Zhao Xu, Emperor Shenzong of Song Dynasty, is the eldest son of emperor Yingzong. His posthumous title is emperor dewanggong, the ancient constitutional emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, who was born in the Tang Dynasty. In the eighth year of Jiayou reign (1063), he was granted the Duke of Guangguo; later, he was granted the prince of Huaiyang with the Pingzhang of Zhongshu; in the first year of Zhiping reign (1064), he was granted the king of Yingying. In the third year of Zhiping's reign, he was the crown prince, and the next year he was the emperor. He was the God Emperor, at the age of 20. From 1067 to 1085. After assuming the throne, he was deeply dissatisfied with the weak politics and the ability he had always appreciated, so he ordered Wang Anshi to carry out the reform in order to revive the Northern Song Dynasty, which was called Wang Anshi reform in history and Xining reform in history. As the reform was carried out in a hurry, it failed to comply with the law, but Shenzong still maintained the new law for nearly 20 years.
Emperor Shenzong of Song Dynasty, in the form of Yuan Xiandao, the ancient constitutional emperor, King dewanggong, the English emperor, the sixth emperor, the eldest son of emperor Yingzong and empress xuanrenshengliegao. Wuyin (May 25, 1048), born on April 10, the eighth year of emperor Wuyi in Qingli, was born in muqinzhai, Prince Yi's palace in Pu'an. On the day of Shenzong's birth, the auspicious light room, the group of mice spit out five colored Qi and gather into clouds. Shenzong was in power for 18 years from January 8, 1067 to March 5, 1085. The years were Xining: January 1, 1068 to December 6, 1077, and Yuanfeng: December 6, 1077 to March 5, 1085 Day), the year number is used for 17 years. On March 5, 2008, 1898 (April 1, 1085), Shenzong died in Funing hall at the age of 37. He was buried in the western stage of the hall. His temple was called Shenzong. His posthumous posthumous posthumously were English emperor liewu shengxiao. On October 24, he was buried in Yongyu mausoleum. In the second year of Shao Sheng (1095), in September, Shao Tianfa was awarded the title of emperor liewu, Qinren, shengxiao in English. In November, the third year of Chongning (1104), Shao Tianfa was awarded the title of emperor Dewang in English and liewu, Qinren, shengxiao in English. In November, Zhenghe was awarded the title of emperor liewu, Qinren, shengxiao in English.
At that time, Xia Huizong was in power, his mother party was Liang's exclusive power, the state power of Xixia was Japan and Africa, and the emperor Shenzong of song ordered his troops to attack Xixia, hoping to annihilate Xixia at one stroke. In Qingzhou (today's Qingyang, Gansu Province), the song army broke through the Xia army and occupied two thousand li of land in Xixia. However, it was defeated in the battle of Yongle city and failed to achieve the goal of destroying the summer. Afterwards, Emperor Shenzong of song wept in public. He was ambitious and worked hard to destroy Xixia. He cherished his ambition and died at the age of 38 in the eighth year of Yuanfeng. After his son came to power, he did his best to fulfill his father's will.
According to the history of Song Dynasty, Zhao Xu was "eager to learn from others and forgetful to eat until the sun".
When the prince read Han Feizi, he was very interested in the Legalists' skill of "enriching the country and strengthening the army"; he also read Wang Anshi's book of emperor shangrenzong's words and deeds, which appreciated Wang Anshi's thought of managing money and running the country.
When Shenzong came to the throne, the Northern Song Dynasty was faced with a series of crises, such as huge military expenditure, overstaffed bureaucrats and various government expenses. In addition, a large number of coins were given to Liao and Xixia every year, which made the financial deficit of the Northern Song Dynasty year by year. According to the records of the history of Song Dynasty, the deficit reached 15.7 million in the second year of Zhiping (1065). Because of the annexation of great powers, the exploitation of usury and the aggravation of taxes and corvee, the peasants revolted repeatedly. On the occasion of internal and external difficulties and financial fatigue, Shenzong did not lose heart, and tried to "think of the disadvantages of the past and work hard to shake up the extraordinary", showing the political spirit of "working hard to make great achievements" and "striving to be ashamed of the past".
