Zhao Xu, Emperor Shenzong of Song Dynasty-看世界

Zhao Xu, Emperor Shenzong of Song Dynasty

  人物简介

  宋神宗赵顼,英宗长子,谥号体元显道法古立宪帝德王功英文烈武钦仁圣孝,英宗赵曙长子。嘉佑八年(1063)受封光国公;后又加同中书门下平章事,受封淮阳郡王;治平元年(1064)进封颍王。治平三年立为皇太子,次年即帝位,是为神宗,时年20岁。1067年-1085年在位。即位后,由于对疲弱的政治深感不满,且他素来都欣赏的才干,故即位后命王安石推行变法,以期振兴北宋王朝,史称王安石变法,又称熙宁变法。由于改革操之过急,不得其法,最终失败收场,不过神宗还是维持新法将近二十年。

  人物简介

  宋神宗体元显道法古立宪帝德王功英文烈武钦仁圣孝皇帝,讳赵顼,原名仲针,第六位皇帝,英宗和宣仁圣烈高皇后所生长子。庆历八年戊子年四月十日戊寅(1048年5月25日)生于濮安懿王宫邸睦亲宅。神宗出生当天,祥光照室,群鼠吐五色气聚集成云。神宗于治平四年正月八日(1067年1月25日)至元丰八年三月五日(1085年4月1日)在位,当政共计18年,年号熙宁:熙宁元年正月一日(1068年2月6日)至熙宁十年十二月六日(1077年12月23日)、元丰:熙宁十年十二月六日(1077年12月23日)至元丰八年三月五日(1085年4月1日),年号使用17年。元丰八年三月五日戊戌(1085年4月1日)神宗崩殂于福宁殿,享年37岁,殡于殿西阶,庙号神宗,群臣上谥英文烈武圣孝皇帝,十月二十四日乙酉,葬神宗于永裕陵。绍圣二年(1095年)九月,加谥绍天法古运德建功英文烈武钦仁圣孝皇帝,崇宁三年(1104年)十一月,改谥体天显道帝德王功英文烈武钦仁圣孝皇帝,政和三年(1113年)十一月,加谥体元显道法古立宪帝德王功英文烈武钦仁圣孝皇帝。

  政治成就

  灭夏之举

  时值夏惠宗在位,母党梁氏专权,西夏国势日非,宋神宗命兵伐西夏,期图一举歼灭西夏。在庆州(今甘肃庆阳)宋军大破夏军,占领西夏二千里土地。不过后来在永乐城之战中惨败,灭夏之举未能实现。事后,宋神宗在朝中当众痛哭。他有抱负,励精图治,想灭西夏,惜壮志未酬,于元丰八年饮恨而死,享年三十八岁。其子亲政后,竭尽所能完成父亲遗志。

  用人才

  据《宋史》记载,赵顼自幼“好学请问,至日晏忘食”。

  当太子时就喜读《韩非子》,对法家“富国强兵”之术颇感兴趣;还读过王安石的《上仁宗皇帝言事书》,对王安石的理财治国思想非常赞赏。

  神宗即位时,北宋的统治面临一系列危机,军费开支庞大,官僚机构臃肿而政费繁多,加上每年赠送辽和西夏的大量岁币,使北宋财政年年亏空,据《宋史·食货志》记载,至治平二年(1065年)亏空已达1570多万。广大农民由于豪强兼并,高利贷盘剥和赋税徭役的加重,屡屡暴动反抗。值此内外忧患,财政困乏之际,神宗没有气馁,力图“思除历世之弊,务振非常之功”,表现出“励精图治,将大有为”,“奋然将雪数世之耻”的政治气概。

  赵顼在即位之前已闻知王安石的政治抱负和才能,并“由是想见其人”,因此即位不数月,就让王安石出任江宁知府。几个月后,又召王安石为翰林学士兼侍讲,寄以治国安邦的厚望。神宗对王安石的器重,引起了在朝老臣的不满。宰相韩琦执政三朝,本该辅佐新帝,有所作为,然而见神宗提拔新人,却坚辞相位,出判相州。神宗问:“卿去谁可属国者?王安石何如?”

