西魏废帝元钦简介 史上一夫一妻制的皇帝-看世界

西魏废帝元钦简介 史上一夫一妻制的皇帝

  生平经历

  元钦(525年―554年),西魏第二任,西魏文帝元宝炬之子,公元525年生于范阳(今北京),大统十七年(552)中进士,551年即位,沿用文帝年号,552年去年号,称元年。元宝炬在位17年,551年病死,元钦嗣位。元钦时期,独揽朝政,与东魏多次激战。西魏军政多所革新。554年被宇文泰所废,不久被毒死。

Yuanqin (525-554), the second term of the Western Wei Dynasty, the son of yuanbaoju, Emperor Wen of the Western Wei Dynasty, was born in Fanyang (now Beijing) in 525 ad. he was a Jinshi in the 17th year of Datong (552). In 551, he ascended the throne, using the year number of Emperor Wen. Last year in 552, he was called the first year. Yuan Baoju reigned for 17 years, died in 551, and was succeeded by Yuan Qin. During the period of yuan and Qin, they dominated the government and fought many times with the Eastern Wei Dynasty. Military and political reforms in the Western Wei Dynasty. In 554, he was abandoned by yuwentai and poisoned to death.

  生平经历

Life experience

  元钦,西魏文帝元宝炬长子,母乙弗皇后。大统元年(535年)立为皇太子。大统十七年(551年)即位,立妃宇文氏为皇后。后,权臣宇文泰之女也,志操明秀,品行端淑,深受元钦爱重,两人十分相爱。为此元钦不置嫔御。终西魏之世,大权皆掌于宇文泰之手,元氏皇权名存实亡,不少元氏宗亲对此忧愤不已。废帝二年(553年)底,尚书元烈密谋杀宇文泰,事泄,被宇文泰所杀。次年正月,废帝对于元烈之死愤愤不平,密谋诛杀宇文泰,夺回大权,临淮王元育、广平王元赞垂涕切谏,不听。时宇文泰诸婿清河公李基(李远次子)、义城公李晖(李弼次子)、常山公于翼(于谨次子)分掌禁军,于是谋泄,被宇文泰所废,置于雍州。改立齐王元廓为帝。四月,被宇文泰酖杀,皇后宇文氏亦以忠于魏室罹祸。无谥号,史称废帝。

Yuanqin, the eldest son of yuanbaoju, Emperor Wen of the Western Wei Dynasty, and empress Yifu. In the first year of Datong (535), he became the crown prince. In 551, the 17th year of Datong, Yu Wen, the imperial concubine, became the empress. Later, Yu Wentai, the daughter of Quan Chen, was determined to be virtuous and virtuous. She was deeply loved by Yuan Qin. They loved each other very much. For this reason, Yuan Qin did not purchase concubines. In the end of the Western Wei Dynasty, the power was in the hands of Yu Wentai. Many yuan family members were worried and indignant about the existence of the imperial power. At the end of the second year of emperor abolition (553), Yu Wentai was murdered by yuan liemi, the Minister of the state. In the first month of the next year, the emperor was indignant about yuan lie's death. He conspired to kill Yu Wentai and regain the power. Lin huaiwang Yuanyu and Guangping Wang yuanzan listened to their advice. Li Ji (the second son of Li Yuan), Li Hui (the second son of Li Bi) and Yu Yi (the second son of Yu Jin), the son-in-law of Yu Wentai, respectively, took charge of the forbidden army respectively, so they conspired to vent and were abandoned by Yu Wentai and placed in Yongzhou. Change the king of Qi, Yuan Kuo, to Emperor. In April, he was killed by Yu Wentai, and the empress Yu Wenshi was also killed for being loyal to the Wei family. There is no posthumous title, so it is called emperor abolition.

