扇子起源于什么时候?古代的扇子长什么样?-看世界

扇子起源于什么时候?古代的扇子长什么样?

  文献上来看,晋代崔豹的《古今注·舆服》上“五明扇”可能是关于“扇子”最早的记载。书上说:“五明扇,舜所作也。既受尧禅广开视听,求贤人以自辅,故作五明扇焉。秦汉公卿大夫皆得用之。魏晋非乘舆不得用。”

  扇子的历史很悠久。在中国,扇子到底是什么时候开始有的,要回答这个问题,还真的有点困难。

Fans have a long history. In China, when did fans start to exist? It's really a little difficult to answer this question.

  文献上来看,崔豹的《古今注·舆服》上“五明扇”可能是关于“扇子”最早的记载。书上说:“五明扇,舜所作也。既受尧禅广开视听,求贤人以自辅,故作五明扇焉。秦汉公卿大夫皆得用之。魏晋非乘舆不得用。”

In the literature, the "five Ming fans" in Cui Bao's "ancient and Modern Annotation · Yu Fu" may be the earliest record about "fans". The book says, "the five Ming fans were also made by Shun. Both by Yao and Zen wide open audio-visual, the sage to help themselves, pretending to five Ming fan Yan. All the officials in the Qin and Han dynasties had to use it. Wei, Jin and non Chengyu cannot be used. "

  五明扇古称为“箑”,形状如“阖”。扇面像一扇门,需要由他人举着,围在身旁,表示广开求贤之门。我们都见过,古装剧中,精彩会出现这样的镜头,帝王端坐中央,旁边有两个宫女拿着“扇子”在背后交叉。所以说,最开始的扇子不是扇风的,五明扇是古代仪仗中用的一种障扇。到周王朝的时候,这种障扇的排场跟爵位联系起来,规定了尊卑等级:“天子八扇,诸侯六扇,大夫四扇,士二扇”。

In ancient times, the fan of the five Ming Dynasty was called the "sheath" in the shape of "he". The fan is like a door, which needs to be held by others and surrounded by others to open the door of seeking talents. We've all seen such scenes in ancient costume dramas. The emperor sits in the center, and two palace maids cross behind with fans. Therefore, the first fan is not a fan. The five Ming fan is a kind of barrier fan used in ancient honor guard. In the Zhou Dynasty, the arrangement of the barrier fan was connected with the rank of nobility, and the hierarchy was stipulated: "eight for the emperor, six for the princes, four for the officials and two for the scholars".

  从考古学上来看,目前所见较早的扇子形象是东周、战国铜器上刻画的两件长柄大扇,以及江陵天星观楚墓出土的木柄羽扇残件。从使用方面看,由奴隶仆从执掌,为主人障风蔽日,象征权威的成分多于实际应用。来源于沈从文先生的《扇子史话》一书。现存最早的完整扇子实物是湖南长沙马王堆出土的西汉篾丝编木制长柄扇。

From the perspective of archaeology, the early fan images are two large fans with long handle carved on the bronze wares of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty and the Warring States period, as well as the wooden handle and feather fan remnant unearthed from the tianxingguan Chu tomb in Jiangling. From the aspect of use, the slave servant is in charge and blocks the wind and the sun for the master. The symbol of authority is more than the practical application. It comes from Mr. Shen Congwen's fan history. The earliest existing complete fan is the long handle fan made of bamboo and silk unearthed in Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan Province.

  那么,最早的扇子是用什么制成的?

So, what was the first fan made of?

  用禽兽的羽毛制成扇子主要是南方。在古代,南方湖泊众多,栖息着很多野禽,于是当地人就用这些禽鸟的翎羽制成的扇子,这样的扇子称之为“羽扇”。

Fans made from the feathers of animals are mainly from the south. In ancient times, there were many lakes and wild birds in the south, so the local people made fans out of the feathers of these birds. Such fans are called "feather fans".

  羽扇流行还有一个说法,据说当年楚襄王与各路诸侯会面的时候,楚大夫宋玉手持一柄用白鹤羽毛制成的扇子。宋玉我们很熟悉,他是历史上著名的大帅哥,他人长得帅,而且才华横溢,在他的带领下,自然。

There is another saying about the popularity of feather fans. It is said that Song Yu, the doctor of Chu, held a fan made of white crane feathers when the king of Chu Xiang met with all the princes. We are very familiar with Song Yu. He is a famous handsome man in history. He is handsome and talented. Under his leadership, naturally.

  的时候,羽扇更加流行了。那句“羽扇纶巾,谈笑间,强虏灰飞烟灭”是对羽扇最大的推广。历史上使用羽毛扇最有名的人物大概就是了,诸葛亮使用“羽扇”的形象早已深入人心,很难想象,在《》等很多场景中,手里没有羽毛扇的诸葛亮会是个什么样子。

At that time, badminton fans became more popular. That sentence "feather fan, Lun towel, talk and laugh, strong people are dying" is the biggest promotion of feather fan. In history, the most famous person who used feather fan is probably Zhuge Liang. The image of Zhuge Liang using "feather fan" has been deeply rooted in people's hearts. It's hard to imagine what Zhuge Liang would look like without a feather fan in his hand in many scenes such as the movie.