  韩琦说:“安石为翰林学士则有余,处辅弼之地则不可。”表明了他反对王安石执政的态度。元老重臣富弼在罢相位时,也不同意任用王安石,而推荐了文彦博。对此,神宗或以不答相对,或以默然置之,坚持了自己的想法。除老臣外,当朝大臣如参知政事吴奎、御史中丞吕诲、参知政事唐介、侍读孙固等也都以王安石“护前自用”、“论议迂阔”、“狷狭少容”等为理由,极力反对王安石为相。面对种种阻挠,神宗不以为然,力排众议,于熙宁二年(1069年)二月果断地拜王安石为参知政事,委以重任,从而揭开了变法图治、富国强兵的序幕。

  推行新法

  为了及时有效地制定和推行新法,神宗还特命设置了“制置三司条例司”,即制定户部、度支、盐铁三司条例的专门机构,由王安石和知枢密院事陈升之主持。在这个机构中,神宗听从王安石的推荐,进一步起用了吕惠卿、章敦、蔡确、曾布、吕嘉问、沈括、薛向等一批新人,这些人都有一定的实际才干,对于协助王安石拟定和贯彻新法发挥了积极的作用。在变法的过程中,神宗以君权的力量,保证了一系列新法的推行。熙宁二年,新法逐渐出台、实施,但是马上遭到朝内外一批守旧势力的攻击。他们不仅从新法的内容和效益上提出非难,而且在思想、道德上指责王安石“变祖宗法度”,“以富国强兵之术,启迪上心,欲求近功,忘其旧学”,“尚法令则称,言财利则背孟轲,鄙老成为因循,弃公论为流俗”。

  在朝议纷纷面前,神宗虽曾一度犹豫,但终不为所动。至于学术、道德上的争论,神宗则认为“人臣但能言道德,而不以功名之实,亦无补于事”。他讲求道德与功名并重,对守旧势力反对变法,空言道德,在政治上无所作为甚为反感。

  在王安石的解释下,他能理解王安石“天变不足惧,人言不足恤,祖宗之法不足守”的主张,并继续支持新政。在王安石与守旧势力的斗争中,神宗支持王安石,先后罢退一批反对变法的官员。如御史中丞吕公著“以请罢新法出颍州”;“御史刘述、刘琦、钱镠、孙昌龄、王子韶、程颢、张戬、陈襄、陈荐、谢景温、杨绘、刘挚,谏官范纯仁、李常、孙觉、杨宗愈皆不得言,相继去”;“翰林学士范镇三疏言青苗,夺职致仕”;乞致仕,“乃听之”;“富弼以格青苗解使相”;文彦博言市易与下争利,“出彦博守魏”。相反,熙宁三年(1070年)神宗进一步提升王安石为同中书门下平章事。王安石居相位,有了更大的权力,于是,农田、水利、青苗、均输、保甲、免役、市易、保马、方田等新法先后颁行天下,变法进入了高潮。

  第一次失败

  神宗在即位之初,他对王安石富国强兵的变法主张极为欣赏,并在变法的前一阶段,即熙宁七年(1074年)以前,对新法的推行给予大力支持。如果没有神宗的支持与配合,王安石在全国范围内实行变法是不可能的。宋神宗的政治抱负和锐意改革的正确决策,保证了变法的成功,这对于改善当时的社会生产条件,增强国力,具有积极的意义。新政维艰,元丰改制变法虽然在前一阶段取得胜利,但守旧势力的攻击并没有停止,特别是随着变法的逐步深入,触及大地主、大商人的利益越严重,守旧势力的进攻就越猛烈。

