Zhao Min, king of the Song Dynasty-看世界

Zhao Min, king of the Song Dynasty

  赵昺一般被称为宋帝昺,亦称宋卫王、幼主、幼帝、末帝等。

  宋卫王(bǐng)(1272年——1279年),汉族,亦是最后一位(第九位,1278年——1279年在位),在位2年,享年8岁。赵昺是宋朝度宗幼子,曾被封为信国公、广王、卫王等爵位。1276年2月,元军攻占宋都临安(今浙江杭州),俘获5岁的及其母全(恭帝祖母谢太皇太后因身体不适,暂居临安)。他与其兄赵昰在、陆秀夫、张世杰、陈宜中及其母杨太妃等南宋遗臣的拥护下南逃,蒙古军队统帅伯颜一心想把南宋皇室斩草除根,便遣张弘范、李恒等人追击。当时他被拜为天下兵马副元帅官职,判泉州。1276年夏,赵昰即位称帝,是为,继续和赵昺南逃,在元军的不断追击下,1278年,端宗因落水而染疾去世,赵昺登基做了皇帝,改元祥兴。他在位时,以厓山(今广东新会崖门)为据点,拜张世杰、陆秀夫为左右宰相,并起用张世杰抗元,陆秀夫整顿内政。但是因为种种原因,南宋最终还是于1279年3月在崖山海战中被元军大败,全军覆灭,陆秀夫遂背时年8岁的赵昺跳海而死,张世杰、杨太妃等人也相继投水殉国。南宋最后一位皇帝死去,宋王朝灭亡。

  赵昺一般被称为宋帝昺,亦称宋卫王、幼主、幼帝、末帝等。

  在深圳赤湾(现属南山区)有宋少帝陵,据说是少帝遗骸漂至赤湾附近,被僧人发现,从其服装上看出是宋少帝,于是葬于此。1984年蛇口工业区和香港赵氏宗亲会出资修葺扩建了宋少帝陵,现为深圳重点文物保护单位

  香港也有一个纪念两位宋末皇帝逃难的地方,叫宋王台公园。

  据宋王台公园《九龙宋皇台遗址碑记》记载,昰昺二帝南逃期间,「有金夫人墓,相传为杨太后女,晋国公主,先溺於水,至是铸金身以葬者」,葬于今九龙城区,人称「金夫人墓」,後来由于该址兴建了圣三一堂。

  赵昺,曾先后封为信王、广王、卫王。临安危急时,他在母亲杨淑妃带领下,暗暗出城,逃到泉州(今福建省泉州市)。端宗于景炎三年(公元1278年)4月病死,他被陆秀夫,张世杰于同月冈州拥立为帝,5月,改年号为“祥兴”,6月,迁到崖山(今广东省新会县南)。

  与此同时,南宋右丞相文天祥在五坡岭(今广东海丰)被元帅张弘范的弟弟张弘正所俘,其统领的督军府从此瓦解。

  祥兴二年(公元1279年)正月,元将张弘范率水陆两路元军直趋崖山。崖山背山面海,地势险要,张世杰下令焚烧岛上行宫军屋,人马全部登船,然后依山面海,将1千多条战船排成长蛇阵,用绳束连接在一起,船的四周筑起城楼,船上涂上一层厚厚的湿泥,缚上一根根长木。将帝昺的座船安置在中间,诏示将士与舰船共存亡。

  张弘范见宋军战船集结,行动不便,就先用小船装满柴草,浇上油,点火后乘风攻击宋水军。宋军船上的湿泥阻止了火势蔓延,长木又顶住了火船,使元军的火攻归于失败。张弘范又阻断了宋军的水源,封锁了海口。宋兵饥渴交加,处境日益困难。张弘范派人劝降,被张世杰拒绝。2月6日,双方进行了最后的决战,张弘范分兵四路,发动猛攻。宋军正在拼命抵抗时,忽听得张弘范所在的指挥船上奏起了音乐。宋军以为这是元军将领在举行宴会,战斗就松懈了一下。不料此乐声是元军总攻的讯号,张弘范的指挥船直扑而来,箭如暴雨。元军在乱箭掩护下,夺走了宋军的战船七艘。各路元军又一齐猛扑过来,从中午到傍晚,海战进行得异常激烈。忽然,张世杰见到一条宋船降下了旗帜,停止了抵抗,其他战船也降下旗帜,知道大势已去,急忙一面将精兵集中到中军,一面派出一只小船和十多名士兵去接帝昺前来,准备突围。