  史上一夫一妻制的皇帝

Monogamous emperors in history

  元钦——北魏京兆王元愉之孙,西魏文帝元宝炬长子,西魏第二任皇帝。元钦自幼聪明可爱,非常讨人喜欢,深得北魏大将宇文泰的欣赏。从七岁开始,元宝炬便将元钦托付给宇文泰,希望他在军营中得到历练。“是子也,才由于公;不才亦由于公,公宜勉之”(《北史·周本纪》)。元宝炬对宇文泰说这番话的意思是,元钦这孩子将来有没有出息,就看你宇文泰了,你可要好生带他。这段军旅经历,塑造了元钦勇猛果敢的性格,进而引发了他日后被废被杀的悲剧。永熙三年(534)底,宇文泰毒死北魏孝武帝元修,立元宝炬为皇帝,建立西魏政权,北魏由此正式分裂为东魏和西魏,东魏由独掌大权,西魏则由宇文泰把持朝政。西魏大统元年(535)正月,11岁的元钦以嫡长子的身份被立为太子。虽为开国皇帝,但国家大事由宇文泰一个人说了算,元宝炬实际上是一个傀儡。好在元宝炬能认清形势,在位期间与宇文泰长期配合默契,君臣相安无事。为了将来能继续把持朝政,宇文泰未雨绸缪,主动将女儿宇文云英嫁给了元钦。元钦与宇文云英自幼青梅竹马,情趣相投,感情非常好。大统十七年(551)三月,元宝炬病逝,元钦即位,册立宇文云英为皇后。宇文云英从小就对烈女很感兴趣,“好陈列女图,置之左右”,当了皇后更加“志操明秀”,元钦对她不但“专宠后宫”,而且“不置嫔御”(《北史·后妃传》)。不置嫔御,就是除了皇后,不设置其他嫔妃御女,这既有惧怕岳父宇文泰的因素,也是元钦对宇文云英“深重之”的体现。在中国历史上,明确记载一生只守着一个女人的皇帝,恐怕也只有元钦了。

Yuanqin, the grandson of Yuanyu, the king of Jingzhao in the Northern Wei Dynasty, the eldest son of yuanbaoju, Emperor Wen of the Western Wei Dynasty, and the second emperor of the Western Wei Dynasty. Yuan Qin was very cute and cute since he was young. He was appreciated by Yu Wentai, the general of the Northern Wei Dynasty. From the age of seven, yuanbaoju entrusted Yuanqin to Yu Wentai, hoping that he could get experience in the military camp. "It is only because of the public that a son is born; it is also because of the public that a son is born; it is just because of the public that a son is born" (Beishi · zhoubenji). Yuan Baoju's words to Yu Wentai mean that whether Yuan Qin is a promising child in the future depends on you, Yu Wentai. You should take him with you. This military experience shaped Yuan Qin's brave and resolute character, which led to the tragedy that he was abandoned and killed in the future. At the end of the third year of Yongxi (534), yuwentai poisoned yuanxiu, the filial emperor of the Northern Wei Dynasty, and set up yuanbaoju as the emperor to establish the Western Wei regime. Thus, the Northern Wei Dynasty was officially divided into the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the Western Wei Dynasty. The Eastern Wei Dynasty was under the sole power and the Western Wei Dynasty was under the control of yuwentai. In the first month of the first year of the Western Wei Dynasty (535), 11 year old Yuan Qin was made Prince as his first son. Although the emperor was founded, the state affairs has the final say of Yu Wen Tai, and yuanbaju is actually a puppet. Fortunately, yuanbaoju was able to understand the situation. During his reign, he cooperated with yuwentai for a long time, and the monarchs and ministers were safe. In order to continue to control the government in the future, yuwentai took the initiative to marry yuwenyunying, his daughter, to Yuanqin. Yuanqin and Yuwen Yunying were childhood sweethearts and had very good feelings. In March of the 17th year of Datong (551), yuanbaoju died, and Yuanqin took the throne. Yuwen Yunying was named Queen. Yuwen Yunying was very interested in the martyrs since she was a child. "It's good to display women's pictures and set them around". When she became the queen, she was more "ambitious and bright". Yuanqin not only "favored the Imperial Palace" but also "didn't set up the imperial concubines" (Biography of the imperial concubines in northern History). No concubines, no other concubines except the empress, which not only has the fear of father-in-law Yu Wentai factors, but also Yuan Qin Yu Wenying "deep" embodiment. In Chinese history, the emperor who clearly recorded that he had only one woman in his life was probably only Yuanqin.

  元钦对宇文皇后很专一,对国家大事也很关心。还是太子的时候,元钦就看不起甘当傀儡的父亲,更不满专权独断的岳父,于是暗下决心,将来即位之后决不受他人摆布。尽管他雄心勃勃,但大权却依然牢牢掌握在宇文泰手中,元钦只能一切遵循旧序。宇文泰也确实很能干,短短两年时间,不但开拓了疆域,还使得国家逐渐兴盛,内部安定。

Yuanqin was very specific to Queen Yuwen and concerned about state affairs. When he was still prince, Yuan Qin despised his father-in-law, who was willing to be a puppet, and was dissatisfied with his autocratic father-in-law. So he secretly made up his mind that he would never be manipulated by others after he ascended the throne. In spite of his ambition, the power was still firmly in yuwentai's hands, and Yuanqin could only follow the old order. Yuwentai is also really capable. In just two years, it not only expanded its territory, but also made the country prosperous and stable.

