辣椒为什么有辣的有不辣的 缓解辣味辣椒辣感的方法-看世界

辣椒为什么有辣的有不辣的 缓解辣味辣椒辣感的方法

辣椒的辛辣味来自辣椒素分子,它能保护辣椒果实不被真菌腐蚀和啮齿动物啃咬,同时它还不会阻碍鸟类传播果实的种子。但这就引出了一个新问题:既然辣味如此有益,那为什么有些辣椒不辣?下面跟随360常识网一起来了解一下吧。

辣椒的辛辣味来自辣椒素分子,它能保护辣椒果实不被真菌腐蚀和啮齿动物啃咬,同时它还不会阻碍鸟类传播果实的种子。但这就引出了一个新问题:既然辣味如此有益,那为什么有些辣椒不辣?下面跟随360常识网一起来了解一下吧。

The spicy taste of capsaicin comes from capsaicin molecule, which can protect pepper fruit from fungus corrosion and rodent bite, and it will not prevent birds from spreading the seeds of the fruit. But this raises a new question: Why are some peppers not so spicy, since they are so beneficial? Let's follow 360 common sense net to learn about it.

在2011年12月21日发表在《皇家学会学报B》 (Proceedings of the Royal Society B)的一项研究中,美国华盛顿大学研究者给了我们一个答案。 大卫.哈克(David Haak)毕业于华盛顿大学,现为印第安纳大学博士后。他研究过一种生长在玻利维亚的野生辣椒 Capsicum chacoense 。哈克和华盛顿大学生态学家图克斯伯里及同事发现,在他们的研究地区中,最潮湿的地方只有辣的辣椒生长。最干燥的地方则二者兼具,但也只有15{bf}到20{bf}的植物结出了辣的果实。

In a study published in proceedings of the Royal Society B on December 21, 2011, researchers from the University of Washington gave us an answer. David Haak graduated from Washington University and is now a postdoctoral student at Indiana University. He studied Capsicum chacoense, a wild pepper grown in Bolivia. Huck and ecologist tuxbury of the University of Washington and colleagues found that in their study area, the wettest place was only hot pepper. The driest places have both, but only 15 {BF} to 20 {BF} plants produce spicy fruit.

研究人员在已经测量过降水量和植物种类的研究区域中,收集了其中三块区域中结出的辣的和不辣的辣椒。他们在实验室内播种种子,模拟潮湿和干燥环境,分别给植物足够的水分和不充足的水分。研究人员发现,不辣植物和辣的植物在水分充足时,长势均良好,辣的植物产出的种子与不辣的植物一样多。但是由于玻利维亚喜潮湿环境的Fusarium类真菌会攻击辣椒,所以不辣植物更脆弱且不易生存。哈克和同事总结道,这就是玻利维亚潮湿地带,辣的辣椒占主导地位的原因。

In the study area, which has measured rainfall and plant species, researchers collected hot and non hot peppers from three of the areas. They plant seeds in the laboratory, simulating wet and dry conditions, giving plants enough water and insufficient water, respectively. The researchers found that both non spicy and spicy plants grow well when the water is sufficient. Spicy plants produce as many seeds as non spicy plants. However, due to the fact that Fusarium fungi like humid environment in Bolivia attack capsicum, non spicy plants are more vulnerable and difficult to survive. That's why hot peppers dominate Bolivia's humid regions, Huck and colleagues conclude.

但是当植物在干燥环境下生长时,辛辣植物的种子只有不辣植物的一半。这是由于,植物的水分通过叶片和茎干上的微小气孔排出。在白天,植物通过气孔,释放出氧气,吸收进二氧化碳,但这种气体交换会导致水分的散失。由于气体叶片上的气孔密度直接影响到水分的损失,因此研究团队就对比了30株育龄和高度相近的辛辣辣椒和不辣辣椒上的气孔密度。

But when plants grow in a dry environment, the seeds of spicy plants are only half of those of non spicy plants. This is because the water of the plant is discharged through the tiny pores on the leaves and stems. During the day, plants release oxygen through their stomata and absorb carbon dioxide, but this gas exchange will lead to water loss. Because the stomatal density on the gas leaves directly affects the water loss, the research team compared the stomatal density on 30 spicy and non spicy peppers of similar breeding age and height.

他们发现,辛辣植物的气孔密度要比不辣植物高出40{bf}。将两类植物进行杂交后,研究团队发现杂交后的辣椒果实,辣的杂交辣椒上的气孔密度还是要比不辣的杂交辣椒高。由于辣的植物失水更多,所以它们的种子不会很多。在干燥环境下,对不辣辣椒来说,真菌Fusarium不再是大问题,由于它能够留住更多的水分,产的种子也就更多,因此这些植物就可以在干燥环境下繁荣并超越它们的辣椒同类。

They found that the stomatal density of spicy plants was 40 {BF} higher than that of non spicy plants. After crossing the two kinds of plants, the team found that the stomatal density of hot pepper was higher than that of non hot pepper. Because spicy plants lose more water, they don't have many seeds. In the dry environment, Fusarium is no longer a big problem for non spicy pepper. Because it can retain more water and produce more seeds, these plants can flourish in the dry environment and surpass their pepper counterparts.

