处理骨折的五大策略 固定时应不松不紧而牢固-看世界

处理骨折的五大策略 固定时应不松不紧而牢固

骨折固定技术在急救中占有重要位置,及时、正确的固定,对预防休克,防止伤口感染,避免神经、血管、骨骼、软组织等再遭损伤有极好作用。下面跟随360常识网一起来了解一下吧。

骨折固定技术在急救中占有重要位置,及时、正确的固定,对预防休克,防止伤口感染,避免神经、血管、骨骼、软组织等再遭损伤有极好作用。下面跟随360常识网一起来了解一下吧。

Fracture fixation technology plays an important role in emergency treatment. Timely and correct fixation plays an excellent role in preventing shock, preventing wound infection, and preventing nerve, blood vessel, bone and soft tissue from being damaged again. Let's follow 360 common sense net to learn about it.

·急救固定器材院外急救骨折固定时,常常就地取材,如各种2—3 厘米厚的木板、竹竿、竹片、树枝、木棍、硬纸板、枪支、刺刀,以及伤者健(下)肢等,均可作为固定代用品。

·When the fracture is fixed outside the hospital, the local materials are often taken, such as various 2-3cm thick boards, bamboo poles, bamboo pieces, branches, sticks, cardboard, guns, bayonets, and the healthy (lower) limbs of the injured, which can be used as fixed substitutes.

·颈椎骨折固定使伤者的头颈与躯干保持直线位置;将木板放置于头至臀下,用棉布、衣物等,将伤者颈、头两侧垫好,防止左右摆动;然后用绷带或布带将额部、肩和上胸、臀部固定于木板上,使之稳固。

·The fracture fixation of the cervical spine keeps the head and neck of the injured in a straight position with the trunk; the board is placed under the head and buttocks, and the neck and both sides of the head are padded with cotton cloth and clothes to prevent the left and right swing; then the forehead, shoulder, upper chest and buttocks are fixed on the board with bandages or cloth to make it stable.

·锁骨骨折固定用绷带在肩背做8字形固定,并用三角巾或宽布条系于颈部吊托前臂。

·The fracture of clavicle was fixed with bandage on the back of shoulder in the shape of 8, and the triangle towel or wide cloth was used to fasten it on the neck to lift the forearm.

·肱骨骨折固定  用代用夹板2—3块固定患肢,并用三角巾、布条将其悬吊于颈部。

·Humerus fracture fixation: 2-3 pieces of splints were used to fix the affected limb, and the triangular towel and cloth strip were used to suspend it in the neck.

·前臂骨折固定选用两块木板,长度要超过肘关节,分别置于前臂掌、背两侧,然后用布带或三角巾捆绑托起。

·The forearm fracture is fixed with two boards, which are longer than the elbow joint, placed on both sides of the forearm palm and back respectively, and then tied and supported with cloth belt or triangular towel.

·股骨骨折固定选用木板两块,将大腿小腿一起固定。置于大腿前后长达腰部,并将踝关节一起固定,以防这两部位活动引起骨折错位。

·Two wooden plates were used to fix the femoral fracture, and the thighs and legs were fixed together. It is placed in the front and back of the thigh as long as the waist, and the ankle joint is fixed together to prevent the fracture dislocation caused by the movement of these two parts.

·小腿骨折固定腓骨骨折在没有固定材料的情况下,可将患肢固定在健肢上。

·The lower leg fracture fixed fibula fracture can be fixed on the healthy limb without fixed material.

骨折固定五大策略:

Five strategies for fracture fixation:

1.遇有呼吸、心跳停止者先行心肺复苏术;出血休克者先止血,病情有根本好转后进行固定。

1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed in case of respiratory and cardiac arrest; hemostasis should be performed in case of haemorrhage and shock, and fixation should be performed in case of fundamental improvement.

2.院外固定时,对骨折后造成的畸形禁止整复,不能把骨折断端送回伤口内,只要适当固定即可。

2. During the external fixation, it is forbidden to restore the deformity caused by the fracture, and the broken end of the fracture cannot be returned to the wound, as long as it is properly fixed.

3.代用品的夹板要长于两头的关节并一起固定。夹板应光滑,夹板靠皮肤一面,最好用软垫垫起并包裹两头。

3. The splint of the substitute should be longer than the joint of both ends and fixed together. The splint shall be smooth, and the splint shall be on one side against the skin. It is better to cushion and wrap both ends with a cushion.

4.固定时应不松、不紧而牢固。

4. It shall not be loose, tight and firm when fixed.

5.固定四肢时应尽可能暴露手指(足趾),以观察有无指(趾)尖发紫、肿胀、疼痛、血循环障碍等。

5. When fixing the limbs, the fingers (toes) should be exposed as much as possible to observe whether there is purple, swelling, pain, blood circulation disorder and so on.

