Brief introduction of Zhao Zhan, Emperor ningzong of Song Dynasty-看世界

Brief introduction of Zhao Zhan, Emperor ningzong of Song Dynasty

  生平

  宋宁宗赵扩(1168年11月18日-1224年9月18日)是中国的第十三位,第四位皇帝(1194年7月24日—1224年9月18日在位)。时被封为嘉王、平阳王。登基后,赵扩被立为太子。绍熙五年(1194年),宋光宗被逼退位,由赵扩继位,第二年改年号为“庆元”。宋宁宗在位30年,享年55岁。其统治期间内,宋朝比较安定,百姓比较富裕,还恢复了理学地位。去世后谥号为法天备道纯德茂功仁文哲武圣睿恭孝皇帝

  生平

  宋宁宗赵扩,宋朝第十三位皇帝,光宗和李皇后第二子,乾道四年戊子年十月十九日〔一说十八日〕丙午(1168年11月19日)出生于恭王府邸〔宁宗把这天定为“天祐节”,后又改为“瑞庆节”〕,属相鼠。原先,李皇后梦见一个大太阳坠落到庭院里,用手承接它,从而怀孕有娠;直到宁宗出生当天夜晚,祥光绕室。宁宗于绍熙五年七月五日(1194年7月24日)—嘉定十七年闰八月三日(1224年9月17日)在位,当政共计31年,年号庆元:庆元元年正月一日(1195年2月12日)—嘉泰元年正月一日(1201年2月5日)、嘉泰:嘉泰元年正月一日(1201年2月5日)—开禧元年正月一日(1205年1月22日)、开禧:开禧元年正月一日(1205年1月22日)—嘉定元年正月一日(1208年1月19日)、嘉定:嘉定元年正月一日(1208年1月19日)—嘉定十七年闰八月三日(1224年9月17日),年号使用30年。嘉定十七年闰八月三日丁酉(1224年9月17日)宁宗崩殂于福宁殿,享年57岁,宝庆元年(1225年)正月二十八日己丑,上庙号宁宗,谥号仁文哲武恭孝皇帝;三月十三日癸酉,葬宁宗于永茂陵(今浙江绍兴东南宝山)。宝庆三年(1228年)九月,加谥法天备道纯德茂功仁文哲武圣睿恭孝皇帝。

  宋宁宗生於乾道四年(1168年)十月丙午,五年(1169年)五月赐名赵扩。淳熙五年(1178年)十月封英国公,十二年(1185年)三月封平阳郡王,十六年(1189年)三月进封嘉王。绍熙五年(1194年)为太子,不久继位。宋宁宗继位时,其父宋光宗尚在,改太上皇,名义上宋光宗禅位给宋宁宗,实际上是赵汝愚、赵彦逾、叶适、徐谊等朝臣以宋光宗无法执丧为理由,透过外戚韩侂胄从中连络,获得高宗吴皇后支持所造成的宫廷政变,逼迫宋光宗让位。

  宋宁宗继位後,宗室宰相赵汝愚与外戚韩侂胄不和,两者互相争斗。最後韩侂胄使用「宗室不得为宰执」的祖宗家法,让宋宁宗罢免了赵汝愚,并且将其所提倡的理学称为伪学,对理学家造成了打击,造成庆元党禁。这个政策一直维持到1202年,韩侂胄後悔和叶适建言才解除禁制。韩从此成为南宋举足轻重的人物。他的地位和权力远高出一般的宰相。

  宋宁宗在南宋统治初期由於韩侂胄的作用对金朝持对抗态度,他追封为鄂王,剥夺的所有封职。1206年,韩侂胄北伐战败後宋宁宗改变了政策。1207年11月,其皇后杨氏与史弥远一起秘密策划利用韩侂胄战败的机会谋杀了韩侂胄,并且将韩侂胄的首级送往金朝谢罪。1208年,在史弥远的操纵下,宋宁宗与金朝达成了嘉定和议,向称伯,自己称侄,又向金朝进贡金银。韩侂胄死後,史弥远成为了宋宁宗的宰相兼枢密使,独揽大政,同时史弥远恢复了秦桧的王爵和官职。