  帝昺这时正由左丞相陆秀夫守护着,待在一艘大船上。小船来接帝昺,陆秀夫不知这是真是假,又担心帝昺如突围不成而被元军截获,坚决拒绝。他知道君臣都难以脱身了,就连忙跨上自己的座船,仗剑驱使自己的妻子投海自尽。然后,换上朝服,回到大船礼拜帝昺,哭着说:“陛下,国事至今一败涂地,陛下理应为国殉身。德祐皇帝(恭帝)当年被掳北上,已经使国家遭受了极大的耻辱,今日陛下万万不能再重蹈覆辙了!”帝昺则给吓得哭作一团。陆秀夫说完,将黄金国玺系在腰间,背起九岁的帝昺奋身跃入大海,以身殉国。顷刻间君臣二人就沉没得无影无踪。其他船上的大臣,宫眷,将士听到这个噩耗,顿时哭声震天,几万人纷纷投海殉国。张世杰率领水军余部突围而出来到海陵山脚下,不久,有人带来了陆秀夫背负帝昺共同殉国的噩耗。张世杰悲痛不已,此时,飓风再来,部下劝他上岸暂避。张世杰俯视着在风粮中飘摇的宋军残船,拒绝暂避。绝望地回答:“无济于事了,还是与诸君共甘苦吧”又说道:“我为赵氏,也算竭力了,一君身亡,复立一君,如今又亡,我在崖山没有殉身,是望元军退后,再立新君,然而,国事发展到如此地步,难道这是天意。”说完堕身入海。

  南宋灭亡。

  出生年月日的两种说法

  一种说法:咸淳八年壬申[寅正]十二月四日戌子,换算成公历应该是1272年12月25日;

  另一种说法:宋度宗咸淳八年壬申[寅正]一月十二日辛未,换算成公历应该是1272年2月12日。.

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Song Wei Wang (1272-1279), Han nationality, was also the last (9th, 1278-1279), reigned for 2 years, at the age of 8. Zhao Min, the youngest son of emperor duzong in Song Dynasty, was once granted the titles of xinguogong, Guangwang and Weiwang. In February 1276, the yuan army captured Lin'an, the capital of Song Dynasty (now Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province), and captured the 5-year-old and his mother Quan (Empress Dowager Xie, the grandmother of emperor Gong, temporarily lived in Lin'an due to her physical discomfort). He fled south with his brother Zhao Si, Lu Xiufu, Zhang Shijie, Chen Yizhong, his mother Yang Taifei and other legacy officials of the Southern Song Dynasty. Boyan, the commander-in-chief of the Mongolian army, was determined to cut off the royal family of the Southern Song Dynasty, so he sent Zhang Hongfan, Li Heng and others to pursue him. At that time, he was worshipped as the deputy marshal of the army and horse of the world and sentenced to Quanzhou. In the summer of 1276, Zhao Si ascended the throne to become emperor. He continued to flee with Zhao Minnan. Under the constant pursuit of the yuan army, in 1278, duanzong died of illness due to falling into the water. Zhao Min became emperor and changed to Xiangxing of the Yuan Dynasty. When he was in office, he took Yushan (now yamen, Xinhui, Guangdong) as his stronghold, worshipped Zhang Shijie and Lu Xiufu as prime ministers, and used Zhang Shijie to fight against yuan. Lu Xiufu rectified his internal affairs. However, due to various reasons, the Southern Song Dynasty was finally defeated by the yuan army in March 1279 in the sea battle on the cliffs, and the whole army was destroyed. Lu Xiufu then jumped into the sea and died at the age of eight. Zhang Shijie, Yang Taifei and others also successively went to the water and died. The last emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty died and the Song Dynasty died.

Zhao Min is generally known as the Song Emperor min, also known as the Song Wei king, the young master, the young emperor, the late emperor and so on.

In Chiwan (now Nanshan District), Shenzhen, there is the mausoleum of song Shaodi. It is said that the remains of Shaodi drifted to the vicinity of Chiwan, and were found by monks. It can be seen from their clothes that it is song Shaodi, so they were buried here. In 1984, Shekou Industrial Zone and Hong Kong Zhao clan association invested to repair and expand the mausoleum of song Shao emperor, which is now a key cultural relics protection unit in Shenzhen.

There is also a place in Hong Kong to commemorate the escape of the two emperors at the end of the Song Dynasty. It is called songwangtai park.

According to the records of the stele of the ruins of the Song Dynasty in Wangtai Park of the Song Dynasty, during the escape of emperor min'er from the south, "there is a tomb of the golden lady, who is said to be the Empress Dowager Yang and the princess of the state of Jin, who drowned first and then cast a gold body to be buried." it was buried in the current Kowloon City, known as the "Tomb of the golden lady". Later, the Holy Trinity hall was built at the site.

