Zhao Min, Emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty, is recognized as the most outstanding emperor of Southern Song Dynasty-看世界

Zhao Min, Emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty, is recognized as the most outstanding emperor of Southern Song Dynasty

  绍兴三十二年(1162年),高宗让位于赵昚,是为宋孝宗,宋朝的皇位再次回到宋太祖的长房。宋孝宗在位27年,淳熙十六年(1189年)逊位,让位与儿子宋光宗赵惇。绍熙五年(1194年)病逝,终年68岁。谥号绍统同道冠德昭功哲文神武明圣成孝皇帝,庙号孝宗。葬于永阜陵。

  宋孝宗赵昚(1127年11月27日、建炎元年十月廿二-1194年6月28日、绍熙五年六月初九),第二位(1163年--1189年在位),宋太祖七世孙,初名伯琮,后改名瑗,赐名玮,字元永,谥号绍统同道冠德昭功哲文神武明圣成孝皇帝。他是养子,原来是太祖的次子赵德芳的六世孙。父亲为秀安僖王赵子偁。由于高宗的唯一儿子元懿太子夭折后再没有嗣子,所以只好从其他宗族中选择后继者。

  绍兴三十二年(1162年),高宗让位于赵昚,是为宋孝宗,的皇位再次回到宋太祖的长房。宋孝宗在位27年,淳熙十六年(1189年)逊位,让位与儿子赵惇。绍熙五年(1194年)病逝,终年68岁。谥号绍统同道冠德昭功哲文神武明圣成孝皇帝,庙号孝宗。葬于永阜陵。

  孝宗登基后,定年号“隆兴”,立志光复中原,收复河山,遂恢复谥号“武穆”,追封岳飞为鄂国公,剥夺的官爵,并且命令老将张浚北伐中原,但在符离遭遇金军阻击,大败。接着金军趁胜追击,南宋军队损失惨重。宋孝宗被迫于隆兴二年(1164年)和金国签订“隆兴和议”。次年改元“干道”,并又任用王淮理财备战。干道年间,由于没有战事的干扰,宋孝宗专心理政,百姓富裕,五谷丰登,太平安乐,一改高宗朝时贪污腐朽的局面。由于宋孝宗治国有方,所以使南宋出现“干淳之治”(干:干道,淳:淳熙)的小康局面。淳熙十四年(1187年)10月,高宗病卒,孝宗为了服丧,让太子赵惇参预政事。淳熙十六年(1189年)2月又禅位于太子,太子即位后,是为宋光宗。孝宗自称太上皇,闲居重华殿,继续为高宗服丧。光宗与孝宗不和,长期不去探望孝宗。为此,孝宗闷闷不乐而起病。最终在宋光宗绍熙五年(1194年)6月,孝宗逝于临安重华殿。

  人物简介

  建炎元年十月廿二出生。六世祖为太祖赵匡胤的四子秦王德芳。父亲为秀安僖王赵子偁。由於高宗的唯一儿子元懿太子夭折後再没有嗣子,所以只好从宗室中选择继承人。《异迹略》记载,宋高宗被宋太祖托梦,称「汝祖自摄谋,据我位久,至於天下寥落,是当还我位。」故宋高宗过继了太祖八世孙作为养子,并立为太子;宋史中也有相似的记载,但为孟被托梦。

  绍兴三年(1133年)二月为和州防御使,赐名赵瑗,改贵州防御使。十二年(1142年)正月封普安郡王。三十年(1160年)二月立为皇子,改名赵玮,进封建王。三十二年(1162年)五月立为皇太子,改名赵眘。六月,高宗禅位,孝宗登基,定年号隆兴,立志光复中原,收复河山,遂恢复名将岳飞諡号武穆,追封岳飞为鄂国公,肃清秦桧馀党,并且命令老将张浚北伐中原,但在符离遭遇金军突袭大败。接着金军趁胜追击,南宋军队损失惨重,此後双方互有胜负,但金无法越过长江,宋亦未能渡黄河。

