后周世宗柴荣简介 被史家称为“五代第一明君”-看世界

后周世宗柴荣简介 被史家称为“五代第一明君”

  世宗,名柴荣(公元921~959年),又名郭荣。周太祖郭威养子。郭威死后继位。在位5年,病死,终年39岁,葬于庆陵(今河南省新郑县北)。

  后柴荣(921年10月27日-959年7月27日),是五代时期后周。954—959在位,在位6年。邢州尧山柴家庄(今河北省邢台市隆尧县)人,父柴守礼,祖父柴翁是当地望族,柴荣年轻时曾随商人颉跌氏在江陵贩茶,对社会积弊有所体验。史载其“器貌英奇,善骑射,略通书史黄老,性沉重寡言”,他是后周太祖内侄,收为养子,又名郭荣。继位后复本姓。柴荣在位六年,整军练卒、裁汰冗弱、招抚流亡、减少赋税,使后周政治清明、百姓富庶,中原开始复苏。又南征北战,西败后蜀,夺取秦、凤、成、阶四州;南摧南唐,尽得江北、淮南14州;北破契丹,连克二州三关。在议取幽州时病倒,不久去世,年仅39岁,庙号世宗,谥号睿武孝文皇帝

Post chairong (October 27, 921-july 27, 959) is the Later Zhou of the Five Dynasties. 954-959 for six years. Chai Weng, the father of Chai family village, Yaoshan, Xingzhou (now Longyao County, Xingtai City, Hebei Province), is a local famous family. When Chai Rong was young, he once sold tea in Jiangling with the merchant Jieli family, and experienced the accumulated social disadvantages. According to historical records, he is "a man of extraordinary appearance, good at riding and shooting, a little familiar with the history of Huang Lao, and a man of reserved nature". He is the nephew of the emperor Taizu of the Later Zhou Dynasty, who was adopted as his adopted son, also known as Guo Rong. Duplicate the surname after succeeding. During his six years in power, Chai Rong trained his troops, eliminated the redundant and weak, appeased the exile and reduced taxes, which made the Later Zhou dynasty clear in politics and the people rich, and the Central Plains began to recover. After the defeat in the west, Shu conquered the four states of Qin, Feng, Cheng, and Jie. After the defeat in the south, it conquered the Southern Tang Dynasty and gained 14 states of Jiangbei and Huainan. It broke through Qidan in the north, and even conquered two states and three passes. He fell ill at the time of taking Youzhou. He died soon. He was only 39 years old. His temple was called Shizong and his posthumous title was Emperor ruiwu Xiaowen.

  世宗,名柴荣(公元921~959年),又名郭荣。周太祖郭威养子。郭威死后继位。在位5年,病死,终年39岁,葬于庆陵(今河南省新郑县北)。

Shizong, named chairong (921-959 A.D.), also known as Guo Rong. Guo Wei, the son of Zhou Taizu. Guo Wei succeeded to the throne after his death. He was in office for 5 years and died at the age of 39. He was buried in Qingling (now North of Xinzheng County, Henan Province).

  柴荣,周太祖皇后柴氏的侄儿,后被郭威收为养子,邢州龙岗(今河北省邢台县西南)人。早年他为郭威操持家务,往返南北贩卖茶货。郭威举兵进攻汴京时,他奉命留守邺城。后周初年,封为澶州节度使,晋王。郭威于公元954年正月病死,他于同月丙申日继位,沿用太祖年号“显德”。

Chai Rong, the nephew of Chai, the empress of Taizu of Zhou, was later adopted as the adopted son by Guo Wei, a native of Longgang, Xingzhou (now southwest of Xingtai County, Hebei Province). In his early years, he worked as a housekeeper for Guo Wei, selling tea goods from north to south. When Guo Wei raised his troops to attack Bianjing, he was ordered to stay in Yecheng. In the early years of the Later Zhou Dynasty, he was appointed as the governor and king of Jin. Guo Wei died in the first month of 954 A.D., and he succeeded to the throne on the third day of the same month, using the year of Taizu as "Xiande".