  宋宁宗先後有9个儿子,但是在未成年时就夭折,以後的继承人问题都有史弥远介入与操控。曾以养子赵询为太子,但早死(1207年至1220年在位)。後立养子赵竑为太子(1221年至1224年在位),但是因为赵竑对史弥远专权不满,因此宋宁宗死後史弥远废黜赵竑,另外立了赵昀为皇帝。

  宋宁宗於嘉定十八年闰八月初三(1224年9月17日)崩於福宁殿,次年三月葬於永茂陵。

  历史评价

  官修正史《宋史》脱脱等的评价是:“宋世内禅者四,宁宗之禅,独当事势之难,能不失礼节焉,斯可谓善处矣。初年以旧学辅导之功,召用宿儒,引拔善类,一时守文继体之政,烨然可观。中更侂胄用事,内蓄群奸,至指正人为邪,正学为伪,外挑强邻,流毒淮甸。频岁兵败,乃函侂胄之首,行成于金,国体亏矣。既而弥远擅权,幸帝耄荒,窃弄威福。至于皇储国统,乘机伺间,亦得遂其废立之私,他可知也。虽然,宋东都至于仁宗,四传而享国百年,邵雍称为前代所无,南渡至宁宗,亦四传而享国九十有八年,是亦岂偶然哉。惜乎神器授受之际,宁、理之视仁、英,其迹虽同,其情相去远矣。”

免责声明:以上内容源自网络,版权归原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原创版权请告知,我们将尽快删除相关内容。


Zhao Kuan, Emperor ningzong of Song Dynasty (November 18, 1168 to September 18, 1224) was the 13th and fourth emperor of China (July 24, 1194 to September 18, 1224). At that time, he was named king Jia and King Pingyang. After taking the throne, Zhao was made Prince. In the fifth year of Shaoxi (1194), Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty was forced to abdicate and was succeeded by Zhao Guangzong. In the second year, he was renamed Qingyuan. Song ningzong reigned for 30 years, aged 55. During its reign, the Song Dynasty was relatively stable, the people were relatively rich, and also restored the status of Neo Confucianism. After his death, his posthumous title was Emperor Ruigong, the sage of martial arts.

Life

Zhao Kuan, the 13th emperor of Song Dynasty, the second son of Guangzong and empress Li, was born on October 19, the fifth year of Qiandao. Bingwu (November 19, 1168) was born in Prince Gong's Mansion (ningzong designated this day as "Tianyou Festival" and later changed it to "Ruiqing Festival"). He is a phase mouse. Originally, empress Li dreamed of a big sun falling into the courtyard, carrying it by hand, so that she was pregnant and pregnant; until the night of Ning Zong's birth, Xiangguang circled the room. Ningzong was in power for 31 years from July 5, 2015 (July 24, 1194) to August 3, 2017 (September 17, 1224), with the year number of Qingyuan: January 1, Qingyuan (February 12, 1195) - January 1, Jiatai (February 5, 1201), Jiatai: January 1, Jiatai (February 5, 1201) - January 1, Kaixi (January 22, 1205) Day), Kaixi: the first day of the first month of Kaixi year (January 22, 1205) - the first day of Jiading year (January 19, 1208), Jiading: the first day of Jiading year (January 19, 1208) - the third leap August of Jiading year 17 (September 17, 1224), the year number is used for 30 years. Ding you (September 17, 1224) died in Funing hall on August 3, the 17th leap year of Jiading. He was 57 years old. In the first year of Baoqing (1225), he was ugly on the 28th day of the first month. His temple was named ningzong and his posthumous title was Renwen, Zhe, Wu, gongxiao emperor. On March 13, Guiyou was buried in yongmaoling (today's Baoshan in the southeast of Shaoxing, Zhejiang). In September of the third year of Baoqing (1228), the posthumous title of emperor Ruigong was added.

