后梁末帝朱友贞简介 杀兄自刎的后梁末帝朱友贞-看世界

后梁末帝朱友贞简介 杀兄自刎的后梁末帝朱友贞

  简介

  后梁末帝,子。朱温即帝位,封为均王,任左天兴军使、东京 马步军都指挥使。梁乾化二年(912)郢王朱友珪杀死其父朱温,即帝位,朱友贞为东京留守 、开封尹。次年,与赵岩等密谋推翻朱友珪 。凤历元年(913)即帝位。923年为后唐所迫自杀,时年36岁。

The late emperor of Houliang, son. Zhu Wen, the emperor, was appointed King Jun, the commander of Zuo Tianxing and Tokyo Mabu. In the second year of the reign of emperor Qianhua of Liang Dynasty (912), Zhu Youzhen, king of Ying, killed Zhu Wen, his father, who was the emperor. Zhu Youzhen stayed in Tokyo for Kaifeng Yin. The next year, he conspired with Zhao Yan to overthrow Zhu Youyan. The first year of Fengli (913) is the throne. In 923, he was forced to commit suicide by the later Tang Dynasty at the age of 36.

  简介

Brief introduction

  朱友贞(888年10月20日~923年11月18日) ,后梁末帝,朱温和张惠的嫡子,朱友珪弟。朱温即 帝位,封为均王,任左天兴军使、东京马步军都指挥使。梁乾化二年(912)郢王朱友珪杀死其父朱温,即帝位,朱友贞为东京留守、开封尹。次年,与赵岩等密谋推翻朱友珪,二月,打起了“除凶逆,复大仇”的旗号,联合魏博节度使杨师厚兴师问罪。发动洛阳禁军兵变,友珪自杀。凤历元年(913)即帝位。改名为锽,后再改名为瑱。复用乾化年号(913年2月-915年10月)、贞明(915年11月-921年4月)、龙德(921年5月-923年10月),在位11年,被后唐李克用养子围困而自杀,36岁。葬于宣陵附近(今河南省洛阳市东南)。

Zhu Youzhen (October 20, 888-november 18, 923), the late emperor of the Later Liang Dynasty, the first son of Zhu Wen and Zhang Hui, Zhu Youzhen's younger brother. Zhu Wen, the emperor, was appointed King Jun, the commander of Zuo Tianxing and Tokyo Mabu. In the second year of the reign of emperor Qianhua of Liang Dynasty (912), Zhu Youzhen, king of Ying, killed Zhu Wen, his father, who was the emperor. Zhu Youzhen stayed in Tokyo for Kaifeng Yin. In the following year, he conspired with Zhao Yan and other officials to overthrow Zhu Youyan. In February, he launched the banner of "removing the fierce and rebellious, restoring the feud" and joined with the governor of Wei Bo, Yang Shihou, to challenge his teachers. He launched a mutiny of the Luoyang forbidden army and committed suicide. The first year of Fengli (913) is the throne. Change the name to "crash", and then change the name to "Yu". Reuse Qianhua (February 913 October 915), Zhenming (November 915 April 921) and Longde (may 921 October 923). After 11 years of reign, Li Ke was surrounded by his adopted son and committed suicide. He was 36 years old. It was buried near Xuanling (southeast of Luoyang City, Henan Province).

  人物事迹

Stories of characters

  朱友贞即位后,后唐集中全力要攻灭后梁,双方便连年混战。朱友贞因为信用赵岩,外戚张汉鼎、张汉杰等人,大将出兵也派他们随往监视。赵岩等人又仗势弄权,卖官枉法,离间将相,赏罚不明,致使忠臣退避,上下离心,前线将领自相残杀,所以,与后唐交战屡遭大败。

After Zhu Youzhen ascended the throne, the later Tang Dynasty concentrated on attacking Houliang, and the two sides fought for years. Zhu Youzhen, because of his credit to Zhao Yan, his relatives Zhang handing and Zhang Hanjie, sent them to watch. Zhao Yan and others, who supported their power, betrayed officials and perverted the law, separated the generals, and the rewards and punishments were not clear, which led to the retreat of loyal officials, the separation of the upper and lower, and the killing of the generals on the front. Therefore, they were defeated repeatedly in the war with the later Tang Dynasty.