Zhao Min, who was once King Xinwang, King Guangwang and King Weiwang. When Lin'an was in crisis, he secretly left the city and fled to Quanzhou (now Quanzhou City, Fujian Province) under the guidance of his mother, Yang Shufei. Duanzong died in April of the third year of Jingyan (1278 AD). Lu Xiufu and Zhang Shijie established duanzong as emperor in Gangzhou in the same month. In May, he changed his name to "Xiangxing". In June, he moved to Yashan (now south of Xinhui County, Guangdong Province).

At the same time, Wen Tianxiang, the right Prime Minister of the Southern Song Dynasty, was captured by Zhang Hongzheng, the younger brother of Marshal Zhang Hongfan, in wupoling (now Haifeng, Guangdong), and the governor's office under his command collapsed.

In the first month of the second year of Xiangxing (1279 AD), Zhang Hongfan, the general of the Yuan Dynasty, led the yuan army on both sides of the river and land to the cliff. The cliff is back to the mountain and facing the sea. The terrain is dangerous. Zhang Shijie orders to burn the palace and military houses on the island. All the people and horses board the boat. Then, according to the mountain and facing the sea, more than 1000 warships are arranged in a long snake formation. They are connected together by ropes. The buildings are built around the boat. The boat is coated with a thick layer of wet mud and tied with long trees. The emperor's ship was placed in the middle, and the soldiers and ships were ordered to live or die together.

When Zhang Hongfan saw that the warships of the song army were assembled and inconvenient to move, he first filled the boat with firewood, poured oil on it, ignited it, and then attacked the song Navy in the wind. The wet mud on the ship of the song army stopped the fire spreading, and the long wood stood up to the fire ship again, which made the fire attack of the yuan army fail. Zhang Hongfan blocked the water source of the song army and sealed off Haikou. The soldiers of Song Dynasty were in increasingly difficult situation due to their hunger and thirst. Zhang Hongfan sent people to persuade him to surrender, but Zhang Shijie refused. On February 6, the two sides held the final decisive battle, Zhang Hongfan divided his forces into four routes and launched a fierce attack. Song Jun was fighting hard when he heard music played on the command ship where Zhang Hongfan was. Song Jun thought this was a banquet held by the generals of the yuan army, and the battle was relaxed for a while. Unexpectedly, the music was the signal of the yuan army's general attack. Zhang Hongfan's command ship came straight, and the arrows were like torrential rain. Under the cover of random arrows, the yuan army took seven warships of the song army. From noon to evening, the naval battle was extremely fierce. Suddenly, Zhang Shijie saw a song ship lowering its flag and stopped resisting. Other warships also lowered their flags. Knowing that the situation was over, Zhang Shijie hurriedly gathered the elite soldiers to the Chinese army and sent a boat and more than ten soldiers to pick up emperor min and prepare to break through.

At this time, Emperor min was being guarded by Prime Minister Lu Xiufu, staying in a large ship. The boat came to pick up emperor min. Lu Xiufu did not know whether it was true or not. He was worried that emperor min could not break through and was captured by the yuan army. He firmly refused. He knew that it was hard for the emperor and his officials to get away, so he quickly stepped on his boat and drove his wife to commit suicide by throwing her sword into the sea. Then, he put on the imperial uniform, went back to the great ship to worship the emperor min, and cried, "Your Majesty, the state has been defeated so far, and your majesty should have died for the country. The exile of emperor Deyou (Gongdi) to the north in those days has already caused great humiliation to the country. Today, your majesty can never repeat the same mistake! " Emperor min was frightened to cry. After Lu Xiufu finished, he tied the gold seal to his waist and carried the nine year old emperor min on his back to leap into the sea and die for his country. In an instant, the two men sank without trace. The other ministers, the family members and the general heard the sad news, and they cried loudly. Tens of thousands of people died in the sea. Zhang Shijie led the rest of the water army to break out at the foot of Hailing mountain. Soon, Lu Xiufu was killed by Emperor min. Zhang Shijie was very sad. At this time, when the hurricane came again, his subordinates advised him to go ashore to avoid it. Zhang Shijie looked down at the song army's wrecked ship, which was swaying in the wind and grain, and refused to stay. Despairingly, he replied, "it won't help. Let's share weal and woe with all of you." he said, "I've tried my best for Zhao family. One of you died, and now I'm dead again. I didn't die on the cliff. It's Wang Yuan's army retreating and establishing a new king. However, it's heaven's will that the state affairs develop to such a degree." Then he fell into the sea.

The Southern Song Dynasty perished.

Two versions of birth date

One way of saying: in the eighth year of Xianchun, Renshen [Yinzheng] on December 4, Xuzi, converted into the Gregorian calendar, should be December 25, 1272;

Another way of saying: Xinwei, January 12, Renshen [Yinzheng], the eighth year of Xianchun, the emperor of the Song Dynasty, was converted into the Gregorian calendar on February 12, 1272. .

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