Zhao Xi, Emperor Gong of Song Dynasty-看世界

Zhao Xi, Emperor Gong of Song Dynasty

  1274年,宋度宗因酒色过度而死,四岁的赵隰在奸臣贾似道的扶持下登基做皇帝,是为宋恭帝,年号德佑。由祖母谢太皇太后、母亲全太后垂帘听政。但军国大权依然在贾似道之手。

  宋恭帝赵隰(1271年—1323年)是第七位(1274年—1276年在位),次子。他是所生,是赵昰的弟弟,宋末帝的哥哥,即位前曾被封为嘉国公、左卫上将军等,諡号恭皇帝,无庙号(一说庙号恭宗)。

  1274年,宋度宗因酒色过度而死,四岁的赵隰在奸臣贾似道的扶持下登基做皇帝,是为宋恭帝,年号德佑。由祖母谢太皇、母亲全太后垂帘听政。但军国大权依然在贾似道之手。

  当时蒙古的大军己得中国北半部,在取得南下最重要通道襄樊城的控制权之后,渡过长江向南宋首都临安(今杭州)进发。谢太后一面在全国通令“勤王”,一面向元军乞和。势如破竹的元军在击破各地的防线,相继降服了长江中游诸州。1275年,贾似道率领的3万大军在芜湖与元军对战大败,不久,谢太后和宋恭帝在全国人民的压迫下不得不杀死贾似道,不过为时晚矣,已寿终临寝,灭亡的形势已经不可避免了。同年年中,元军己经占领了江东(今日的江苏省)大半的领土。1276年1月18日伯颜率领的元军兵临临安。南宋朝廷求和不成,只好向元军投降。同年,谢太皇太后抱着五岁的小皇帝宋恭帝赵隰出城向元军投降。后来南宋残余势力在福建、广东抗元,最后在1279年,南宋年仅八岁的小皇帝赵昺被元军逼的走投无路,只好跳海而死,南宋终于还是灭亡了。

  宋恭帝被俘以后,被元朝封为瀛国公。到了元世祖至元二十六年(1289年),元世祖忽必烈突然赏给19岁的赵隰许多钱财,叫他去西藏当僧人。于是当年的小皇帝宋恭帝成了高僧,为佛教界做出了许多贡献,翻译了不少佛教经文。

  后来,也就是至治三年(1323年),赵隰知晓自己从前身份,便写道:

  :寄语林和靖,梅花几度开?

  :黄金台下客,应是不归来。

  这首诗充分表现了他对南宋王朝的思念之情,表达了赵对当年元朝政府无理进攻南宋的谴责,因而触犯了。后来被发现,大怒,遂下令赐死赵隰,死时享年53岁。

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Zhao Xi, Emperor Gongdi of Song Dynasty (1271-1323), was the seventh son (1274-1276). He was born as Zhao Shi's younger brother and the elder brother of the emperor at the end of the Song Dynasty. Before he became the emperor, he was granted the title of general Jia Guogong and general Zuo weishang.

In 1274, Emperor duzong of Song Dynasty died of excessive drinking and lust. Zhao Xi, four years old, became emperor with the support of his treacherous minister Jia Sidao. He was Emperor song Gongdi, with the title of Deyou. His grandmother, Emperor Xie, and his mother, the empress dowager, were in charge. But the military power is still in Jia's hands.

At that time, the army of Mongolia had acquired the control of Xiangfan City, the most important channel in the south, and crossed the Yangtze River to march to Lin'an (now Hangzhou), the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty. On the one hand, the Empress Dowager Xie ordered "King Qin" throughout the country, and on the other hand, she begged for peace from the yuan army. The yuan army was breaking through the defense lines and subdued the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. In 1275, the 30000 army led by Jia Sidao was defeated in the battle between Wuhu and the yuan army. Soon, empress Xie and song Gongdi had to kill Jia Sidao under the oppression of the whole nation. However, it was too late to die. The situation of death was inevitable. In the middle of the same year, the yuan army occupied most of Jiangdong (today's Jiangsu Province). On January 18, 1276, the yuan army led by Boyan came to Lin'an. The court of the Southern Song Dynasty failed to make peace, so it had to surrender to the yuan army. In the same year, Empress Dowager Xie took Zhao Xi, the five-year-old emperor song Gong, out of the city and surrendered to the yuan army. Later, the remaining forces of the Southern Song Dynasty fought against the Yuan Dynasty in Fujian and Guangdong. Finally, in 1279, Zhao Min, the eight year old little emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty, was forced into a desperate situation by the yuan army and had to jump into the sea to die. The Southern Song Dynasty finally died.

After Song Gong was captured, he was granted the title of Yingguo by Yuan Dynasty. In 1289, Kublai Khan, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, suddenly gave Zhao Xi, 19, a lot of money to become a monk in Tibet. So song Gong, the little emperor of that year, became an eminent monk and made a lot of contributions to Buddhism and translated many Buddhist scriptures.

Later, in 1323, Zhao Xi knew his former identity and wrote:

How many times does the plum blossom bloom?

The golden stage guests should not come back.

This poem fully expresses his yearning for the Southern Song Dynasty, and expresses Zhao's condemnation of the Yuan Dynasty's unjustifiable attack on the Southern Song Dynasty. Later, Zhao Xi was found angry and ordered to die at the age of 53.

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