中国历史上第一个皇帝——秦始皇如何一统中国-看世界

中国历史上第一个皇帝——秦始皇如何一统中国

  全国统一了,该怎样来治理这样大的国家呢?

  秦王政兼并了六国,结束了战国割据的局面,统一了中国。他觉得自己的功绩比古代传说中的还要大,不能再用“王”的称号,应该用一个更加尊贵的称号才配得上他的功绩,就决定采用了“”的称号。他是中国第一个皇帝,就自称是始皇帝。他还规定:子孙接替他皇位的按照次序排列,第二代叫二世皇帝,第三代叫三世皇帝,这样一代一代传下去,一直传到千世万世。

Qin Wang Zheng annexed six countries, ended the situation of separation of Warring States and unified China. He felt that his achievements were even greater than those in ancient legends. He could not use the title of "King" anymore. He should use a more honorable title to deserve his achievements, so he decided to adopt the title of ". As the first emperor of China, he called himself the first emperor. He also stipulated that the descendants who succeeded him should be arranged in order. The second generation is called the second emperor and the third generation is called the third emperor. This generation has been passed down to thousands of generations.

  全国统一了,该怎样来治理这样大的国家呢?

When the whole country is unified, how can we govern such a big country?

  在一次朝会上,丞相王绾(音wān)等对说:“现在诸侯刚刚消灭,特别是燕、楚、齐离咸阳很远,不在那里封几个王不行,请皇上把几位皇子封到那里去。”

At a court meeting, Prime Minister Wang Wan and others said, "now the princes have just been wiped out, especially Yan, Chu and Qi are far away from Xianyang. If you don't seal several kings there, you can't ask the emperor to seal several princes there."

  秦始皇要大臣议论一下,许多大臣都赞成王绾的意见,只有反对。他说:“周武王建立的时候,封了不少诸侯。到后来,像冤家一样互相残杀,周天子也没法禁止。可见分封的办法不好,不如在全国设立郡县。”

The first emperor of Qin asked his ministers to discuss. Many of them agreed with Wang Wan's opinion, but only against it. He said: "when King Wu of Zhou was founded, he sealed many princes. Later, he killed each other like enemies, and the emperor could not forbid it. It can be seen that the way of enfeoffment is not good. It is better to set up prefectures and counties in the whole country. "

  李斯的意见正合秦始皇的心意。他决定废除分封的办法,改用郡县制,把全国分为三十六个郡,郡下面再分县。

Li Si's opinion is in line with the first emperor of Qin. He decided to abolish the method of enfeoffment, change to the system of counties, and divide the whole country into thirty-six counties, and then divide the counties below.

  郡的长官都由朝廷直接任命。国家的政事,不论大小,都由皇帝决定。据说秦始皇每天看下面送来的奏章,要看一百二十一斤(那时的奏章都是刻在竹简上的),不看完不休息。可见他的权力是多么集中了。

The county governors are appointed directly by the court. The politics of the country, big or small, are decided by the emperor. It is said that the first emperor of Qin read the memorials sent below every day. He wanted to see one hundred and twenty-one Jin (at that time, the memorials were engraved on bamboo slips). He would not rest after reading them. It can be seen how centralized his power is.

秦始皇

First Emperor of Qin

  在秦始皇统一中原之前,列国向来是没有统一的制度的,就拿交通来说,各地的车辆大小就不一样,因此车道也有宽有窄。国家统一了,车辆要在不同的车道上行走,多不方便。从那时候起,规定车辆上两个轮子的距离一律改为六尺,使车轮的轨道相同。这样,全国各地车辆往来就方便了。这叫做“车同轨”。

Before Qin Shihuang unified the Central Plains, there had never been a unified system among the countries. In terms of traffic, the size of vehicles was not the same everywhere, so the lanes were wide and narrow. The country is unified. It is inconvenient for vehicles to walk in different lanes. Since then, the distance between the two wheels on the vehicle has been changed to six feet, so that the tracks of the wheels are the same. In this way, it is convenient for vehicles to travel around the country. It's called "car on track.".

  在秦始皇统一中原之前,列国的文字也很不统一。就是一样的文字,也有好几种写法。从那时候起,采用了比较方便的书法,规定了统一的文字。这样,各地的文化交流也方便多了。这叫做“书同文”。

Before Qin Shihuang unified the Central Plains, the writing of the countries was also very different. There are several ways to write the same words. Since then, we have adopted more convenient calligraphy and unified characters. In this way, cultural exchanges are much more convenient. This is called "the same book".

  各地交通便利,商业也发达起来,但是原来列国的尺寸、升斗、斤两的标准全不一样。从那时候起,又规定了全国用统一的度、量、衡制。这样,各地的买卖交换也没有困难了。

Transportation is convenient and commerce is developed everywhere, but the original standards of size, bucket lifting and weight are all different among countries. Since then, a unified system of measurement, measurement and balance has been adopted throughout the country. In this way, there is no difficulty in business exchange.

  秦始皇正在从事国内的改革,没想到北方的匈奴打了进来。匈奴本来是我国北部一个古老的少数民族。战国后期,匈奴贵族趁北方的燕国、赵国衰落,一步步向南侵犯,把黄河河套一带大片土地夺了过去。秦始皇统一中原以后,就派大将(音tián)带领三十万大军去抵抗,把河套一带地区都收了回来,设置了四十四个县。

Qin Shihuang was engaged in domestic reform, but the Huns from the North came in. Xiongnu was an ancient minority in the north of China. In the late Warring States period, the Xiongnu nobles took advantage of the decline of Yan and Zhao states in the north and invaded South step by step, seizing a large area of land in Hetao area of the Yellow River. After the first emperor of Qin unified the Central Plains, he sent a general (Yinti á n) to lead 300000 troops to resist, took back all the areas around Hetao, and set up 44 counties.

  为了防御匈奴的侵犯,秦始皇又征用民伕,把原来燕、赵、秦三国北方的城墙连接起来,又新造了不少城墙。这样从西面的临洮(今甘肃岷县)到东面的辽东(今辽宁辽阳西北),连成一条。这座举世闻名的古建筑,一直成为我们中华民族古老悠久文明的象征。

In order to prevent the invasion of Xiongnu, the first emperor of Qin commandeered the men of the people, connected the walls in the north of the Three Kingdoms of Yan, Zhao and Qin, and built many new walls. In this way, from Lintao in the West (today's Minxian County in Gansu Province) to Liaodong in the East (today's northwest of Liaoyang in Liaoning Province), a continuous line is formed. This world-famous ancient building has always been a symbol of the ancient and long civilization of our Chinese nation.

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