  于是,神宗开始左右摇摆,他希望在平衡各派势力的情况下,勉力维持新政熙宁七年春,天大旱,久不雨,朝内外守旧势力以“天变”为借口,又一次掀起对变法的围攻。这一次围攻得到了仁宗曹后、英宗高后和神宗向后的支持。以太皇曹后为首的外戚参与反对变法,不能不对神宗产生巨大影响,这是因为英宗、神宗一系实非仁宗嫡嗣,只是由于仁宗无子,才把英宗选为皇储最后继承皇位,所以仁宗的曹后和神宗之母高后对神宗有较大的威慑力量。神宗由是开始动摇。当王安石对所谓的“天变”据理反驳时,神宗不再听从王安石“天变不足惧”的解释了,相反他认为“天变”不是小事,是因人事不修所致,“今取免行钱太重,人情咨怨,至出不逊语。自近臣以至后族,无不言其害。两宫泣下忧京师乱起,以为天旱更失人心”。

  四月,神宗终于在曹后、高后再次流涕,向神宗哭诉“安石乱天下”的情况下,罢王安石相,改知江宁府,使变法遭受挫折。虽然熙宁八年(1075年)二月神宗重新起用王安石,但随着守旧派势力的增强,变法派内部意见的分歧,神宗对王安石专用信任的程度大大降低,“王安石再相,上意颇厌之,事多不从”,变法不能推进。熙宁九年(1076年),天上出现彗星,守旧派又以“天变”对变法提出非议,神宗更加动摇。他对王安石说:“闻民间殊苦新法”。十月,王安石不得不复求罢相,出判江宁府。

  王安石两次罢相,都是神宗向守旧势力妥协的结果。神宗的政治目标是希望通过变法富国强兵的,但他一怕得罪两宫太后,二怕出乱子。当“人情咨怨”、朝议汹汹,变法碰到较大阻力时,他就退却了。他要调整政策,相对平衡地对待要求变法的新党和主张守旧的旧党两股势力。这样做,一方面可以给自己留有余地;一方面则仍然体现了自宋太祖起就有的“异论相搅”的传统家法。其实,在神宗全力支持王安石变法的时候,就注意抚慰旧党中罢退的元老重臣,以示恩眷。韩琦罢退河北,上疏反对青苗法,神宗虽然最终没有接受,但一开始仍夸奖曰:“琦真忠臣,虽在外,不忘王室。”熙宁七年八月,则特遣宦官李宪往相州赐韩琦诏书和汤药。熙宁六年(1073年)文彦博罢枢密使,便诏与其子孙推恩,特表恩宠。元丰三年(1080年)文彦博朝觐,神宗“赐宴琼林苑,两遣中谒者


Zhao Xu, Emperor Shenzong of Song Dynasty, is the eldest son of emperor Yingzong. His posthumous title is emperor dewanggong, the ancient constitutional emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, who was born in the Tang Dynasty. In the eighth year of Jiayou reign (1063), he was granted the Duke of Guangguo; later, he was granted the prince of Huaiyang with the Pingzhang of Zhongshu; in the first year of Zhiping reign (1064), he was granted the king of Yingying. In the third year of Zhiping's reign, he was the crown prince, and the next year he was the emperor. He was the God Emperor, at the age of 20. From 1067 to 1085. After assuming the throne, he was deeply dissatisfied with the weak politics and the ability he had always appreciated, so he ordered Wang Anshi to carry out the reform in order to revive the Northern Song Dynasty, which was called Wang Anshi reform in history and Xining reform in history. As the reform was carried out in a hurry, it failed to comply with the law, but Shenzong still maintained the new law for nearly 20 years.

