记起前段时间在急诊室看到一小孩被 果冻 噎住，吸入气管导致窒息，周围人不懂得施救，送到医院已晚，这类情况很多见，而且国内对此类急救知识普及不够。下面跟随360常识网一起来了解一下吧。
Remember a few days ago in the emergency room saw a child choked by jelly, inhaled into the trachea, resulting in suffocation, people around did not know how to rescue, it was too late to be sent to the hospital, this kind of situation is very common, and domestic knowledge of such first aid is not enough. Let's follow 360 common sense net to learn about it.
Food, foreign body stuck throat is common in eating or mouth foreign body when laughing, playing or crying, especially in children. Because food or foreign matters are embedded in the glottis or fall into the trachea, the patient is suffocated or hard to breathe seriously, which is manifested as sudden cough, inability to pronounce, wheezing, shortness of breath, purplish skin. In serious cases, the patient may lose consciousness quickly, or even stop breathing and heartbeat. Once this happens, do not knock on the back of the patient. Contact with the hospital or transfer the patient to the hospital at the same time, immediately carry out on-site first aid.
The human lung can be imagined as a balloon, and the trachea is the air mouth of the balloon. If the air mouth is blocked by foreign matters, you can squeeze the balloon by hand, and the air in the balloon pressure ball moves up, so as to rush out the foreign matters blocking the air mouth. This is the physical principle of Heidegger abdominal impact method.
The first responder encircles the patient from the back, clenchs his fist with one hand, and holds his fist with the other hand. Suddenly, he presses his upper abdomen from the waist, forcing his upper abdomen to sink, causing the diaphragm to rise suddenly, which will suddenly increase the chest pressure of the patient. Because the chest is closed, only the trachea has an opening, so the gas in the chest (trachea and lung) will be under the pressure Naturally, it flows to the trachea, which can not be repeated many times at a time. Each impact will produce 450-500ml of gas, thus it is possible to expel foreign matters and restore the smoothness of the airway.
In 1974, American doctor hamlik invented the hamlik first aid method. Western 5-year-old children know how to implement this first aid method.
In 1974, an old man in the United States was stuck in his throat by a chicken when he went to dinner. Because at this time, she is hard to breathe, unable to speak, unable to call for help.
At this critical moment, a 70 year old neighbor had just read a popular article in the newspaper about the emergency treatment of tracheal foreign body invented by Dr. Henry J. Heimlich. Seeing this situation, the old man immediately applied the skills he learned to the old woman. He clasped her from behind with both hands, clenched his fist with one hand, and hit her abdomen with force upward. The chicken piece was soon spat out of the windpipe, and the old woman's face was red. This is the first case that Heidegger's technique is mastered by the public and the rescue is successful on the spot in time.
The main principle is to press the diaphragm upward quickly, so that the air in the lung will rush upward and foreign matters will be discharged.
First, the first responder should stand in the posture of bending the front leg and climbing the back leg, and then make the patient sit on the thigh that he has arched, and let his body lean forward slightly. Then extend the arms forward from both armpits and hug the patient. The left hand clenches the fist, and the right hand holds the left wrist from the front, so that the left fist and the tiger mouth stick to the lower part of the patient's chest and the center of the upper abdomen above the navel, forming a "encirclement" trend, then suddenly and forcefully tighten the arms, and use the left fist and the tiger mouth to exert strong pressure on the upper part of the patient's upper abdomen, forcing its upper abdomen to sink. In this way, due to the abdominal depression, the content of the abdominal cavity moves up, forcing the diaphragm to rise and squeezing the lung and bronchus, so that each shock can provide a certain amount of air for the airway, thus flushing the foreign body out of the trachea. After the pressure is applied, release the arm immediately, and then repeat the operation until the foreign body is discharged.
In case of acute airway foreign body obstruction, if there is no one around, the patient can also carry out abdominal impact by himself, with the same technique, or press the upper abdomen onto any hard and protruding object, and carry out repeatedly.
For the patients who are extremely obese and have foreign body blockage in the respiratory tract in the later stage of pregnancy, the chest impact method should be adopted, with the posture unchanged, only the tiger mouth of the left hand should be pasted on the lower end of the patient's sternum, and attention should be paid not to deviate from the sternum, so as to avoid rib fracture.
For patients with unclear consciousness, the first responder can make the patient lie on the back first, then ride on the patient's thigh or on both sides of the patient, place the two palms of both hands overlapped above the patient's navel, use the root of the palms to press forward and down suddenly and repeatedly.
If cardiac arrest has occurred, cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed according to the routine steps of cardiopulmonary resuscitation until the arrival of medical staff.
Matters needing attention
When using hamlik technique, it should be noted that each quick pressing must be separated and clear, and supplemented with the action of relieving obstruction. If the rescuer is too short to encircle the patient's waist, the hamlik maneuver can be performed while the patient is lying flat. For pregnant or obese patients, whether or not there is a response, should use chest rapid compression to replace abdominal rapid compression. If there is only the wounded on site, the upper abdomen can be pressed on the back of the chair, the corner of the table, the railing, etc. repeatedly and forcefully. Zhan Hong pointed out that when giving first aid, the strength should be moderate, so as not to cause rib fracture or visceral injury. In addition, it is forbidden to take out foreign matters by hand or with pliers to prevent them from entering deeper.