Fans have a long history. In China, when did fans start to exist? It's really a little difficult to answer this question.


In the literature, the "five Ming fans" in Cui Bao's "ancient and Modern Annotation · Yu Fu" may be the earliest record about "fans". The book says, "the five Ming fans were also made by Shun. Both by Yao and Zen wide open audio-visual, the sage to help themselves, pretending to five Ming fan Yan. All the officials in the Qin and Han dynasties had to use it. Wei, Jin and non Chengyu cannot be used. "


In ancient times, the fan of the five Ming Dynasty was called the "sheath" in the shape of "he". The fan is like a door, which needs to be held by others and surrounded by others to open the door of seeking talents. We've all seen such scenes in ancient costume dramas. The emperor sits in the center, and two palace maids cross behind with fans. Therefore, the first fan is not a fan. The five Ming fan is a kind of barrier fan used in ancient honor guard. In the Zhou Dynasty, the arrangement of the barrier fan was connected with the rank of nobility, and the hierarchy was stipulated: "eight for the emperor, six for the princes, four for the officials and two for the scholars".


From the perspective of archaeology, the early fan images are two large fans with long handle carved on the bronze wares of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty and the Warring States period, as well as the wooden handle and feather fan remnant unearthed from the tianxingguan Chu tomb in Jiangling. From the aspect of use, the slave servant is in charge and blocks the wind and the sun for the master. The symbol of authority is more than the practical application. It comes from Mr. Shen Congwen's fan history. The earliest existing complete fan is the long handle fan made of bamboo and silk unearthed in Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan Province.


So, what was the first fan made of?


Fans made from the feathers of animals are mainly from the south. In ancient times, there were many lakes and wild birds in the south, so the local people made fans out of the feathers of these birds. Such fans are called "feather fans".


There is another saying about the popularity of feather fans. It is said that Song Yu, the doctor of Chu, held a fan made of white crane feathers when the king of Chu Xiang met with all the princes. We are very familiar with Song Yu. He is a famous handsome man in history. He is handsome and talented. Under his leadership, naturally.


At that time, badminton fans became more popular. That sentence "feather fan, Lun towel, talk and laugh, strong people are dying" is the biggest promotion of feather fan. In history, the most famous person who used feather fan is probably Zhuge Liang. The image of Zhuge Liang using "feather fan" has been deeply rooted in people's hearts. It's hard to imagine what Zhuge Liang would look like without a feather fan in his hand in many scenes such as the movie.


In fact, wearing a silk scarf and holding a feather fan was a popular dress in the Wei and Jin Dynasties. The biography of Gu Rong recorded the story of Gu Rong's pacification. At that time, when Gu Rong waved the feather fan, the rebels were defeated immediately. "The feather fan was used by Rong Hui, and the crowd broke up". It can be seen that the feather fan was still a kind of general demeanor at that time.


Like the feather fan, the bamboo fan appeared very early. Bamboo fans are mainly popular in the central region, which is rich in bamboo, and it is normal to use them as utensils.


Wan fan is also an early fan. Du Mu's "silver candle cold autumn screen, light Luo fan fluttering fireflies.". The sky steps are as cool as water in the night. Lie down and watch the stars. " The "little fan" in this is the WAN fan.


Wan fan, also known as Tuan fan, "Gong fan" and "Huan fan". It is mainly made of bamboo and wood and pasted with thin silk.


In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Tuan fan was very popular. The main reason for its popularity was its rich functions. First, it can cover the face, "tuanfan, tuanfan, and beauty's illness cover the face", which makes the girls in tuanfan's deep boudoir like it. Secondly, Tuan fan can write poems, draw pictures and embroider. The ancients painted landscape buildings, grass, insects, flowers and birds on the Tuan fan, exquisite and elegant, with silk, fine brushwork, flowers and birds, and embroidery and tapestry. Painting and embroidery, gradually make the fan become more and more rich, aesthetic, with a high aesthetic value.