Profile

Emperor Shenzong of Song Dynasty, in the form of Yuan Xiandao, the ancient constitutional emperor, King dewanggong, the English emperor, the sixth emperor, the eldest son of emperor Yingzong and empress xuanrenshengliegao. Wuyin (May 25, 1048), born on April 10, the eighth year of emperor Wuyi in Qingli, was born in muqinzhai, Prince Yi's palace in Pu'an. On the day of Shenzong's birth, the auspicious light room, the group of mice spit out five colored Qi and gather into clouds. Shenzong was in power for 18 years from January 8, 1067 to March 5, 1085. The years were Xining: January 1, 1068 to December 6, 1077, and Yuanfeng: December 6, 1077 to March 5, 1085 Day), the year number is used for 17 years. On March 5, 2008, 1898 (April 1, 1085), Shenzong died in Funing hall at the age of 37. He was buried in the western stage of the hall. His temple was called Shenzong. His posthumous posthumous posthumously were English emperor liewu shengxiao. On October 24, he was buried in Yongyu mausoleum. In the second year of Shao Sheng (1095), in September, Shao Tianfa was awarded the title of emperor liewu, Qinren, shengxiao in English. In November, the third year of Chongning (1104), Shao Tianfa was awarded the title of emperor Dewang in English and liewu, Qinren, shengxiao in English. In November, Zhenghe was awarded the title of emperor liewu, Qinren, shengxiao in English.

Political achievements

Summer killing

At that time, Xia Huizong was in power, his mother party was Liang's exclusive power, the state power of Xixia was Japan and Africa, and the emperor Shenzong of song ordered his troops to attack Xixia, hoping to annihilate Xixia at one stroke. In Qingzhou (today's Qingyang, Gansu Province), the song army broke through the Xia army and occupied two thousand li of land in Xixia. However, it was defeated in the battle of Yongle city and failed to achieve the goal of destroying the summer. Afterwards, Emperor Shenzong of song wept in public. He was ambitious and worked hard to destroy Xixia. He cherished his ambition and died at the age of 38 in the eighth year of Yuanfeng. After his son came to power, he did his best to fulfill his father's will.

Using talents

According to the history of Song Dynasty, Zhao Xu was "eager to learn from others and forgetful to eat until the sun".

When the prince read Han Feizi, he was very interested in the Legalists' skill of "enriching the country and strengthening the army"; he also read Wang Anshi's book of emperor shangrenzong's words and deeds, which appreciated Wang Anshi's thought of managing money and running the country.

When Shenzong came to the throne, the Northern Song Dynasty was faced with a series of crises, such as huge military expenditure, overstaffed bureaucrats and various government expenses. In addition, a large number of coins were given to Liao and Xixia every year, which made the financial deficit of the Northern Song Dynasty year by year. According to the records of the history of Song Dynasty, the deficit reached 15.7 million in the second year of Zhiping (1065). Because of the annexation of great powers, the exploitation of usury and the aggravation of taxes and corvee, the peasants revolted repeatedly. On the occasion of internal and external difficulties and financial fatigue, Shenzong did not lose heart, and tried to "think of the disadvantages of the past and work hard to shake up the extraordinary", showing the political spirit of "working hard to make great achievements" and "striving to be ashamed of the past".

Zhao Xu had known Wang Anshi's political ambition and talent before he ascended the throne, and he "wanted to see him". So within a few months after he ascended the throne, Wang Anshi was appointed governor of Jiangning. A few months later, Wang Anshi was called to serve as a scholar and minister in the Imperial Academy, hoping to run the country well. Shenzong's emphasis on Wang Anshi caused the dissatisfaction of the old officials in the dynasty. Han Qi, the Prime Minister of the three dynasties, was supposed to assist the new emperor and make a difference. However, when he saw that Shenzong promoted new people, he firmly resigned and judged Xiangzhou. Shenzong asked, "who can you belong to? What about Wang Anshi? "