      元钦二年(553)二月,宇文泰辞去丞相、大行台之职,只担任都督中外诸军事,目的是想让元钦多管一些政事。对此,一直梦想朝纲独断的元钦显然不满意。十一月,“尚书元烈谋杀宇文泰,事泄,泰杀之”。元烈一案与元钦有没有关系,史书中没有明说;但是,对于元烈之死,元钦颇“有怨言”(《北史·魏本纪》)。由此可以推断,元烈可能是元钦的一个心腹,谋杀宇文泰应该就是元钦所指使。元烈死后,元钦再也坐不住了,于是加紧“密谋诛太师泰”(《》)。

In February of 553, yuwentai resigned as prime minister and chief executive of dahangtai, and only served as the commander of all the military forces at home and abroad, in order to let Yuanqin take charge of more political affairs. In this regard, Yuan Qin, who has been dreaming of dogmatism in the court, is obviously not satisfied. In November, "Shangshu Yuanlie murders yuwentai. If something goes wrong, Tai kills it.". Whether the case of Yuanlie had anything to do with Yuanqin or not is not clearly stated in the historical books; however, Yuanqin had "complaints" about Yuanlie's death (Beishi · Wei Benji). It can be inferred that Yuanlie may be a confidant of Yuanqin, and the murder of yuwentai should be the instigation of Yuanqin. After Yuanlie's death, Yuanqin could no longer sit down, so he stepped up the "plot against Taishi Tai" (").

  元钦三年(554)正月,元钦将行动计划告诉了临淮王元育、广平王元赞两位心腹宗室,希望得到他们的支持和帮助。元烈一案已经引起了宇文泰的警惕,加上宇文泰军权在握,羽翼众多,两位王爷觉得没有胜算,“并垂泣谏,帝不听”(《北史·魏本纪》)。

In the first month of the third year of Yuanqin (554), Yuanqin told Wang Yuanyu of linhuai and Wang yuanzan of Guangping about the action plan, hoping to get their support and help. The case of Yuanlie has aroused Yu Wentai's vigilance. With Yu Wentai's military power in hand and many wings, the two princes feel that they have no chance to win. "They cry and remonstrate, but the emperor doesn't listen" (Beishi · Wei Benji).

      当时,宇文泰的另外三个女婿李基、李晖、于翼均掌管禁军,且都是宇文泰的“心膂”。元钦因急于干掉宇文泰,又苦于身边无人,竟然荒唐地想联合三位连襟一起发动政变,对付岳父,真可谓病急乱投医。结果,没等元钦动手,三人就提前向宇文泰告了密,“由是魏主谋泄”。宇文泰见元钦不识好歹,便于当年二月“废魏主,置之雍州,立其弟齐王廓”,元钦的皇帝生涯就此结束。

At that time, Li Ji, Li Hui and Yu Yi, the other three sons-in-law of Yu Wentai, were in charge of the forbidden army, and they were all Yu Wentai's "mental Brawn". Yuan Qin was eager to kill Yu Wentai, but he suffered from no one around him. He was so absurd that he wanted to unite with the three men to launch a coup against his father-in-law. He was really in a hurry to go to hospital. As a result, without waiting for Yuan Qin to start, the three told Yu Wentai in advance, "it was Wei who was the mastermind to vent.". Yu Wentai saw that Yuanqin didn't know what to do, so that in February of that year, he "abolished the Lord of Wei, set up Yongzhou, and established his younger brother qiwangkuo", and the emperor's career of Yuanqin ended.

      两个月后,元钦被宇文泰“鸩杀”(《资治通鉴》),享年三十岁,谥号废帝。元钦死后,宇文云英痛不欲生,不久便“亦以忠于魏室罹祸”(《北史·后妃传》),追随元钦而去。开辟鸿蒙,谁为情种?与其说宇文皇后“忠于魏室”而死,不如说她是不满父亲而以死抗争,忠于丈夫而以身殉情。宇文云英,是中国历史上第一位为丈夫殉情的皇后。这一贞烈壮举,或许是对死去的元钦——中国历史上真正实行一夫一妻制的皇帝在天之灵的一种告慰了。

Two months later, Yuanqin was "poisoned" by yuwentai (Zizhi Tongjian). He was thirty years old and had the posthumous title of emperor nullified. After Yuanqin's death, Yuwen Yunying was in agony, and soon followed Yuanqin's death by "being loyal to the Wei family" (Biography of imperial concubines in northern History). Open up Hongmeng, who is the love? It is not so much that queen Yuwen died "loyal to Wei Shi", as that she was dissatisfied with her father and fought with death, loyal to her husband and died for love. Yuwen Yunying is the first empress in Chinese history to die for her husband. This virtuous feat may be a consolation to the dead Yuan Qin, the real monogamous emperor in Chinese history.

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