  柴荣是时期最有作为的帝王。他精明强干,志气宏大,决心统一中国。即位后,他在太祖改革积弊的基础上,进一步整肃吏治,均定田赋,整顿禁军,限制佛教,奖励农耕。他命人雕刻了一对木头的农夫农妇放在殿廷,以督促君臣留心农事。通过改革,后周的军力、国力大大增强。他南征北战,先于公元954年亲率大军在高平(今山西省高平县)击败来犯的北汉及契丹军,又于公元956年亲自征讨南唐,攻取了南唐的江淮14州60县,接着,北伐攻打契丹,收复了瀛、莫、易3州17县,后又攻取后蜀的阶、成、秦、风四州。这些成就,为日后北宋的统一奠定了基础。但是,正当柴荣准备继续征战完成统一大业的时候,他在北征契丹的途中得了病,只得率领部分军队返回汴京。

Chai Rong was the most effective emperor in the period. He is smart, ambitious and determined to unify China. After assuming the throne, on the basis of Taizu's reform, he further purged the government of officials, set land taxes, reorganized the forbidden army, restricted Buddhism and rewarded farming. He asked people to carve a pair of wooden peasant women and put them in the palace to urge the emperor and his officials to pay attention to farming. Through reform, the military and national strength in the next week will be greatly enhanced. In 954, he led the army to defeat the northern Han Dynasty and Qidan army in Gaoping (now Gaoping County, Shanxi Province). In 956, he conquered 60 counties in 14 states of Jianghuai and 60 counties in the Southern Tang Dynasty. Then, he attacked Qidan in the Northern Expedition and recovered 17 counties in Ying, Mo and Yi states. Later, he conquered four states of post Shu, i.e. Shijie, Cheng, Qin and Feng. These achievements laid the foundation for the unification of the Northern Song Dynasty in the future. However, just as Chai Rong was ready to continue the war to complete the great cause of reunification, he got sick on the way to Qidan, so he had to lead part of the army back to Bianjing.

  公元959年6月,柴荣病危。他便抓紧布置后事,让魏仁甫以枢密使兼任宰相,宰相王溥、范质兼知枢密院事,任侍卫亲军副都指挥使韩通兼宰相。他使这些文武大臣同掌国政,目的是想保证他死后后周政权的稳定。柴荣前在北征契丹时,听得汴京城内有“点检作天子”的谣传。当时的殿前都点检是柴荣的女婿张永德,立有军功,统率最精锐的禁军。柴荣猜疑这谣言与张永德有关,便免除了他的军职,改任他为宰相,而将从低级军官提升为殿前都点检。柴荣以为赵匡胤一则会感恩图报,二则资望浅,不象张永德那样可能夺取帝位。没有料到日后夺取帝王灭掉后周的,正是赵匡胤。柴荣临终前,又命令四子柴宗训继位。癸巳日,病死于汴京宫中的滋德殿。

In June 959, Chai Rong was critically ill. He quickly arranged for Wei Renfu to serve as a secret emissary and prime minister. The prime ministers, Wang Pu and Fan Zhi, also knew about the Privy Council. He served as the commander of the vice commander of the bodyguard's Pro army, Han Tong and prime minister. He put these ministers in charge of the state in order to ensure the stability of the regime in the Zhou Dynasty after his death. When Chai rongqian was fighting for Qidan in the north, he heard the rumor that "spot check is the emperor" in Bianjing. At that time, Zhang Yongde, Chai Rong's son-in-law, was in front of the palace for spot check. He had military skills and was in charge of the most elite forbidden army. Chai Rong suspected that the rumor had something to do with Zhang Yongde, so he dismissed him from his military post, changed him to prime minister, and promoted him from a low-level officer to a palace inspector. Chai Rong thought that Zhao Kuangyin, on the one hand, would be grateful, and on the other hand, he was not as likely to seize the throne as Zhang Yongde. It was Zhao Kuangyin who did not expect to capture the emperor and destroy the Later Zhou Dynasty. Before his death, Chai Rong ordered his fourth son, Chai zongxun, to succeed him. Guisi day, died in Bianjing Palace Zide hall.

  柴荣死后的庙号为世宗,史称周世宗。

After the death of Chai Rong, the temple was called Shizong, which was called zhoushizong in history.

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