  宋孝宗被迫於隆兴二年(1164年)和金国金世宗签订「隆兴和议」,次年改元「乾道」。

  乾道年间,由於没有战事的干扰,加上高宗较少干政,孝宗专心理政,百姓富裕,五谷丰登,太平安乐,一改高宗朝时贪污腐朽的局面。由於宋孝宗治国有方,所以使南宋出现乾淳之治(乾:乾道,淳:淳熙)的小康局面。宋孝宗时有一批宠臣,如曾觌、龙大渊、张说等人,与宦官梁珂等「相与盤结」,「士大夫无耻者争附之」,被列入《佞幸传》。

  淳熙十四年(1187年)十月,高宗死於德寿宫中,孝宗听闻後失声痛哭,两天不能进食,又表示要服丧三年。孝宗为了服丧,让太子赵惇参预政事。淳熙十六年二月初二(1189年2月18日)又禅让於太子,太子即位後,是为宋光宗。孝宗自称太上皇,闲居慈福宫,後改名重华殿,继续为宋高宗服丧。光宗与孝宗不和,长期不去探望孝宗。为此,孝宗闷闷不乐而起病。最终在宋光宗绍熙五年六月初九(1194年6月28日),孝宗逝於临安重华殿。

  人物生平

  孝宗登基后,定年号“隆兴”,立志光复中原,收复河山,遂恢复名将岳飞谥号“武穆”,追封岳飞为鄂国公,剥夺秦桧的官爵,并且命令老将张浚北伐中原,但在符离遭遇金军阻击,大败。接着金军趁胜追击,南宋军队损失惨重。宋孝宗被迫于隆兴二年(1164年)和金国签订“隆兴和议”。次年改元“乾道”,并又任用王淮理财备战。乾道年间,由于没有战事的干扰,宋孝宗专心理政,百姓富裕,五谷丰登,太平安乐,一改高宗朝时贪污腐朽的局面。由于宋孝宗治国有方,所以使南宋出现“乾淳之治”(乾:乾道,淳:淳熙)的小康局面。

  淳熙十四年(1187年)10月,高宗病卒,孝宗为了服丧,让太子赵惇参预政事。淳熙十六年(1189年)2月又禅位于太子,太子即位后,是为宋光宗。孝宗自称太上皇,闲居重华殿,继续为高宗服丧。光宗与孝宗不和,长期不去探望孝宗。为此,孝宗闷闷不乐而起病。最终在宋光宗绍熙五年(1194年)6月,孝宗逝于临安重华殿。宋孝宗在位二十七年,时刻不忘恢复中原,专心理政,励精图治,坚决主战,是南宋名副其实的中兴之主。

  人物评价

  宋孝宗赵昚是宋太祖的七世孙,赵德芳的后人。高宗在扬州逃跑时因为受到了惊吓,而失去了生育能力。唯一的独子又在苗刘之变后死去。而英宗系的后人,在之变后基本被金一网打尽,全都押往北方。最主要的是,出使金国的使臣回来后说,金太宗长得酷似宋太祖,传说太祖要回来夺皇位。于是高宗说,太祖大公无私,有子却将皇位传给弟弟,其后人衰微,朕准备将皇位传给太祖的后人。于是从太祖的后人中选拔,最后只剩下一胖一瘦两个小孩。高宗开始中意胖小孩,两个孩子在宫中站着,突然来了一只猫,瘦孩没动,胖孩子却伸脚去踢猫。这件事,让高宗对胖孩子好感顿消,让两个小孩都留了下来,胖小孩名叫赵琢,而瘦小孩,便是赵昚。

  留在宫中的赵昚,从小就接受了最好的教育,长大后封公,后来被进封为郡王。这位天资聪明的准皇储却和权臣秦桧关系很僵。主要是赵昚比较厌恶秦的屈辱求和。而秦也顾忌赵昚能力太强。赵昚的生父病故,秦桧于是上奏要求赵昚守制3年,因为赵昚的皇太子身份并未确定,所以这个要求并不过分。但秦是想借机免去他的皇储身份。但高宗显然不为秦所动,守孝期满,赵昚就继续回宫。后来,秦桧病重,是赵昚及时得到消息,通知了高宗,高宗亲自去相府探视,粉碎了秦和他的爪牙准备让秦桧儿子秦禧当宰相的企图。

