict ordered me to use the yiwa coffin. " He also told Guo Rong, "when I was on the western expedition, I saw that all the 18 mausoleums of the emperor had been excavated and stolen. This was because there were many gold and silver treasures in the mausoleum. However, Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty simply buried them on the baling plain because of his thrift. The mausoleum is still intact today. When you arrive every year, you can send someone to sweep my tomb. If you don't send someone, you can also sacrifice in the capital. However, you need to have a pair of sword armour buried in Hefu (now Hejian County, Hebei Province) and Weifu (now Southeast of Daming City, Hebei Province), a Tongtian crown crimson robe buried in Chenzhou (now Puyang County, Henan Province), and a pingtian crown Dragon Robe buried in Tokyo. You must not forget it. " Then, he appointed Guo Rong to succeed his ministers and said, "I think there are no more literary talents in the world than Fan Zhi and Wang Pu. Now they are both prime ministers. If you have a good prime minister, I will die in peace." That night, Guo Wei died in Zide palace in Bianjing. The temple name of Guo Wei after his death is Taizu.

  评价

Evaluation

  郭威在位期间,对改革累朝弊政颇有成绩。免除后汉所设额外苛敛以及中唐以来地方官进奉的“羡余物色”;废止了后晋、后汉一些极残忍的刑法;民众与蕃人“一听私便交易”,诸州所差散从亲事官等,一齐遣散;对累朝极为严酷的盐、酒、皮革的禁令稍予放宽;废除京城内无名额的僧尼寺院等。对恢复农业生产,郭威也采取了有效措施。授无主田土给数十万归中原的幽州饥民,放免其差税。以田分给现佃户充永业 ,使编户增加3万多 。无主荒地听任农民耕垦为永业,提高农民生产的积极性。在提倡节俭、严惩贪官、严禁军队扰民等方面,郭威也推行了一些有益的措施,使唐末以来极为混乱的北方社会开始走上安定的道路。

During Guo Wei's reign, he made great achievements in the reform of the North Korea. In the later Han Dynasty, the extra strictness and the "envy and selection" of local officials since the Mid Tang Dynasty were exempted; some extremely cruel criminal laws of the later Jin and the later Han Dynasty were abolished; the people and the Tibetans "listened to the private trade", and the local officials were sent to disperse together; the ban on the extremely harsh salt, wine and leather of the tired Dynasty was slightly relaxed; and the unlimited monasteries and nuns in the capital were abolished. Guo Wei also took effective measures to restore agricultural production. Grant the landless land to hundreds of thousands of hungry people in Youzhou who return to the Central Plains and exempt them from taxes. The land was distributed to the present tenants to fill the permanent estate, which increased the number of households by more than 30000. The landless wasteland allows the farmers to cultivate land for permanent employment, and improves the enthusiasm of farmers' production. In advocating frugality, punishing corrupt officials and forbidding the army to disturb the people, Guo Wei also carried out some useful measures, which made the northern society, which had been in great confusion since the end of Tang Dynasty, embark on the road of stability.

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