  公元923年10月,后唐李克用养子李嗣源率领大军逼近都城。朱友贞的臣子纷纷逃离,连传国玉玺也被部下盗走,守兵不少人开了小差,众叛亲离,守军单薄,使朱友贞束手无策,急得日夜哭泣。戊寅日,他对身旁的都指挥使皇甫麟说:“姓李的是我们梁朝的世仇,我不能投降他们,与其等着让他们来杀,还不如由你先将我杀了吧。”皇甫麟忙说:“臣下只能替陛下效命,怎么能动手伤害陛下呢!”朱友贞说:“你不肯杀我,难道是准备将我出卖给姓李的吗?”皇甫麟拔出佩剑,想自杀以明心迹。朱友贞说:“我和你一起死。”说着,握住皇甫麟手中的剑柄,横剑往自己颈项一挥,血流如注,倒地死去。皇甫麟也哭着自刎而死。  后梁灭亡。朱友贞史称末帝。

In October 923 ad, Li Ke of later Tang Dynasty led a large army to approach the capital city with his adopted son Li Siyuan. Zhu Youzhen's ministers fled one after another, and even the national seal was stolen by his subordinates. Many of the guards left. Many of them were rebellious, and the guards were thin, which made Zhu Youzhen helpless and crying day and night. On Wuyin day, he said to Huang Fulin, the commander beside him, "Li is our feud of Liang Dynasty. I can't surrender to them. Rather than wait for them to kill me, you should kill me first." Huangfulin hurriedly said, "I can only serve your majesty. How can I hurt your majesty with my hand?" Zhu Youzhen said, "are you going to sell me to Li if you don't want to kill me?" huangfulin pulled out his sword and tried to commit suicide to show his mind. "I will die with you," said Zhu Youzhen With that, he grasped the hilt of huangfulin's sword and waved the horizontal sword to his neck. The blood flowed and he fell to the ground and died. Huangfulin also wept and committed suicide. Hou Liang perished. Zhu Youzhen was called the last emperor in history.

  全局形势

Overall situation

  李存勖分析了全局形势,认为后梁此时由于西面的潞州刚刚归降,注意力已集中于西面,而东面准备不足,防守松懈,正可以趁机袭占郓州,动摇其军心。他派猛将李嗣源率领精兵五千从德胜出发,沿黄河北岸向东急行至杨刘,在雨夜的掩护下秘密渡过黄河,然后挥师直捣郓州城。梁军毫无戒备,在后唐精兵的强攻下大败而归。郓州拿下之后,后梁的腹心暴露无遗。从郓州到大梁已无天险屏障可守,后梁的灭亡只是时间问题了。

Li Cunxu analyzed the overall situation, and thought that Houliang had just returned to the West because of Luzhou in the west, and his attention had been focused on the West. However, due to the lack of preparation and lax defense in the East, he could seize the opportunity to attack Yunzhou and shake its military heart. He sent Li Siyuan and 5000 elite soldiers to set out from Desheng, and hurried eastward along the North Bank of the Yellow River to Yang Liu. Under the cover of rainy night, he crossed the Yellow River secretly, and then directed his troops to Yunzhou city. Liang's army was unprepared and was defeated by the elite soldiers of the later Tang Dynasty. After Yunzhou was taken, the heart of Houliang was exposed. From Yunzhou to Daliang, there is no natural barrier to defend. It is only a matter of time before the end of Houliang.

  李存勖召见康延孝

Li Cunxu summons Kang Yanxiao

  隆德三年(923)八月,李存勖召见了刚刚归降的后梁将领康延孝,康延孝为李存勖分析了后梁的形势:后梁的地域并不狭窄,兵力也不算少,但是朱友贞懦弱无能,致使政治腐败,贿赂成风,选才用将不以才德与战功为标准。将帅出征也要派近臣监视,主帅无法自己调兵遣将。所以后梁的败亡局势已定。最后康延孝向李存勖献出灭梁大计:"梁兵聚集则势众,分兵则势薄,陛下现在应该养精畜锐,等其分兵之后,选择良机率精锐骑兵五千从郓州直趋大梁,活捉朱友贞,十天或者半月必然大功告成。"

In August of the third year of Longde (923), Li Cunxu summoned Kang Yanxiao, the general of Houliang who had just returned. Kang Yanxiao analyzed the situation of Houliang for Li Cunxu: the region of Houliang was not narrow, and the military strength was not small, but Zhu Youzhen was weak and incompetent, which led to political corruption and bribery. The selection and use of talents were not based on the standards of talent and virtue and military achievements. The generals should also send close officials to watch them when they are on the March. The generals can't send their own troops. Therefore, the defeat situation of Houliang has been determined. In the end, Kang Yanxiao offered Li Cunxu the general plan to kill Liang: "when Liang soldiers gather, they will be in great force, but when they are divided, they will be in weak force. His majesty should now keep the best of the animals. After they are divided, he will choose a good opportunity to lead 5000 elite cavalry from Yunzhou to Daliang, and capture Zhu Youzhen alive. Ten days or half a month is bound to be a great success.". "