  赵昚被养在宫中将近20年,却一直未被确定太子的名份。主要原因有三。首先就是高宗还是抱有幻想,想自己争取再生个儿子出来。其次秦桧的强烈反对。再次是高宗的生母韦太后不喜欢赵昚,而喜欢另一个养育在宫中的赵琢。直到韦太后死去。高宗使出了最后一招,给两位准继承人每人送去10名,过了一阵又把她们召回。经过检查,发现给赵琢的那10个都已经不是处女,而给赵昚的那10个依旧都是完璧(赵昚是听从了史浩的意见)于是,确立了赵昚的皇太子地位。

  2年后,金朝海陵王南侵,高宗又准备下海逃命,皇太子赵昚上书,要求自己率兵迎敌。事先不知情的史浩知道后大惊,知道赵昚犯了大忌,赶快让皇太子上书谢罪,并要求随皇帝一起出征。金兵退走后。高宗决定禅位给赵昚,自己退居太上皇。

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Zhao Min, Emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty (November 27, 1127, October 22, the first year of Jianyan to June 28, 1194, and June 9, the fifth year of Shaoxi), was the second (reigning from 1163 to 1189). He was the seventh grandson of emperor Taizu of Song Dynasty, who was first named Bo Cong, and later changed his name to yuan. He was given Wei, Yuan Yong, the posthumous title of Shaotong was Dezhao, the sage, Wuming, Shengcheng, Emperor Xiaoxiao. He was the adopted son. He was the sixth grandson of Zhao Defang, the second son of Taizu. His father is Zhao Zicheng, the king of xiu'an. Since Prince Yuanyi, the only son of Emperor Gaozong, had no heir after his death, he had to choose his successor from other clans.

In the thirty second year of Shaoxing (1162), Gaozong gave way to Zhaomin, the emperor of Xiaozong in Song Dynasty, and returned to the long house of Taizu in Song Dynasty. In the 27th year of emperor Xiaozong's reign, in the 16th year of Chunxi's reign (1189), he abdicated to his son Zhao dun. Shaoxi died in 1194 at the age of 68. The posthumous title of Shaotong is the same as that of dezhaogong, the sage, Wuming, Shengcheng and Xiaozong. Buried in Yongfu mausoleum.

After Xiaozong ascended the throne, he was named "Longxing" and determined to recover the Central Plains and the rivers and mountains. His posthumous title was "Wumu". He pursued Yuefei as the Duke of the state of E and deprived him of his official title. He ordered Veteran General Zhang Jun to attack the Central Plains in the north, but he was defeated by the Jin army in Fuli. Then the Jin army took advantage of the victory to pursue, and the Southern Song army suffered heavy losses. In the second year of Longxing (1164), Emperor Xiaozong of song was forced to sign the "Longxing peace agreement" with the Jin State. In the following year, the "main road" was changed, and Wang Huai was appointed to prepare for the financial crisis. In the year of the main road, because there was no interference from the war, Emperor Xiaozong of song devoted himself to the management of the government. The common people were rich, the grain was plentiful and the peace was peaceful, which changed the situation of corruption in the Gaozong Dynasty. Because Xiaozong of Song Dynasty had a good governance, the Southern Song Dynasty had a well-to-do situation of "the governance of Gan Chun" (GaN: Gan Dao, Chun: Chun Xi). In October of the fourteenth year of Chunxi (1187), Gaozong died of illness. In order to mourn, Xiaozong asked the crown prince Zhao Dun to participate in political affairs. In February of the 16th year of Chunxi (1189), Zen was once again located in the crown prince. After the crown prince ascended the throne, it was Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty. Xiaozong claimed to be the emperor, lived in Chonghua hall and continued to mourn for Gaozong. Guangzong and Xiaozong did not go to visit Xiaozong for a long time. For this reason, Xiaozong was depressed and became ill. Finally, in June 1194, the fifth year of Shaoxi, Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty, Xiaozong died in the Chonghua Hall of Lin'an.