  其实,头戴纶巾、手执羽扇是魏晋时期的流行装扮。《·顾荣传》记载了顾荣平乱的故事,当时顾荣一挥羽扇,叛军随即溃败,“荣麾以羽扇,其众溃散”,可见羽扇在当时还是一种大将风度。

In fact, wearing a silk scarf and holding a feather fan was a popular dress in the Wei and Jin Dynasties. The biography of Gu Rong recorded the story of Gu Rong's pacification. At that time, when Gu Rong waved the feather fan, the rebels were defeated immediately. "The feather fan was used by Rong Hui, and the crowd broke up". It can be seen that the feather fan was still a kind of general demeanor at that time.

  跟羽扇一样很早出现的是竹扇。竹扇主要流行于中部地区,中部盛产竹子,用作器物很正常。

Like the feather fan, the bamboo fan appeared very early. Bamboo fans are mainly popular in the central region, which is rich in bamboo, and it is normal to use them as utensils.

  纨扇也是一种使用较早的扇子。杜牧的“银烛秋光冷画屏,轻罗小扇扑流萤。天阶夜色凉如水,卧看星。”这里面的说的“小扇”就是纨扇。

Wan fan is also an early fan. Du Mu's "silver candle cold autumn screen, light Luo fan fluttering fireflies.". The sky steps are as cool as water in the night. Lie down and watch the stars. " The "little fan" in this is the WAN fan.

  纨扇,又称团扇,“宫扇”、“合欢扇”。主要以竹木为骨架,制成种种形状,并用薄丝绸糊成。

Wan fan, also known as Tuan fan, "Gong fan" and "Huan fan". It is mainly made of bamboo and wood and pasted with thin silk.

  唐宋时期,团扇十分流行,流行的原因主要是功能丰富。一是可以遮面,“团扇,团扇,美人病来遮面”,这使得团扇深的闺房少女们的喜欢。其次,团扇可以题诗作画和刺绣。古人在团扇上面绘山水楼台、草虫花鸟,精巧雅致,绫罗绸缎,工笔花鸟,刺绣缂丝。绘画与刺绣,逐渐使团扇变得越来越丰富、唯美,具有极高的美学欣赏价值。

In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Tuan fan was very popular. The main reason for its popularity was its rich functions. First, it can cover the face, "tuanfan, tuanfan, and beauty's illness cover the face", which makes the girls in tuanfan's deep boudoir like it. Secondly, Tuan fan can write poems, draw pictures and embroider. The ancients painted landscape buildings, grass, insects, flowers and birds on the Tuan fan, exquisite and elegant, with silk, fine brushwork, flowers and birds, and embroidery and tapestry. Painting and embroidery, gradually make the fan become more and more rich, aesthetic, with a high aesthetic value.

  这当然流行了,说:“吴中近事君知否,团扇家家画放翁”,由此可见当年团扇的行销使用盛况。

Of course, it's popular, saying, "if you know about Wuzhong's near affairs, you can see that the marketing and use of Tuan fan was in full swing.".

  除了羽扇、竹扇、纨扇之外,较早使用、范围较广的扇子还有“芭蕉扇”。

In addition to feather fans, bamboo fans and WAN fans, there are "banana fans" which are used earlier and have a wide range.

  蒲葵,棕榈科、常绿乔木,树冠伞形、叶大如扇,是热带、亚热带的常见绿化树种,在我国主要分布在广东、福建一带。蒲扇特点是材料价廉,式样朴素,既可扇,又可垫坐或遮日挡雨。既便宜又使用,所以在民间广为流传。魏晋时期已经成批生产。

Palmae, Palmae, evergreen trees, canopy umbrella, large leaves such as fan, is a common tropical and subtropical tree species, mainly distributed in Guangdong and Fujian in China. Pu fan is characterized by cheap material and simple style, which can not only fan, but also cushion or block the sun and rain. It's cheap and easy to use, so it's popular among the people. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, it had been produced in batches.

  芭蕉扇的流行跟谢安有关。《晋书》中记载了这样一个故事,谢安有一个朋友告老还乡,为了筹措旅费而售卖蒲葵扇,生意惨淡。谢安知道后,什么也没说,只是开始随身携带一把蒲葵扇,手谈清议间,风流自现。有了东晋一哥谢安的代言,芭蕉扇的扇价自然激增数倍,此人返乡路费便解决了。

The popularity of banana fans is related to Xie an. "The book of Jin" recorded such a story. Xie an had a friend who went back to his hometown to raise travel expenses and sold palm blossom fans. Business was dismal. When Xie an knew about it, he didn't say anything. He just started to carry a palm flower fan with him. He talked about it by hand, and the wind came to him. With the endorsement of xie'an, a elder brother of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the price of banana fans has naturally increased several times, and the cost of returning home has been solved.

  唐宋时期,还有一种扇子很流行,那就是折扇。

In the Tang and Song Dynasties, there was also a popular fan, which was folding fan.