Song ningzong was born in the fourth year of Qiandao (1168) in October Bingwu. In the fifth year (1169), he was named Zhao Kuai. In the fifth year of Chunxi (1178), he became the Duke of England in October, the prince of Pingyang in March of the 12th year (1185), and the king of Jia in March of the 16th year (1189). Shaoxi five years (1194) for the prince, soon succeeded. When song ningzong succeeded to the throne, his father, song Guangzong, was still in power and changed to the supreme emperor. In fact, Zhao Ruyu, Zhao Yanyu, Ye Shi, Xu Yi and other courtiers, for the reason that song Guangzong could not hold the funeral, contacted Han Yuzhou, a relative, to obtain the palace coup caused by the support of Empress Wu of Gaozong and forced song Guangzong to abdicate.

After song ningzong succeeded to the throne, Zhao Ruyu, the Prime Minister of the clan, and Han Yuzhou, his relatives, were at loggerheads with each other. In the end, Han Yuzhou used the patriarchal system of "no clan can be held for slaughter", which made song ningzong dismiss Zhao Ruyu, and called the Neo Confucianism he advocated as pseudo Confucianism, which hit the Neo Confucianism and caused the party ban in Qingyuan. This policy lasted until 1202, when Han Yuzhou regretted and Ye Shi proposed to lift the ban. From then on, South Korea became an important figure in the Southern Song Dynasty. His position and power are far higher than that of the prime minister.

In the early period of Southern Song Dynasty, due to the role of Han Yuzhou, ningzong of Song Dynasty held a confrontational attitude towards the Jin Dynasty. He pursued the king of Hubei and deprived all his posts. In 1206, after Han Yuzhou's defeat in the northern expedition, song ningzong changed his policy. In November 1207, his Empress Yang and Shi Miyuan secretly planned to kill Han Yuzhou by taking advantage of his defeat, and sent his head to the Jin Dynasty to thank him. In 1208, under the control of Shi Miyuan, song ningzong reached a peace agreement with the Jin Dynasty. He called Bo, nephew and gold and silver. After Han Yuzhou's death, Shi Miyuan became the prime minister and emissary of song ningzong, and took charge of the great government. At the same time, Shi Miyuan restored Qin Hui's crown prince and official position.

Song ningzong had nine sons in succession, but he died when he was a minor. In the future, the issue of heirs had been intervened and manipulated by Shi Miyuan. Zhao Xun, the adopted son, was the prince, but he died early (from 1207 to 1220). Later, Zhao Hong, the adopted son, was appointed Prince (from 1221 to 1224). However, because Zhao Hong was not satisfied with the dictatorship of Shi Miyuan, Shi Miyuan deposed Zhao Hong after the death of song ningzong, and Zhao Yun was also appointed emperor.

Song ningzong died in Funing hall on the third day of the 18th leap August (September 17, 1224), and was buried in yongmaoling in March of the next year.

Historical evaluation

The evaluation of the official revision of the history of the Song Dynasty is: "the fourth Zen in the Song Dynasty is the Zen of ningzong. It is a good place to be able to do things alone without disrespect. At the beginning of the year, with the help of the old school tutoring, he called on the old Confucians to lead out the good ones. For a while, he kept the culture and succeeded in the politics. However, Ye was considerable. Zhonggengzhou used things, kept traitors inside, corrected people's evils, made learning false, picked strong neighbors outside, and poisoned Huaidian. The defeat at the age of five was the head of the Han Dynasty, which was made in gold. The state was in deficit. Even though Miyuan was good at power, he was lucky that the emperor had been in famine for a long time. As for the crown prince, Guotong, taking advantage of the opportunity to serve others, he could also abolish his private interests. Although, as for Renzong in the east of Song Dynasty, it's no coincidence that Shao Yong, who lived for a hundred years in four biographies, was not in the past generation. When he arrived at ningzong in the south, he also lived for eight years in four biographies. When we cherish the gift of the artifact, we should pay more attention to the benevolence and the elitism of peace and reason. Although the signs are the same, the emotions are far away. "

Disclaimer: the above content comes from the Internet, and the copyright belongs to the original author. If you violate your original copyright, please let us know, and we will delete the relevant content as soon as possible.

本文由 看世界 作者:小小 发表,其版权均为 看世界 所有,文章内容系作者个人观点,不代表 看世界 对观点赞同或支持。如需转载,请注明文章来源。

发表评论