Of course, it's popular, saying, "if you know about Wuzhong's near affairs, you can see that the marketing and use of Tuan fan was in full swing.".


In addition to feather fans, bamboo fans and WAN fans, there are "banana fans" which are used earlier and have a wide range.


Palmae, Palmae, evergreen trees, canopy umbrella, large leaves such as fan, is a common tropical and subtropical tree species, mainly distributed in Guangdong and Fujian in China. Pu fan is characterized by cheap material and simple style, which can not only fan, but also cushion or block the sun and rain. It's cheap and easy to use, so it's popular among the people. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, it had been produced in batches.


The popularity of banana fans is related to Xie an. "The book of Jin" recorded such a story. Xie an had a friend who went back to his hometown to raise travel expenses and sold palm blossom fans. Business was dismal. When Xie an knew about it, he didn't say anything. He just started to carry a palm flower fan with him. He talked about it by hand, and the wind came to him. With the endorsement of xie'an, a elder brother of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the price of banana fans has naturally increased several times, and the cost of returning home has been solved.


In the Tang and Song Dynasties, there was also a popular fan, which was folding fan.


First of all, the previous feather fans, bamboo fans, Wan fans, although there are square, circular, hexagonal and plum shaped, flat and other shapes, but the fan surface is generally fixed and cannot be folded. The folding fan is foldable and can be opened and closed freely. It can be spread when needed and closed when not used. It is very convenient to use and carry, and also convenient to collect.


Secondly, folding fans, like round fans, can also be used for painting and calligraphy, carving and lettering, and hanging pendants to become a work of art.


As for the origin of folding fans, some people say that we invented them in China, others say that they were introduced from Koryo, and Koryo folding fans may also come from Japan, that is to say, they originated in Japan.


Originated in China, it is supported by historical materials. It is said in the book of the plain with elder brother: "a day's case and action are based on Cao's public utensils, bed and table utensils, and there are fans like Wu fans and important fans." "The old story of the eastern palace" said: "the first worship of the crown prince (Jin), for the paint to fan, green bamboo fan each one." These two historical materials show that waist fans were in use in the late Han Dynasty and the Wei Jin period. "Waist fan" means folding fan.


Why is it popular that folding fans originated in Japan? It is mainly because Japan and Koryo's exquisite folding fans have been flowing into China continuously, while China's folding fans, because they are simple and crude, have to be drowned out. This is why some people say that folding fans are foreign products.


According to the book, in 988 ad, in the first year of Duangong, Japanese monk Jiayin presented 20 juniper fans and two bat fans to the audience. Juniper fan and bat fan are folding fans. While learning the advantages of folding fans from Japan and North Korea, Chinese craftsmen also developed them in combination with the characteristics of bamboo and rice paper, as well as the traditional art features of sculpture, calligraphy and painting.


Although folding fan flourished in Song Dynasty, it was not the peak period of folding fan in song and Yuan Dynasty, especially in Yongle period, "Yongle period began to prevail in China". The Ming Dynasty ordered a large number of works to be made, and poems and Fu poems were inscribed on the fan, which were distributed to ministers. For a while, folding fans are very expensive, which has become a fashion.


In Ming Dynasty, the materials of folding fans used by the officials and gentry were exquisite, and the handle of the fan was carved delicately. In addition to poems, words and paintings, some of them were even hollowed out and filled with exotic fragrance, and the handle was decorated with jade pendants and tassels. The folding fan of Ming Dynasty not only had a high level of technology, but also had distinct Chinese characteristics. At that time, it could be exported to Japan in large quantities and introduced into Europe.


, folding fans can be seen everywhere, almost to the point of overflowing.


In addition to daily use, a little fan contains the wisdom of Chinese culture and art, condensing the essence of ancient and modern arts and crafts, and is an artistic treasure of national traditional cultural relics.


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