气管进异物用哈姆力克急救法 哈姆力克急救操作方法-看世界

气管进异物用哈姆力克急救法 哈姆力克急救操作方法

记起前段时间在急诊室看到一小孩被 果冻 噎住,吸入气管导致窒息,周围人不懂得施救,送到医院已晚,这类情况很多见,而且国内对此类急救知识普及不够。下面跟随360常识网一起来了解一下吧。

记起前段时间在急诊室看到一小孩被 果冻 噎住,吸入气管导致窒息,周围人不懂得施救,送到医院已晚,这类情况很多见,而且国内对此类急救知识普及不够。下面跟随360常识网一起来了解一下吧。

Remember a few days ago in the emergency room saw a child choked by jelly, inhaled into the trachea, resulting in suffocation, people around did not know how to rescue, it was too late to be sent to the hospital, this kind of situation is very common, and domestic knowledge of such first aid is not enough. Let's follow 360 common sense net to learn about it.

哈姆力克急救法(Heimlich Maneuver)

Heimlich maneuver

食物、异物卡喉常见于进食或口含异物时嬉笑、打闹或啼哭而发生,尤其多见于儿童。由于食物或异物嵌顿于声门或落入气管,造成病人窒息或严重呼吸因难,表现为突然呛咳、不能发音、喘鸣、呼吸急促、皮肤发紫,严重者可迅速出现意识丧失,甚至呼吸心跳停止。一旦发生这种情况,千万不要叩击病人的背部,应在迅速与医院联系或将病人转送医院的同时,立即对其进行现场急救。

Food, foreign body stuck throat is common in eating or mouth foreign body when laughing, playing or crying, especially in children. Because food or foreign matters are embedded in the glottis or fall into the trachea, the patient is suffocated or hard to breathe seriously, which is manifested as sudden cough, inability to pronounce, wheezing, shortness of breath, purplish skin. In serious cases, the patient may lose consciousness quickly, or even stop breathing and heartbeat. Once this happens, do not knock on the back of the patient. Contact with the hospital or transfer the patient to the hospital at the same time, immediately carry out on-site first aid.

可以将人的肺部设想成一个气球,气管就是气球的气嘴儿,假如气嘴儿被异物阻塞,可以用手捏挤气球,气球受压球内空气上移,从而将阻塞气嘴儿的异物冲出,这就是海氏腹部冲击法的物理学原理。

The human lung can be imagined as a balloon, and the trachea is the air mouth of the balloon. If the air mouth is blocked by foreign matters, you can squeeze the balloon by hand, and the air in the balloon pressure ball moves up, so as to rush out the foreign matters blocking the air mouth. This is the physical principle of Heidegger abdominal impact method.

急救者从背后环抱患者,双手一手握拳,另一手握紧握拳的手,从腰部突然向其上腹部施压,迫使其上腹部下陷,造成膈肌突然上升,这样就会使患者的胸腔压力骤然增加,由于胸腔是密闭的,只有气管一个开口,故胸腔(气管和肺)内的气体就会在压力的作用下自然地涌向气管,一次不行可反复多次,每次冲击将产生450~500毫升的气体,从而就有可能将异物排出,恢复气道的通畅。

The first responder encircles the patient from the back, clenchs his fist with one hand, and holds his fist with the other hand. Suddenly, he presses his upper abdomen from the waist, forcing his upper abdomen to sink, causing the diaphragm to rise suddenly, which will suddenly increase the chest pressure of the patient. Because the chest is closed, only the trachea has an opening, so the gas in the chest (trachea and lung) will be under the pressure Naturally, it flows to the trachea, which can not be repeated many times at a time. Each impact will produce 450-500ml of gas, thus it is possible to expel foreign matters and restore the smoothness of the airway.

一九七四年美国哈姆立克医师发明了哈姆立克急救法。 西方5岁小孩都懂得实施此急救方法。

In 1974, American doctor hamlik invented the hamlik first aid method. Western 5-year-old children know how to implement this first aid method.

1974年,美国一位老人在进晚餐时被鸡块卡在了喉部,生命岌岌可 海姆立克急救法危。因为此时她呼吸困难,不能发声,无法拨打电话呼救。

In 1974, an old man in the United States was stuck in his throat by a chicken when he went to dinner. Because at this time, she is hard to breathe, unable to speak, unable to call for help.

正在这千钧一发之际,她的邻居一位70岁的老人,刚刚在报纸上读过一篇介绍亨利·海姆立克医生(Henry J·Heimlich)发明的气管异物急救的科普文章。老人见此情景,马上将学到的技能用到老妇身上。他用双手从背后将她抱住,一手握拳,向上用力冲击其腹部,鸡块很快地被冲击出气管吐出,老妇憋得青紫的面孔顿显红润。这是海氏手法被民众掌握,及时现场救护成功的第一例。

At this critical moment, a 70 year old neighbor had just read a popular article in the newspaper about the emergency treatment of tracheal foreign body invented by Dr. Henry J. Heimlich. Seeing this situation, the old man immediately applied the skills he learned to the old woman. He clasped her from behind with both hands, clenched his fist with one hand, and hit her abdomen with force upward. The chicken piece was soon spat out of the windpipe, and the old woman's face was red. This is the first case that Heidegger's technique is mastered by the public and the rescue is successful on the spot in time.

