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In 960, Zhujiang launched a campaign to establish Song Dynasty as emperor. In order to avoid the chaos in the late Tang Dynasty, Zhao Kuangyin adopted the policy of emphasizing culture and suppressing military affairs, strengthening centralized power and depriving military generals of military power. Unify the whole country after succeeding the throne and conclude with Liao state
And then gradually. In 1125, the kingdom of Jin invaded the south, which led to the humiliation and the destruction of the Northern Song Dynasty. King Kang ascended the throne in Nanjing and established
。 Later, it was bounded by Qinling Huaihe River. In 1234, it joined Mongolia to destroy Jin. In 1235, it broke out. In 1276, it occupied Lin'an. After the sea battle on the cliff, the Southern Song Dynasty was destroyed.
Song Dynasty is probably one of the worst dynasties in China's history. The word "weak song" seems to define the dynasty that has ruled China for more than 300 years. Two of them were captives. They could not wait to go to the sea on the mainland twice.
But in Europe, America and Japan, people's evaluation is much higher than that of the country behind them.
First of all, the science and technology of Song Dynasty was undoubtedly in the forefront of the world at that time. The three great inventions that shocked the world: gunpowder, movable type printing and compass were born in this period. As many famous historians at home and abroad have pointed out, these three inventions have changed the development process of the whole world civilization. In the middle of the Northern Song Dynasty, Yang Zhongfu formulated the unified calendar, taking 365.2425 as a year. This figure is exactly the same as that of the Western calendar when it was promulgated in 1582, only 26 seconds less than that measured by modern astronomy. It can be seen that the development level of astronomy in Song Dynasty is very high.
In the field of biology and medicine, Song Dynasty also made outstanding achievements. Under the background of the overall development of economy and culture, the Song Dynasty government attached great importance to the medical cause closely related to the health of the general public, not only the government came out to edit and print a lot of medical classics, but also required states and counties to promote their application. Among them, there are 100 volumes of Taiping Shenghui prescription, including 16834 prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine, and 200 volumes of shengjilu. It is an encyclopedia in medicine, collecting theoretical and practical achievements in diagnosis, prescription, pulse examination, medication, acupuncture and other aspects.
There are also two important achievements in the Song Dynasty:
First, the painting art of Song Dynasty. Although the last Northern Song Dynasty emperor was not able to be an emperor, his great contribution to Chinese painting was undeniable. First of all, he is a painter with deep talent and high attainments. Secondly, he was the organizer and main sponsor of the field of painting in Song Dynasty. Because of this origin, a large number of outstanding painters were gathered in the palace of Song Dynasty. Huang's flowers, Li Gonglin's characters, Mi Fu's and Zi Youren's landscapes, and Huizong's own flowers and birds are all outstanding in the world. Even if we look at their art level from the perspective of the present, we can say that there is no future.
Secondly, there is also one of the most brilliant arts and crafts in the Song Dynasty, which is the magnet. The profound culture of the Song Dynasty, the cultural accomplishment and value orientation of the rulers themselves, make the culture and art condensed in the song porcelain even more true. Song Guan kiln is a typical porcelain for the imperial use. Its glaze color is plain and implicit, and it shows the inner meaning in its simplicity and elegance. From the aesthetic point of view, its artistic style is extremely elegant, especially by Westerners. The fine flakes of ice gleam with the light of diamonds. It seems that Yan ice, hit by an ice pick by an artist in Song Dynasty, came to us through time and space, warm and delicate. Later generations called the five Ming kilns of the Song Dynasty "" the perfect combination of the most exquisite art and precise technology.
Some people think that the common people in Song Dynasty were influenced by "Zhuan" to a great extent. Let's not mention the fictional elements. In fact, from the perspective of "", the main reason for those who are forced to go to Liangshan is that they are persecuted, or they have committed crimes, or they are caught and cheated to go to Liangshan. There are very few people who really have no food and can't live to go to Liangshan. In politics, Song Dynasty "does not punish crimes by speech". Its economy accounts for 60% of the world at that time. Its industry and commerce are extremely prosperous, and its school education is extremely developed. It should be said that Song Dynasty has made outstanding achievements in all aspects. Many fields have reached the peak of ancient civilization, which has also brought great and far-reaching influence on the development of future culture.
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