  首先,以前的羽扇、竹扇、纨扇,虽有方形、圆形、六角形以及梅花形、扁形等各种形状,但其扇面一般都是固定的,不能折叠。而折扇扇面可折叠,开合自如,需用时散开,不用时合拢。使用、携带十分方便,也便于收藏。

First of all, the previous feather fans, bamboo fans, Wan fans, although there are square, circular, hexagonal and plum shaped, flat and other shapes, but the fan surface is generally fixed and cannot be folded. The folding fan is foldable and can be opened and closed freely. It can be spread when needed and closed when not used. It is very convenient to use and carry, and also convenient to collect.

  其次,折扇跟团扇一样,扇面也可以书画,雕花刻字,还可以挂吊坠,变成一件艺术品。

Secondly, folding fans, like round fans, can also be used for painting and calligraphy, carving and lettering, and hanging pendants to become a work of art.

  关于折扇的来源,有人说是我们中国自己发明的,也有人说是从高丽传入的,而高丽的折扇也可能是来自日本的,也就是说起源于日本。

As for the origin of folding fans, some people say that we invented them in China, others say that they were introduced from Koryo, and Koryo folding fans may also come from Japan, that is to say, they originated in Japan.

  起源于中国,是有史料支撑的,《与兄平原书》上说:“一日案行并视曹公器物、床荐席具,有扇如吴扇、要扇亦在。”《东宫旧事》上说:“(晋)皇太子初拜,供漆要扇、青竹扇各一。”这两则史料显示汉末及魏晋时期腰扇已在使用了。“腰扇”即折叠扇。

Originated in China, it is supported by historical materials. It is said in the book of the plain with elder brother: "a day's case and action are based on Cao's public utensils, bed and table utensils, and there are fans like Wu fans and important fans." "The old story of the eastern palace" said: "the first worship of the crown prince (Jin), for the paint to fan, green bamboo fan each one." These two historical materials show that waist fans were in use in the late Han Dynasty and the Wei Jin period. "Waist fan" means folding fan.

  为什么又流传折扇起源于日本的说法呢?主要是因为日本、高丽精美的折扇源源不断流入中国,而中国折扇因为简陋,最后只好反而淹没无闻了,这就是为什么有人说折扇是舶来品的原因。

Why is it popular that folding fans originated in Japan? It is mainly because Japan and Koryo's exquisite folding fans have been flowing into China continuously, while China's folding fans, because they are simple and crude, have to be drowned out. This is why some people say that folding fans are foreign products.

  《》记载,公元988年,端拱元年,日本僧侣嘉因觐见时献上桧扇二十把、蝙蝠扇两把。而桧扇和蝙蝠扇都是折扇。我国的匠师在学习日本、朝鲜折扇长处的同时,又结合我国盛产竹子、宣纸的特点以及雕刻、书画等传统艺术特色加以发展。

According to the book, in 988 ad, in the first year of Duangong, Japanese monk Jiayin presented 20 juniper fans and two bat fans to the audience. Juniper fan and bat fan are folding fans. While learning the advantages of folding fans from Japan and North Korea, Chinese craftsmen also developed them in combination with the characteristics of bamboo and rice paper, as well as the traditional art features of sculpture, calligraphy and painting.

  折扇虽然兴于宋代,但宋元这段时间并非折扇的鼎盛时期,折扇的鼎盛时期在,尤其是永乐年间,“永乐间始盛行于中国”。明朝命令大量制作,并在扇面上题诗赋词,分赠于大臣。一时折扇大贵,成为一种时尚。

Although folding fan flourished in Song Dynasty, it was not the peak period of folding fan in song and Yuan Dynasty, especially in Yongle period, "Yongle period began to prevail in China". The Ming Dynasty ordered a large number of works to be made, and poems and Fu poems were inscribed on the fan, which were distributed to ministers. For a while, folding fans are very expensive, which has become a fashion.

  明代官绅所用折扇用料考究,扇柄刻镂精致,除刻诗词字画外,有的甚至镂空填以异香,柄下饰以玉坠流苏。明代折扇不仅工艺水平高,又具有鲜明的中国特色,当时已能大量出口日本,且传入欧洲。

In Ming Dynasty, the materials of folding fans used by the officials and gentry were exquisite, and the handle of the fan was carved delicately. In addition to poems, words and paintings, some of them were even hollowed out and filled with exotic fragrance, and the handle was decorated with jade pendants and tassels. The folding fan of Ming Dynasty not only had a high level of technology, but also had distinct Chinese characteristics. At that time, it could be exported to Japan in large quantities and introduced into Europe.

  ,折扇之随处可见,简直登峰造极到有泛滥的地步了。

, folding fans can be seen everywhere, almost to the point of overflowing.

  小小的扇子除日用外,蕴藏着中华文化艺术的智慧,凝聚了古今工艺美术之精华,是民族传统文物中的艺术瑰宝。

In addition to daily use, a little fan contains the wisdom of Chinese culture and art, condensing the essence of ancient and modern arts and crafts, and is an artistic treasure of national traditional cultural relics.

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