Han Qi said: "an Shi is a scholar of Hanlin, but he has more than enough. He can't be in the place of Fu Bi." It shows his opposition to Wang Anshi's ruling attitude. When Fubi, the senior minister, dismissed the appointment of Wang Anshi, he recommended Wen Yanbo. In this regard, the God either does not answer the opposite, or in silence, adhere to their own ideas. In addition to the old officials, the ministers in the dynasty, such as Wu Kui, Cheng Lu Shi, Tang Jie, and sun Gu, all strongly opposed Wang Anshi as their prime minister for the reasons of "protecting the former for their own use", "discussing the broad and broad", "being narrow and less tolerant". In the face of all kinds of obstacles, Shenzong did not take it seriously, and pushed out all the people's opinions. In February of the second year of Xining (1069), he decisively worshipped Wang Anshi as a political adviser and entrusted him with a heavy task, thus opening the prelude to the reform of law and the rule of law and the prosperity of the country and the powerful soldiers.

Push forward the new law

In order to formulate and implement the new law in a timely and effective manner, Shenzong also appointed to set up a special organization to formulate and establish the regulations of the three departments, namely, the household department, the Duzhi department and the salt and iron department, under the chairmanship of Wang Anshi and Chen Shengzhi, the minister of the Privy Council. In this organization, Shenzong, following Wang Anshi's recommendation, further used LV Huiqing, zhangdun, CAIQUAN, Zengbu, LV Jiawen, Shen Kuo, Xue Xiang and a group of new people, all of whom had certain practical abilities and played a positive role in assisting Wang Anshi in drafting and implementing the new law. In the process of the reform, the power of monarchy ensured the implementation of a series of new laws. In the second year of Xining, the new law was gradually introduced and implemented, but it was immediately attacked by a group of conservative forces inside and outside the DPRK. They not only criticized the content and efficiency of the new law, but also accused Wang Anshi of "changing the patriarchal system", "enriching the country and strengthening the army, enlightening the heart, seeking near achievement, forgetting the old learning", "advocating the law and order, saying that wealth and benefit are against mengke, despising the old becomes the basis, and abandoning the public is the vulgar".

In front of the imperial court, though Shenzong hesitated for a while, he was not moved. As for the academic and moral arguments, Shenzong believed that "people and ministers can talk about morality, but they can't make up for the fact that they don't take credit.". He emphasized both morality and fame. He was disgusted by the conservative forces' opposition to reform and empty talk about morality and inaction in politics.

With Wang Anshi's explanation, he can understand Wang Anshi's proposition that "Heaven changes without fear, people's words without compassion, and the law of ancestors is not enough to be obeyed", and continue to support the new deal. In the struggle between Wang Anshi and the conservative forces, the Shenzong supported Wang Anshi and successively dismissed a group of officials who opposed the reform. For example, Lu Gong, one of the imperial officials, wrote "please give up the new method to get out of Yingzhou"; Liu Shu, Liu Qi, Qian Liu, sun Changling, Wang zishao, Cheng Hao, Zhang Jian, Chen Xiang, Chen Jian, Xie Jingwen, Yang Hui, Liu Zhi, fan Chunren, Li Chang, sun Jue, Yang Zongyu, the admonishment officials, all of whom could not speak, went to Yingzhou one after another "; fan Zhen, a scholar in Hanlin, spared the words of Qingmiao and took the post to get an official; begging for an official," was listening "“ Fu Bi, with his youth, understood the envoy; Wen Yanbo said that the city was easy to compete with the lower authorities for profits, and that "out of Yanbo, he guarded the Wei". On the contrary, in the third year of Xining (1070), the Shenzong further promoted Wang Anshi to the same level as that of zhongshumen. Wang Anshi had more power in the aspect of residence, so new laws such as farmland, water conservancy, Qingmiao, average transportation, Baojia, exemption, Shiyi, Baoma and Fangtian were promulgated successively, and the reform reached a climax.