药理作用

pharmacological action

对消化系统的作用

Effect on digestive system

辣椒酊或辣椒碱,内服可作健胃剂,有促进食欲、改善消化的作用。动物试验(巴索夫胃痿狗)证明,辣椒水的刺激口腔黏膜,反射性地加强胃的运动。用各种辣椒制成的调味品,人口服后,可增加唾液分泌及淀粉酶活性。大剂量口服可产生胃炎、肠炎、腹泻、呕吐等。曾有报告辣椒对离体动物肠管有抑制及解痉作用。

Capsicum tincture or capsaicin can be used as stomach invigorating agent, which can promote appetite and improve digestion. Animal experiment (Basov's stomach flaccid dog) proved that pepper water stimulates oral mucosa and reflex strengthens gastric movement. The condiment made of various capsicum can increase saliva secretion and amylase activity after oral administration. Large dose oral administration can produce gastritis, enteritis, diarrhea, vomiting and so on. It has been reported that capsicum has inhibitory and antispasmodic effects on isolated intestine.

抗菌及杀虫作用

Antibacterial and insecticidal effects

辣椒碱对蜡样芽胞杆菌及枯草杆菌有显着抑制作用,但对金黄色葡萄球菌及大肠杆菌无效。其枝、叶并无抗菌作用,仅对结核杆菌有很轻微的抑制。10-20%辣椒煎荆有杀灭臭虫的功效。

Capsaicin had significant inhibitory effect on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis, but had no effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Its branches and leaves had no antibacterial effect, but only slightly inhibited Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 10-20% Hot Pepper Fried wattle has the effect of killing bedbugs.

发赤作用

Redaction

外用作为涂擦剂对皮肤有发苏作用,使皮肤局部血管起反射性扩张,促进局部血液循环的旺盛。酊剂可用于冻疮;但也有人认为,辣椒仅强烈刺激感觉神经末梢,引起温暖感,对血管则很少影响,高浓度也不发泡,故不能视为发赤剂。

As an external application, it has the function of fringing on the skin, making the local blood vessels of the skin reflexively dilate, and promoting the exuberance of local blood circulation. Tincture can be used for chilblain, but it is also believed that capsicum only strongly stimulates sensory nerve endings, causes warmth, has little effect on blood vessels, and does not foam in high concentration, so it cannot be regarded as a redness agent.

对循环系统的作用

Effect on circulation system

辛辣物质(生姜、胡椒,特别是辣椒)可刺激人舌的味觉感受器.反射性地引起血压上升(特别是舒张压),对脉搏无明显影响。辣椒碱或辣椒制剂对麻醉猫、犬静脉注射可引起短暂血压下降、心跳变慢及呼吸困难,此乃刺激肺及冠脉区的化学感受器或伸张感受器所引起。对离体豚鼠心房则有直接的兴奋作用,对大鼠后肢血管也有收缩作用。

Pungent substances (ginger, pepper, especially pepper) can stimulate the taste receptors of human tongue, and reflexively cause the rise of blood pressure (especially diastolic pressure), without obvious effect on pulse. The intravenous injection of capsaicin or capsicum preparation to anesthetized cats and dogs can cause short-term blood pressure drop, slow heartbeat and dyspnea, which are caused by the stimulation of chemoreceptors or extensional receptors in the lung and coronary areas. It can stimulate the isolated guinea pig atrium and constrict the blood vessels in the hind limbs of rats.

注意事项

Matters needing attention

辣椒虽然富于营养,又有重要的药用价值,但食用过量反而危害人体健康。因为过多的辣椒素会剧烈刺激胃肠粘膜,使其高度充血、蠕动加快,引起胃疼、腹痛、腹泻并使肛门烧灼刺疼,诱发胃肠疾病,促使痔疮出血。因此,凡患食管炎、胃肠炎、胃溃疡以及痔疮等病者,均应少吃或忌食辣椒。

Although capsicum is rich in nutrition and has important medicinal value, excessive consumption is harmful to human health. Because too much capsaicin can acutely stimulate gastrointestinal mucosa, make it highly congested and peristaltic, cause stomachache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and make anus burn and sting, induce gastrointestinal diseases, and promote hemorrhoids bleeding. Therefore, those who suffer from esophagitis, gastroenteritis, gastric ulcer and hemorrhoids should eat less or avoid chili.

缓解辣感方法:

Ways to relieve the hot feeling:

当你吃辣椒的时候,你会觉得很热,并且会自然而然地想喝水或者吃些主食来冲淡辣味。其实,这样做的效果并不会很理想。事实上,辣椒素会紧紧地与味觉器官上的神经受体相结合,并且辣椒素为非水溶性物质,它只能与脂肪、油类及酒精相结合。这就不难解释,为什么啤酒比水更容易冲淡辣味。事实上使辣椒降低辣味的最快办法是加点醋进去而且这样还可以少上火。

When you eat chili, you feel hot, and naturally want to drink water or eat some staple food to dilute the hot taste. In fact, the effect is not ideal. In fact, capsaicin tightly binds to nerve receptors on taste organs, and capsaicin is a water-insoluble substance that can only bind to fat, oil and alcohol. It's not hard to explain why beer is easier to dilute the spicy flavor than water. In fact, the fastest way to reduce the chilli's spicy flavor is to add some vinegar in it, and it can also reduce the heat.

但最好的缓解辣味的食物是牛奶,尤其是脱脂牛奶。虽然之前曾认为牛奶中的脂类可以更好地和辣椒素结合,而研究发现,真正有效的成分是牛奶中的酪蛋白。

But the best food to relieve the hot taste is milk, especially skimmed milk. Although it was previously thought that the lipids in milk can better combine with capsaicin, the research found that the real effective ingredient is casein in milk.

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