Zhao Xu had known Wang Anshi's political ambition and talent before he ascended the throne, and he "wanted to see him". So within a few months after he ascended the throne, Wang Anshi was appointed governor of Jiangning. A few months later, Wang Anshi was called to serve as a scholar and minister in the Imperial Academy, hoping to run the country well. Shenzong's emphasis on Wang Anshi caused the dissatisfaction of the old officials in the dynasty. Han Qi, the Prime Minister of the three dynasties, was supposed to assist the new emperor and make a difference. However, when he saw that Shenzong promoted new people, he firmly resigned and judged Xiangzhou. Shenzong asked, "who can you belong to? What about Wang Anshi? "
Han Qi said: "an Shi is a scholar of Hanlin, but he has more than enough. He can't be in the place of Fu Bi." It shows his opposition to Wang Anshi's ruling attitude. When Fubi, the senior minister, dismissed the appointment of Wang Anshi, he recommended Wen Yanbo. In this regard, the God either does not answer the opposite, or in silence, adhere to their own ideas. In addition to the old officials, the ministers in the dynasty, such as Wu Kui, Cheng Lu Shi, Tang Jie, and sun Gu, all strongly opposed Wang Anshi as their prime minister for the reasons of "protecting the former for their own use", "discussing the broad and broad", "being narrow and less tolerant". In the face of all kinds of obstacles, Shenzong did not take it seriously, and pushed out all the people's opinions. In February of the second year of Xining (1069), he decisively worshipped Wang Anshi as a political adviser and entrusted him with a heavy task, thus opening the prelude to the reform of law and the rule of law and the prosperity of the country and the powerful soldiers.
Push forward the new law
In order to formulate and implement the new law in a timely and effective manner, Shenzong also appointed to set up a special organization to formulate and establish the regulations of the three departments, namely, the household department, the Duzhi department and the salt and iron department, under the chairmanship of Wang Anshi and Chen Shengzhi, the minister of the Privy Council. In this organization, Shenzong, following Wang Anshi's recommendation, further used LV Huiqing, zhangdun, CAIQUAN, Zengbu, LV Jiawen, Shen Kuo, Xue Xiang and a group of new people, all of whom had certain practical abilities and played a positive role in assisting Wang Anshi in drafting and implementing the new law. In the process of the reform, the power of monarchy ensured the implementation of a series of new laws. In the second year of Xining, the new law was gradually introduced and implemented, but it was immediately attacked by a group of conservative forces inside and outside the DPRK. They not only criticized the content and efficiency of the new law, but also accused Wang Anshi of "changing the patriarchal system", "enriching the country and strengthening the army, enlightening the heart, seeking near achievement, forgetting the old learning", "advocating the law and order, saying that wealth and benefit are against mengke, despising the old becomes the basis, and abandoning the public is the vulgar".
In front of the imperial court, though Shenzong hesitated for a while, he was not moved. As for the academic and moral arguments, Shenzong believed that "people and ministers can talk about morality, but they can't make up for the fact that they don't take credit.". He emphasized both morality and fame. He was disgusted by the conservative forces' opposition to reform and empty talk about morality and inaction in politics.
With Wang Anshi's explanation, he can understand Wang Anshi's proposition that "Heaven changes without fear, people's words without compassion, and the law of ancestors is not enough to be obeyed", and continue to support the new deal. In the struggle between Wang Anshi and the conservative forces, the Shenzong supported Wang Anshi and successively dismissed a group of officials who opposed the reform. For example, Lu Gong, one of the imperial officials, wrote "please give up the new method to get out of Yingzhou"; Liu Shu, Liu Qi, Qian Liu, sun Changling, Wang zishao, Cheng Hao, Zhang Jian, Chen Xiang, Chen Jian, Xie Jingwen, Yang Hui, Liu Zhi, fan Chunren, Li Chang, sun Jue, Yang Zongyu, the admonishment officials, all of whom could not speak, went to Yingzhou one after another "; fan Zhen, a scholar in Hanlin, spared the words of Qingmiao and took the post to get an official; begging for an official," was listening "“ Fu Bi, with his youth, understood the envoy; Wen Yanbo said that the city was easy to compete with the lower authorities for profits, and that "out of Yanbo, he guarded the Wei". On the contrary, in the third year of Xining (1070), the Shenzong further promoted Wang Anshi to the same level as that of zhongshumen. Wang Anshi had more power in the aspect of residence, so new laws such as farmland, water conservancy, Qingmiao, average transportation, Baojia, exemption, Shiyi, Baoma and Fangtian were promulgated successively, and the reform reached a climax.