  十月初二(11月12日),李存勖所部精锐从杨刘渡河南进,初三(11月13日)即进入郓州城,子夜时分跨过汶水后,命李嗣源为先锋攻击前进。初四早晨与梁军交火,大获全胜,并攻占后梁的中都(今山东汶上)。此时,有的将领认为,虽然传言汴州空虚,但不知情报是真是假,主张稳妥用兵,先向东进攻,再寻机而动。康延孝则极力主张迅速发兵汴州,李嗣源也主张昼夜奔袭,趁梁军未知内情时先夺下汴州。唐军士气高昂,初四傍晚时分,李嗣源便奉命率军快速出击,趁夜急进。第二天,李存勖率部紧随跟进。在初七(11月17日)这天,唐军骑兵围攻曹州(今山东定陶西),梁军守将毫无防备,只得投降。兵不血刃占领曹州之后,唐军马不停蹄继续向西飞驰前进,直逼汴州。

On the second day of October (November 12), Li Cunxu's elite entered the south of yangliuduhe river. On the third day of November (November 13), he entered Yunzhou city. After crossing Wenshui at midnight, he ordered Li Siyuan to attack and advance as a pioneer. In the morning of the fourth day of the lunar new year, he fought with Liang's army and won a great victory. He captured the central capital of Houliang (now Wenchang, Shandong Province). At this time, some generals believed that although it was said that bianzhou was empty, they did not know whether the information was true or false, and they advocated the safe use of troops, first attacking to the East, and then seeking opportunities. Kang Yanxiao strongly advocated the rapid deployment of troops in bianzhou, and Li Siyuan also advocated the day and night attack, taking advantage of the unknown internal situation of Liang army to seize bianzhou first. The morale of the Tang army was high. In the evening of the fourth day of the first lunar month, Li Siyuan was ordered to lead the army to attack quickly and advance quickly at night. The next day, Li Cunxu followed up. On the seventh day of the first lunar month (November 17), the cavalry of the Tang army besieged Caozhou (today's dingtaoxi, Shandong Province), and the guards of the Liang army were unprepared and had to surrender. After occupying Caozhou with bloodless weapons, the Tang army kept on galloping to the West and drove straight to bianzhou.

  曹州失陷

The fall of Caozhou

  朱友贞得到曹州失陷的消息后,惊慌不已,急忙召集群臣商讨对策,众人无计可施。朱友贞日夜痛哭流涕,不知如何是好,召来老臣敬翔询问退敌之策,敬翔数落一番他用人过失后,说纵使再生也无法挽回败局了,抱定殉国的决心别他而去。

Zhu Youzhen got the news of the fall of Caozhou, panicked, and hurriedly called together the ministers to discuss the countermeasures. There was nothing for them to do. Zhu Youzhen wept day and night. He didn't know what to do. He called in his old minister, Jing Xiang, to ask about the strategy for retreating the enemy. After he had made some mistakes in his employment, Jing Xiang said that even if he was reborn, he would not be able to recover the defeat. He was determined to die for his country.

  朱友贞的臣子纷纷逃离,连传国玉玺也被部下盗走,守兵不少人开了小差,众叛亲离。朱友贞束手无策,急得日夜哭泣。初八(11月18日),他对身旁的都指挥使皇甫麟说:"姓李的是我们梁朝的世仇,我不能投降他们,与其等着让他们来杀,还不如你先将我杀了吧。"皇甫麟忙说:"臣下只能替陛下效命,怎么能动手伤害陛下呢!"朱友贞说:"你不肯杀我,难道是准备将我出卖给姓李的吗?"皇甫麟拔出佩剑,想自杀以明心迹。朱友贞说:"我和你一起死!"说着,握住皇甫麟手中的剑柄,横剑往自己颈项一挥,血流如注,倒地死去。皇甫麟也哭着自刎而死。

Zhu Youzhen's ministers fled one after another, and even the national seal was stolen by his subordinates. Many of the guards deserted and defected. Zhu Youzhen can't help but cry day and night. On the eighth day of the eighth lunar month (November 18), he said to Huang Fulin, the commander beside him, "Li is our feud of Liang Dynasty. I can't surrender to them. Rather than wait for them to kill me, you should kill me first. "Huangfulin hurriedly said," I can only serve your majesty. How can I hurt your majesty with my hand? "Zhu Youzhen said," are you going to sell me to Li if you don't want to kill me? "Huangfulin pulled out his sword and tried to commit suicide. Zhu Youzhen said, "I'll die with you!" he said, holding the hilt in huangfulin's hand and waving the horizontal sword to his neck. The blood flowed and he fell to the ground to die. Huangfulin also wept and committed suicide.

  初九(11月19日)早晨,李嗣源的骑兵到达汴州城下,守军开门献城投降。同一天,李存勖也率兵赶到,从西门领兵进城,后梁灭亡了。

On the morning of the ninth day of the ninth lunar month (November 19), Li Siyuan's cavalry arrived at the foot of bianzhou City, and the garrison opened the door to surrender. On the same day, Li Cunxu also led his troops to the city, leading them from the west gate, and Hou Liang was destroyed.

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