Profile

Jianyan was born on October 22, the first year. The sixth ancestor is the fourth son of Zhao Kuangyin, the emperor of Qin. His father is Zhao Zicheng, the king of xiu'an. Since Prince Yuanyi, the only son of Emperor Gaozong, had no heir after his death, he had to choose his successor from the clan. According to the records in the strange traces, Emperor Gaozong of Song Dynasty was entrusted with a dream by Emperor Taizu of Song Dynasty. He said, "your ancestors took their own plans. According to my position for a long time, it was only a small place in the world, so they should return it to me. Therefore, Emperor Gaozong of the Song Dynasty inherited the grandson of the eighth emperor as his adopted son and established him as the prince. There are similar records in the history of the Song Dynasty, but Meng was entrusted with a dream.

In February of the third year of Shaoxing (1133), he was appointed as defense envoy of Hezhou. He was named Zhao Yuan and changed to defense envoy of Guizhou. In the first month of the 12th year (1142), Prince Pu'an was granted. Thirty years (1160) in February as the prince, renamed Zhao Wei, into the feudal king. In May 1162, he became crown prince and changed his name to Zhao she. In June, Emperor Gaozong and Emperor Xiaozong ascended the throne and established the name of Longxing. They were determined to restore the Central Plains and recover the mountains and rivers. Then, they restored the famous general Yuefei Chen to Wumu, pursued Yuefei as the Duke of the state of Hubei, eliminated the remaining Qin Hui party, and ordered the old general Zhang Jun to attack the Central Plains in the north, but they were defeated by the Jin army in Fuli. Then the Jin army took advantage of the victory to pursue, and the Southern Song army suffered heavy losses. After that, both sides won and lost each other, but Jin could not cross the Yangtze River and song could not cross the Yellow River.

In the second year of Longxing (1164), Emperor Xiaozong of song was forced to sign a "Longxing peace agreement" with emperor Shizong of Jin State, and then changed to "Qiandao" the following year.

In the period of Qiandao, due to the lack of interference from war and the fact that Emperor Gaozong was less in charge of politics, Emperor Xiaozong concentrated on the management of politics, the people were rich, the grain was plentiful, and peace was peaceful and easy, which changed the corrupt situation of Emperor Gaozong. Because Xiaozong of Song Dynasty had a good governance, there was a well-off situation in Southern Song Dynasty. When Emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty, there were a group of favorite officials, such as Zeng Liu, long Dayuan, Zhang Shuo and so on, who "colluded with and colluded with eunuch Liang Ke and so on." those who were shameless were fighting for attachment. "They were listed in the" flattering and lucky biography ".

In October of the fourteenth year of Chunxi (1187), Emperor Gaozong died in the palace of Deshou. After hearing this, Emperor Xiaozong lost his voice and cried bitterly. He was unable to eat for two days and said he would mourn for three years. In order to mourn, Emperor Xiaozong asked Prince Zhao Dun to participate in the political affairs. On February 18, 1189, Chunxi abdicated to the prince again. After the prince ascended the throne, he was the emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty. Xiaozong claimed to be the supreme emperor and lived in Cifu palace. Later, he changed his name to Chonghua palace and continued to mourn for Emperor Gaozong of Song Dynasty. Guangzong and Xiaozong are not in harmony. They do not visit Xiaozong for a long time. For this reason, Xiaozong was depressed and became ill. Finally, on the ninth day of June, the fifth year of Shaoxi, Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty (June 28, 1194), Xiaozong died in the Chonghua Hall of Lin'an.

Life of characters

After emperor Xiaozong ascended the throne, he established the title of "Longxing", determined to restore the Central Plains and recover the rivers and mountains, so he restored the title of famous general Yuefei to "Wumu", pursued Yuefei as the Duke of the state of Hubei, deprived Qin Hui's officials and lords, and ordered Veteran General Zhang Jun to attack the Central Plains in the north, but he was defeated by the Jin army in Fuli. Then the Jin army took advantage of the victory to pursue, and the Southern Song army suffered heavy losses. In the second year of Longxing (1164), Emperor Xiaozong of song was forced to sign the "Longxing peace agreement" with the Jin State. The next year, he changed the "dry road" and appointed Wang Huai to prepare for the financial crisis. During the Qiandao period, because there was no interference from the war, Emperor Xiaozong of song devoted himself to the management of the government. The people were rich, the grain was plentiful and the peace was peaceful. This changed the corrupt situation of Emperor Gaozong. Because Xiaozong of Song Dynasty had a good governance, there was a well-off situation in the Southern Song Dynasty.