骨折吃什么对身体好?

What does fracture eat good to the body?

1、多吃新鲜的蔬菜水果;

1. Eat more fresh fruits and vegetables;

2、适当多吃一些青椒、西红柿、苋菜、青菜、包菜、萝卜等维生素C含量丰富的蔬菜,以促进骨痂生长和伤口愈合。

2. Eat more vegetables with rich vitamin C, such as green pepper, tomato, amaranth, green vegetables, cabbage, radish, etc., to promote callus growth and wound healing.

3、补充锌、铁、锰等微量元素。动物肝脏、海产品、黄豆、葵花籽、蘑菇中含锌较多;动物肝脏、鸡蛋、豆类、绿叶蔬菜、小麦面粉中含铁较多;麦片、芥菜、蛋黄、乳酪中含锰较多。

3. Supplement zinc, iron, manganese and other trace elements. Animal liver, seafood, soybean, sunflower seed and mushroom contain more zinc; animal liver, egg, bean, green leaf vegetable and wheat flour contain more iron; oatmeal, mustard, egg yolk and cheese contain more manganese.

骨折最好别吃什么食物?

Fracture had better not eat what food?

(1)忌盲目补充钙质。对于骨折后卧床期间的病人,盲目地补充钙质,并无裨益,还可能有害。

(1) do not blindly supplement calcium. For the patients in bed after fracture, blind calcium supplement is not beneficial, but also harmful.

(2)忌多吃肉骨头有些人认为,骨折后多吃肉骨头,可使骨折早期愈合。其实不然,现代医学经过多次实践证明,骨折病人多吃肉骨头,非但不能早期愈合,反而会使骨折愈合时间推迟。

(2) avoid eating more meat and bone some people think that eating more meat and bone after fracture can make the fracture heal early. In fact, modern medicine has proved many times that fracture patients eat more meat and bones, not only can't heal early, but will delay the time of fracture healing.

(3)忌偏食

(3) avoid partial food.

(4)忌食山芋、芋艿、糯米等易胀气或不消化食物,

(4) avoid eating taro, taro, glutinous rice and other foods that are prone to flatulence or indigestion,

(5)忌少喝水卧床骨折病人,尤其是脊柱、骨盆及下肢骨折病人,行动十分不便,因此就尽量少喝水,以减少小便次数,如此虽小便次数减少,但更大的麻烦也产生了。如卧床病人活动少,肠蠕动减弱,再加上饮水减少,就很容易引起大便秘结。长期卧床,小便潴留,也容易诱发尿路结石和泌尿系感染。所以,卧床骨折病人想喝水就喝,不必顾虑重重。

(5) do not drink less water in bed fracture patients, especially in spine, pelvis and lower limbs fracture patients, which is very inconvenient to move. Therefore, drink less water as much as possible to reduce the number of urination. Although the number of urination is reduced, more troubles also arise. If bedridden patients have less activity, intestinal peristalsis is weakened, and drinking water is reduced, it is easy to cause constipation. Long term bedridden * urine retention is also easy to induce urinary calculi and urinary tract infections. Therefore, bed fracture patients want to drink water, do not have to worry about heavy.

(6)忌过食白糖大量摄取白糖后,将引起葡萄糖的急剧代谢,从而产生代谢的中间物质,如丙酮酸、乳酸等,使机体呈酸性中毒状态。这时,碱性的钙、镁、钠等离子,便会立即被调动参加中和作用,以防止血液出现酸性。如此钙的大量消耗,将不利于骨折病人的康复。同时,过多的白糖亦会使体内维生素B1的含量减少,这是因维生素B1是糖在体内转化为能量时必需的物质。维生素B1不足,大大降低神经和肌肉的活动能力,亦影响功能的恢复。所以,骨折病人忌摄食过多的白糖。

(6) avoid eating too much white sugar, which will lead to the rapid metabolism of glucose, resulting in the metabolism of intermediate substances, such as pyruvate, lactate, etc., making the body in an acid toxic state. At this time, alkaline calcium, magnesium, sodium plasma, will be immediately mobilized to participate in the neutralization, to prevent the occurrence of acid blood. Such a large amount of calcium consumption will not be conducive to the rehabilitation of fracture patients. At the same time, too much white sugar will also reduce the content of vitamin B1 in the body, which is because vitamin B1 is a necessary substance for the transformation of sugar into energy in the body. Vitamin B1 deficiency, greatly reduces the nerve and muscle activity, but also affects the recovery of function. Therefore, fracture patients should not eat too much sugar.

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