主要的原理为将横隔膜往上快速挤压,使肺内空气往上冲而将异物排出。

The main principle is to press the diaphragm upward quickly, so that the air in the lung will rush upward and foreign matters will be discharged.

操作方法

Operation method

急救者首先以前腿弓,后腿登的姿势站稳,然后使患者坐在自己弓起的大腿上,并让其身体略前倾。然后将双臂分别从患者两腋下前伸并环抱患者。左手握拳,右手从前方握住左手手腕,使左拳虎口贴在患者胸部下方,肚脐上方的上腹部中央,形成“合围”之势,然后突然用力收紧双臂,用左拳虎口向患者上腹部内上方猛烈施压,迫使其上腹部下陷。这样由于腹部下陷,腹腔内容上移,迫使膈肌上升而挤压肺及支气管,这样每次冲击可以为气道提供一定的气量,从而将异物从气管内冲出。施压完毕后立即放松手臂,然后再重复操作,直到异物被排出。

First, the first responder should stand in the posture of bending the front leg and climbing the back leg, and then make the patient sit on the thigh that he has arched, and let his body lean forward slightly. Then extend the arms forward from both armpits and hug the patient. The left hand clenches the fist, and the right hand holds the left wrist from the front, so that the left fist and the tiger mouth stick to the lower part of the patient's chest and the center of the upper abdomen above the navel, forming a "encirclement" trend, then suddenly and forcefully tighten the arms, and use the left fist and the tiger mouth to exert strong pressure on the upper part of the patient's upper abdomen, forcing its upper abdomen to sink. In this way, due to the abdominal depression, the content of the abdominal cavity moves up, forcing the diaphragm to rise and squeezing the lung and bronchus, so that each shock can provide a certain amount of air for the airway, thus flushing the foreign body out of the trachea. After the pressure is applied, release the arm immediately, and then repeat the operation until the foreign body is discharged.

发生急性呼吸道异物阻塞时如果身边无人,患者也可以自己实施腹部冲击,手法相同,或将上腹部压向任何坚硬、突出的物体上,并且反复实施。

In case of acute airway foreign body obstruction, if there is no one around, the patient can also carry out abdominal impact by himself, with the same technique, or press the upper abdomen onto any hard and protruding object, and carry out repeatedly.

对于极度肥胖及怀孕后期发生呼吸道异物堵塞的患者,应当采用胸部冲击法,姿势不变,只是将左手的虎口贴在患者胸骨下端即可,注意不要偏离胸骨,以免造成肋骨骨折。

For the patients who are extremely obese and have foreign body blockage in the respiratory tract in the later stage of pregnancy, the chest impact method should be adopted, with the posture unchanged, only the tiger mouth of the left hand should be pasted on the lower end of the patient's sternum, and attention should be paid not to deviate from the sternum, so as to avoid rib fracture.

对于意识不清的患者,急救者可以先使患者成为仰卧位,然后骑跨在患者大腿上或在患者两边,双手两掌重叠置于患者肚脐上方,用掌根向前、下方突然施压,反复进行。

For patients with unclear consciousness, the first responder can make the patient lie on the back first, then ride on the patient's thigh or on both sides of the patient, place the two palms of both hands overlapped above the patient's navel, use the root of the palms to press forward and down suddenly and repeatedly.

如果患者已经发生心搏停止,此时应按照心肺复苏的常规步骤为患者实施心肺复苏,直到医务人员到来。

If cardiac arrest has occurred, cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed according to the routine steps of cardiopulmonary resuscitation until the arrival of medical staff.

注意事项

Matters needing attention

使用哈姆立克手法时需注意的是,每一次快速按压必须各自分开而明确,并辅以缓解梗阻的动作。如果施救者太矮以致无法环绕患者腰部,可以在患者平躺时施行哈姆立克手法。而对怀孕或肥胖的患者,无论有无反应,应使用胸部快速按压以取代腹部快速按压。如果现场只有伤员自己,则可以自行将上腹压在椅背、桌角、栏杆等,反复用力压迫。詹红主任指出,急救时,用力要适度,以免造成肋骨骨折或内脏损伤。另外,要切忌用手掏或使用钳子夹取异物,以防异物进入更深处。

When using hamlik technique, it should be noted that each quick pressing must be separated and clear, and supplemented with the action of relieving obstruction. If the rescuer is too short to encircle the patient's waist, the hamlik maneuver can be performed while the patient is lying flat. For pregnant or obese patients, whether or not there is a response, should use chest rapid compression to replace abdominal rapid compression. If there is only the wounded on site, the upper abdomen can be pressed on the back of the chair, the corner of the table, the railing, etc. repeatedly and forcefully. Zhan Hong pointed out that when giving first aid, the strength should be moderate, so as not to cause rib fracture or visceral injury. In addition, it is forbidden to take out foreign matters by hand or with pliers to prevent them from entering deeper.

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