In October of the fourteenth year of Chunxi (1187), Gaozong died of illness. In order to mourn, Xiaozong asked the crown prince Zhao Dun to participate in political affairs. In February of the 16th year of Chunxi (1189), Zen was once again located in the crown prince. After the crown prince ascended the throne, it was Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty. Xiaozong claimed to be the emperor, lived in Chonghua hall and continued to mourn for Gaozong. Guangzong and Xiaozong did not go to visit Xiaozong for a long time. For this reason, Xiaozong was depressed and became ill. Finally, in June 1194, the fifth year of Shaoxi, Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty, Xiaozong died in the Chonghua Hall of Lin'an. In his twenty-seven years in power, Emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty never forgot to restore the Central Plains, concentrate on the management of politics, make great efforts to govern, and resolutely take the lead in the war. He is the real leader of the rejuvenation of the Southern Song Dynasty.

Character evaluation

Zhao Min, Emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty, is the seventh grandson of emperor Taizu of Song Dynasty and the descendant of Zhao Defang. When Gaozong escaped from Yangzhou, he was frightened and lost his fertility. The only son died after the transformation of Miao Liu. Later generations of the British lineage, after the change, were basically wiped out by Jin, all of them were taken to the north. The most important thing is that the envoys who sent to the kingdom of Jin came back and said that the Emperor Taizong looked like the emperor Taizu of Song Dynasty. It is said that Taizu would come back and seize the throne. So Gaozong said that Taizu was selfless, but his son passed the throne to his younger brother. His descendants were in decline. I was going to pass the throne to Taizu's descendants. So from the descendants of Taizu, only one fat and one thin child were left. Gaozong began to like fat children. Two children stood in the palace. Suddenly a cat came. The thin child didn't move, but the fat child stretched out his feet to kick the cat. In this case, Gaozong's affection for the fat children disappeared, and the two children stayed. The name of the fat child was Zhao Zhuo, and the name of the thin child was Zhao min.

Zhao Min, who stayed in the palace, received the best education since he was a child. When he grew up, he became a duke, and later became a prince. The talented and intelligent prince to be has a stiff relationship with Qin Hui, the powerful minister. The main reason is that Zhao Min was disgusted with Qin's humiliation. And Qin also worried about Zhao Min's ability. When Zhao Min's father died of illness, Qin Hui asked Zhao Min to keep the system for three years. Because Zhao Min's crown prince status was not determined, this requirement was not excessive. But Qin wanted to take the opportunity to get rid of his crown prince status. However, Emperor Gaozong was obviously not moved by Qin Dynasty. Zhao Min continued to return to the palace when his filial piety was over. Later, Qin Hui was seriously ill. Zhao Min got the news in time and informed Gaozong. Gaozong visited Xiangfu in person, smashing Qin's attempt to make Qin Hui's son Qin Xi prime minister.

Zhao Min was raised in the palace for nearly 20 years, but he has not been identified as the crown prince. There are three main reasons. First of all, Gaozong still had a dream and wanted to fight for a new son. Secondly, Qin Hui's strong opposition. Third, empress Wei, Gaozong's mother, did not like Zhao Min, but another Zhao Zhuo who was raised in the palace. Until the death of empress Wei. Gao Zong used his last move to send 10 to each of the two prospective heirs, who were recalled after a while. After inspection, it is found that the 10 given to Zhao Zhuo are not virgins, and the 10 given to Zhao Min are still perfect (Zhao Min obeys Shi Hao's advice). Therefore, Zhao Min's crown prince status is established.

Two years later, King Hailing of the Jin Dynasty invaded the south, and Emperor Gaozong was ready to flee to the sea for his life. Zhao Min, the crown prince, wrote a letter asking him to lead his troops to meet the enemy. Shi Hao, who didn't know in advance, was shocked when he knew that Zhao Min had committed a big taboo. He quickly asked the crown prince to write a letter of apology and to go on the expedition with the emperor. The golden soldier retreated. Gaozong decided to abdicate to Zhao Min and retired to the Emperor himself.

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