秦王政兼并了六国，结束了战国割据的局面，统一了中国。他觉得自己的功绩比古代传说中的还要大，不能再用“王”的称号，应该用一个更加尊贵的称号才配得上他的功绩，就决定采用了“”的称号。他是中国第一个，就自称是始 。他还规定：子孙接替他皇位的按照次序排列，第二代叫二世 ，第三代叫三世皇帝，这样一代一代传下去，一直传到千世万世。
Qin Wang Zheng annexed six countries, ended the situation of separation of Warring States and unified China. He felt that his achievements were even greater than those in ancient legends. He could not use the title of "King" anymore. He should use a more honorable title to deserve his achievements, so he decided to adopt the title of ". As the first emperor of China, he called himself the first emperor. He also stipulated that the descendants who succeeded him should be arranged in order. The second generation is called the second emperor and the third generation is called the third emperor. This generation has been passed down to thousands of generations.
When the whole country is unified, how can we govern such a big country?
At a court meeting, Prime Minister Wang Wan and others said, "now the princes have just been wiped out, especially Yan, Chu and Qi are far away from Xianyang. If you don't seal several kings there, you can't ask the emperor to seal several princes there."
The first emperor of Qin asked his ministers to discuss. Many of them agreed with Wang Wan's opinion, but only against it. He said: "when King Wu of Zhou was founded, he sealed many princes. Later, he killed each other like enemies, and the emperor could not forbid it. It can be seen that the way of enfeoffment is not good. It is better to set up prefectures and counties in the whole country. "
Li Si's opinion is in line with the first emperor of Qin. He decided to abolish the method of enfeoffment, change to the system of counties, and divide the whole country into thirty-six counties, and then divide the counties below.
The county governors are appointed directly by the court. The politics of the country, big or small, are decided by the emperor. It is said that the first emperor of Qin read the memorials sent below every day. He wanted to see one hundred and twenty-one Jin (at that time, the memorials were engraved on bamboo slips). He would not rest after reading them. It can be seen how centralized his power is.
First Emperor of Qin
Before Qin Shihuang unified the Central Plains, there had never been a unified system among the countries. In terms of traffic, the size of vehicles was not the same everywhere, so the lanes were wide and narrow. The country is unified. It is inconvenient for vehicles to walk in different lanes. Since then, the distance between the two wheels on the vehicle has been changed to six feet, so that the tracks of the wheels are the same. In this way, it is convenient for vehicles to travel around the country. It's called "car on track.".
Before Qin Shihuang unified the Central Plains, the writing of the countries was also very different. There are several ways to write the same words. Since then, we have adopted more convenient calligraphy and unified characters. In this way, cultural exchanges are much more convenient. This is called "the same book".
Transportation is convenient and commerce is developed everywhere, but the original standards of size, bucket lifting and weight are all different among countries. Since then, a unified system of measurement, measurement and balance has been adopted throughout the country. In this way, there is no difficulty in business exchange.
Qin Shihuang was engaged in domestic reform, but the Huns from the North came in. Xiongnu was an ancient minority in the north of China. In the late Warring States period, the Xiongnu nobles took advantage of the decline of Yan and Zhao states in the north and invaded South step by step, seizing a large area of land in Hetao area of the Yellow River. After the first emperor of Qin unified the Central Plains, he sent a general (Yinti á n) to lead 300000 troops to resist, took back all the areas around Hetao, and set up 44 counties.
In order to prevent the invasion of Xiongnu, the first emperor of Qin commandeered the men of the people, connected the walls in the north of the Three Kingdoms of Yan, Zhao and Qin, and built many new walls. In this way, from Lintao in the West (today's Minxian County in Gansu Province) to Liaodong in the East (today's northwest of Liaoyang in Liaoning Province), a continuous line is formed. This world-famous ancient building has always been a symbol of the ancient and long civilization of our Chinese nation.
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