郁金香的花边是怎样形成的 花边可能是种球基因突变-看世界

郁金香的花边是怎样形成的 花边可能是种球基因突变

郁金香以其优美多变的外形和丰富的花色而闻名,许多郁金香的杯形花朵上,色彩也不止一种。扬子晚报记者看到,“克劳迪娅”这个品种的花是紫红色的,但是“杯口”上却镶嵌着白色如蕾丝般的花边。而绿色的“克劳斯王子”花瓣上,花边却是玫红色的。郁金香美丽的花边是怎样形成的?下面和360常识网一起来看看吧。

郁金香以其优美多变的外形和丰富的花色而闻名,许多郁金香的杯形花朵上,色彩也不止一种。扬子晚报记者看到,“克劳迪娅”这个品种的花是紫红色的,但是“杯口”上却镶嵌着白色如蕾丝般的花边。而绿色的“克劳斯王子”花瓣上,花边却是玫红色的。郁金香美丽的花边是怎样形成的?下面和360常识网一起来看看吧。

Tulip is famous for its beautiful and changeable shapes and rich colors. There are more than one color in many tulip cup-shaped flowers. The reporter of Yangzi Evening News saw that the flower of "Claudia" is purplish red, but the "cup mouth" is inlaid with white lace like lace. And green "Prince Klaus" petals, lace is rose red. How is tulip beautiful lace formed? Let's have a look with 360 common sense.

郁金香杂交时颜色会变化

The color of tulips changes when they cross

郁金香花朵的颜色是由花朵中不同的色素组成和它们之间的比例来决定的。目前已知的郁金香品种中存在的色素达500种之多,黄色品种花瓣中只含类胡萝卜素,橙色品种花瓣中至少含有类胡萝卜素和花青素。而红色品种花瓣中含有花青素和花葵素,紫色品种花瓣中含有花青素和花翠素,粉色品种中含有多种色素,但色素含量要低一些,而白色的品种花朵中几乎不含任何色素。

The color of tulip flowers is determined by the composition of different pigments in the flowers and the proportion between them. At present, there are more than 500 kinds of pigments in the known tulip varieties. The Yellow varieties only contain carotenoids, while the orange varieties contain at least carotenoids and anthocyanins. The petals of red varieties contain anthocyanin and anthocyanin, the petals of purple varieties contain anthocyanin and anthocyanin, the petals of pink varieties contain a variety of pigments, but the pigment content is lower, while the flowers of white varieties contain almost no pigment.

有资料显示,为了对郁金香色素遗传规律进行研究,曾经有科研人员做了大量的试验。其中一个试验,对大量郁金香父母本进行杂交,获得了1000株实生苗。经过栽培后,得到21个颜色群体。在这些群体中包含了单色群体和复色群体。然后,科研人员对不同群体的色素进行比对和遗传背景分析发现,想要通过其父母本的颜色来预测杂交后代的花朵颜色是不可行的。也就是说,如果用白色的郁金香和白色的郁金香杂交,后代可能不是白色的,而可能是红色的或其它颜色。

According to some data, in order to study the genetic law of tulip pigment, a lot of experiments have been done by researchers. In one experiment, a large number of parents of tulip were crossed and 1000 seedlings were obtained. After cultivation, 21 color groups were obtained. There are monochromatic and polychromatic groups in these groups. Then, the researchers compared different groups of pigments and genetic background analysis found that it is not feasible to predict the color of hybrid flowers through the color of their parents. That is to say, if white tulips and white tulips are used for hybridization, the offspring may not be white, but red or other colors.

“花边”可能是种球基因突变

"Lace" may be a mutation of seed ball gene

对于“花边”的出现,李梅说,可能是来自于郁金香种球的基因突变。据悉,突变能够改变郁金香的颜色和花型,如单一的颜色可以突变成边着色或杂色,花朵形状可以变成鹦鹉郁金香型、边饰型或重瓣郁金香。而许多受欢迎的郁金香品种,都是通过对种球进行辐射处理来人工诱导突变的。此外,扬子晚报记者了解到,除了人工诱导突变,还有一种可能是郁金香自身的一种“病变”。比如,洒金桃叶珊瑚就是桃叶珊瑚的一种,但蚜虫携带一种病毒侵蚀桃叶珊瑚,导致叶片上出现黄色的斑点,“洒金”由此而来。病毒引起了它遗传的变异,没想到“斑点”竟然成为一种稳定的遗传,就出现了“洒金桃叶珊瑚”。

As for the appearance of "lace", Li Mei said, it may be a gene mutation from tulip bulbs. It is reported that mutation can change the color and flower type of tulips. For example, a single color can change into edge coloring or variegation, and the flower shape can change into Parrot Tulip, edge decoration or double tulip. Many popular tulip varieties are artificially induced mutation by radiation treatment of seed ball. In addition, the reporter of Yangzi Evening News learned that in addition to the artificial induced mutation, there is also a possible "pathological change" of tulip itself. For example, the golden peach leaf coral is a kind of peach leaf coral, but aphids carry a virus to erode the peach leaf coral, resulting in yellow spots on the leaves, "golden" from this. The virus caused its genetic variation. Unexpectedly, the "spot" turned out to be a stable heredity, and the "golden peach leaf Coral" appeared.