First failure

At the beginning of emperor Shenzong's accession to the throne, he appreciated Wang Anshi's idea of enriching the country and strengthening the army, and gave great support to the implementation of the new law before the seventh year of Xining (1074). Without the support and cooperation of Shenzong, it is impossible for Wang Anshi to carry out reform nationwide. Song Shenzong's political ambition and correct decision-making of reform ensured the success of reform, which had positive significance for improving the social production conditions and strengthening the national strength at that time. The new deal is difficult. Although the reform and reform of Yuanfeng won in the previous stage, the attacks of the conservative forces did not stop. Especially with the gradual deepening of the reform, the more serious the interests of the big landlords and businessmen are, the more violent the attacks of the conservative forces will be.

Therefore, Shenzong began to swing from side to side. He hoped that under the condition of balancing the forces of all factions, he would spare no effort to maintain the spring of the seventh year of Xining new deal. The weather was dry and rainy for a long time. The conservative forces inside and outside the dynasty used "Tianbian" as an excuse to launch another siege of the reform. This siege was supported by Empress Cao of Renzong, empress Gao of Yingzong and empress Shenzong. The foreign relatives led by Empress Cao, the emperor of the people's Republic of China, took part in the opposition to the reform, which could not have a great impact on Shenzong. This was because Yingzong and Shenzong were not the descendants of Renzong. Only because Renzong had no children, did they choose Yingzong as the crown Prince and finally inherit the throne. Therefore, the empress Cao and gaohou, the mother of Shenzong of Renzong, had a great deterrent to Shenzong. God began to waver. When Wang Anshi reasoned against the so-called "Tianbian", Shenzong no longer listened to Wang Anshi's explanation that "Tianbian is not fearless". Instead, he thought that "Tianbian" was not a small thing, because of the lack of personnel repair. "It's too heavy to get rid of the money now, and the human relationship is grudged, to the point of no disrespect. From the close officials to the later generations, there is no denying the harm. The two palaces wept and worried about the chaos in the capital, thinking that the drought was even more heartless. ".

In April, after Cao Hou and Gao Hou, Shenzong finally shed tears again and cried to Shenzong about "Anshi upsets the world", so he gave up Wang Anshi's appearance and changed his knowledge of Jiangning mansion, which frustrated the reform. Although in February of the eighth year of Xining (1075), Shenzong began to use Wang Anshi again, but with the strengthening of the forces of the Conservatives and the divergence of internal opinions of the reformists, Shenzong '. In the ninth year of Xining (1076), comets appeared in the sky, and the Conservatives criticized the reform with "Tianbian", which made Shenzong even more wavering. He said to Wang Anshi, "I have heard about the new law of people's suffering.". In October, Wang Anshi had to go back to Jiangning.

Wang Anshi's two strikes were the result of the emperor's compromise with the conservative forces. The political goal of Shenzong was to enrich the country and strengthen the army through reform, but he was afraid of offending the empress dowagers of the two palaces and making trouble. When "the human relationship consultation grudges", the dynasty discusses fiercely, the reform meets the big resistance, he retreated. He wants to adjust his policies and deal with the two forces of the new party, which calls for reform, and the old party, which advocates conservatism. In this way, on the one hand, we can leave some room for ourselves; on the other hand, it still reflects the traditional family law of "different theories mixed together" that has existed since emperor Taizu of Song Dynasty. In fact, when Shenzong fully supported Wang Anshi's reform, he paid attention to appeasing the retired senior officials of the old party to show his gratitude. Han Qi quit Hebei Province, and Shangshu opposed the green seedling method. Although Shenzong didn't accept it at last, he praised and said at the beginning: "Qi is true and loyal, although he is outside, he doesn't forget the royal family." In August of the seventh year of Xining, Li Xian, the eunuch, was sent to Xiangzhou to give Hanqi an imperial edict and a decoction. In the sixth year of Xining (1073), Wen Yanbo gave up his emissary and ordered his descendants to show their favor. In the third year of Yuanfeng (1080), wenyanbo made a pilgrimage, and Shenzong "gave a feast to qionglinyuan, and sent two visitors

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