At the beginning of emperor Shenzong's accession to the throne, he appreciated Wang Anshi's idea of enriching the country and strengthening the army, and gave great support to the implementation of the new law before the seventh year of Xining (1074). Without the support and cooperation of Shenzong, it is impossible for Wang Anshi to carry out reform nationwide. Song Shenzong's political ambition and correct decision-making of reform ensured the success of reform, which had positive significance for improving the social production conditions and strengthening the national strength at that time. The new deal is difficult. Although the reform and reform of Yuanfeng won in the previous stage, the attacks of the conservative forces did not stop. Especially with the gradual deepening of the reform, the more serious the interests of the big landlords and businessmen are, the more violent the attacks of the conservative forces will be.
Therefore, Shenzong began to swing from side to side. He hoped that under the condition of balancing the forces of all factions, he would spare no effort to maintain the spring of the seventh year of Xining new deal. The weather was dry and rainy for a long time. The conservative forces inside and outside the dynasty used "Tianbian" as an excuse to launch another siege of the reform. This siege was supported by Empress Cao of Renzong, empress Gao of Yingzong and empress Shenzong. The foreign relatives led by Empress Cao, the emperor of the people's Republic of China, took part in the opposition to the reform, which could not have a great impact on Shenzong. This was because Yingzong and Shenzong were not the descendants of Renzong. Only because Renzong had no children, did they choose Yingzong as the crown Prince and finally inherit the throne. Therefore, the empress Cao and gaohou, the mother of Shenzong of Renzong, had a great deterrent to Shenzong. God began to waver. When Wang Anshi reasoned against the so-called "Tianbian", Shenzong no longer listened to Wang Anshi's explanation that "Tianbian is not fearless". Instead, he thought that "Tianbian" was not a small thing, because of the lack of personnel repair. "It's too heavy to get rid of the money now, and the human relationship is grudged, to the point of no disrespect. From the close officials to the later generations, there is no denying the harm. The two palaces wept and worried about the chaos in the capital, thinking that the drought was even more heartless. ".
In April, after Cao Hou and Gao Hou, Shenzong finally shed tears again and cried to Shenzong about "Anshi upsets the world", so he gave up Wang Anshi's appearance and changed his knowledge of Jiangning mansion, which frustrated the reform. Although in February of the eighth year of Xining (1075), Shenzong began to use Wang Anshi again, but with the strengthening of the forces of the Conservatives and the divergence of internal opinions of the reformists, Shenzong '. In the ninth year of Xining (1076), comets appeared in the sky, and the Conservatives criticized the reform with "Tianbian", which made Shenzong even more wavering. He said to Wang Anshi, "I have heard about the new law of people's suffering.". In October, Wang Anshi had to go back to Jiangning.
Wang Anshi's two strikes were the result of the emperor's compromise with the conservative forces. The political goal of Shenzong was to enrich the country and strengthen the army through reform, but he was afraid of offending the empress dowagers of the two palaces and making trouble. When "the human relationship consultation grudges", the dynasty discusses fiercely, the reform meets the big resistance, he retreated. He wants to adjust his policies and deal with the two forces of the new party, which calls for reform, and the old party, which advocates conservatism. In this way, on the one hand, we can leave some room for ourselves; on the other hand, it still reflects the traditional family law of "different theories mixed together" that has existed since emperor Taizu of Song Dynasty. In fact, when Shenzong fully supported Wang Anshi's reform, he paid attention to appeasing the retired senior officials of the old party to show his gratitude. Han Qi quit Hebei Province, and Shangshu opposed the green seedling method. Although Shenzong didn't accept it at last, he praised and said at the beginning: "Qi is true and loyal, although he is outside, he doesn't forget the royal family." In August of the seventh year of Xining, Li Xian, the eunuch, was sent to Xiangzhou to give Hanqi an imperial edict and a decoction. In the sixth year of Xining (1073), Wen Yanbo gave up his emissary and ordered his descendants to show their favor. In the third year of Yuanfeng (1080), wenyanbo made a pilgrimage, and Shenzong "gave a feast to qionglinyuan, and sent two visitors