郁金香代表神圣、幸福与胜利。红色郁金香表示传递爱的宣言;黑色郁金香代表神秘、高贵、骑士精神;紫色郁金香代表高贵的爱、无尽的爱;白色郁金香代表纯情、纯洁;黄色郁金香代表高雅、珍贵、财富、友谊。

Tulip represents sanctity, happiness and victory. Red tulip represents the declaration of love; black tulip represents mystery, nobility and chivalry; purple tulip represents noble love and endless love; white tulip represents pure love and purity; yellow tulip represents elegance, precious, wealth and friendship.

郁金香什么时候开花

When do tulips bloom

郁金香开花时间参差不齐,有些比较早,在3月初就开花了,而晚的要到4月底,开花时间又短,一般十几天。而且按照生长地区纬度不同而花期也不同,普遍是在三月下旬至五月上旬,郁金香开花时间是在早上八点左右。

Tulips bloom at different times, some earlier, in early March, and later to the end of April, the flowering time is short, usually more than ten days. According to the latitude of the growing area, the flowering period is also different, generally from late March to early May, and the flowering time of tulips is around 8 a.m.

郁金香的花语是什么

What is the flower language of tulip

郁金香寓意高雅、富贵、能干、聪颖,郁金香的花语是爱、慈善、名誉、美丽、祝福、永恒、爱的表白和永恒的祝福。

Tulip implies elegance, wealth, ability and intelligence. Tulip flower language is the expression of love, charity, reputation, beauty, blessing, eternity, love and eternal blessing.

生长习性

Growth habit

郁金香原产地中海沿岸及中亚细亚、土耳其等地。由于地中海气候,形成郁金香适应冬季湿冷和夏季干热的特点,具有夏季休眠、秋冬生根并萌发新芽但不出土,需经冬季低温后第二年2月上旬左右(温度在5℃以上)开始伸展生长形成茎叶,3~4月开花的特性。生长开花适温为15~20℃。花芽分化是在茎叶变黄时将鳞茎从盆内掘起放阴冷的室外内度夏的贮藏期间进行的。分化适温为20~25℃,最高不得超过28℃。

Tulip originated in Mediterranean coast, Central Asia, Turkey and other places. Because of the Mediterranean climate, tulip is suitable for cold and humid winter and hot and dry summer. It has the characteristics of dormancy in summer, rooting in autumn and winter and sprouting new buds but not unearthed. It needs to start to grow and form stems and leaves in the first ten days of February in the second year after low temperature in winter (the temperature is above 5 ℃), and blossom from March to April. The suitable temperature for growth and flowering is 15-20 ℃. Flower bud differentiation is carried out during the storage period when the bulbs are dug up from the basin and put out in the cool outdoor environment when the stems and leaves turn yellow. The suitable temperature for differentiation is 20-25 ℃, and the highest temperature should not exceed 28 ℃.

郁金香属长日照花卉,性喜向阳、避风,冬季温暖湿润,夏季凉爽干燥的气候。8℃以上即可正常生长,一般可耐-14℃低温。耐寒性很强,在严寒地区如有厚雪覆盖,鳞茎就可在露地越冬,但怕酷暑,如果夏天来的早,盛夏又很炎热,则鳞茎休眠后难于度夏。要求腐殖质丰富、疏松肥沃、排水良好的微酸性沙质壤土。忌碱土和连作。

Tulip is a kind of long sunshine flower. It is sunny and windward. It is warm and humid in winter and cool and dry in summer. Above 8 ℃, it can grow normally and can withstand - 14 ℃ low temperature generally. The cold resistance is very strong. If there is thick snow cover in the cold area, the bulbs can live through the winter in the open, but they are afraid of the heat. If summer comes early and the midsummer is very hot, the bulbs are difficult to survive after dormancy. It is required that the loam with rich humus, loose and fertile soil and good drainage should be made. Avoid alkaline soil and continuous cropping.

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