Ying Zheng, the first emperor of Qin (259-210 B.C.), was born in Handan, the capital of Zhao. A famous statesman, reformer, and strategist in Chinese history, he was the first one to complete the founding of China's reunification. His son, who was 13 years old, was the throne. At the age of 39, he was known as the emperor and reigned for 37 years. The first emperor of Qin established the system of emperor, the central government implemented the system of three gongs and nine Qing, the local government abolished the system of enfeoffment, replaced the system of counties and counties, unified the characters and weights and measures, attacked the Huns in the north, marched to Baiyue in the south, and built. It pushed China to the era of unification, created a new situation for the establishment of autocratic centralized system, had a profound impact on China and the world history, and laid the basic pattern of China's political system for more than 2000 years. Li Zhi, a thinker in Ming Dynasty, praised him as "one emperor for thousands of years".
The first emperor of Qin, known as Yingzheng (259-210 BC), was the son of King Zhuang Xiang of Qin. After the death of King Zhuang Xiang, he succeeded the throne of Qin, then destroyed the six kingdoms and unified China. He was the first emperor of Qin Dynasty. 25 years in the throne, 12 years in the throne, died of illness, 49 years old. It was buried in Liyi (now 25 Li northeast of Lintong County, Shaanxi Province).
First emperor of Qin, surname Ying, first name Zheng. Born in the state of Zhao, also known as Zhao Zheng, the son of King Zhuangxiang of Qin Dynasty (another said as the son). In 246 B.C., at the age of 13, Ying Zheng succeeded to the throne of the Qin Dynasty, which was dominated by Prime Minister LV Buwei and Xuan Nanchong. In 238 BC, when he was in charge of the government, poison took the opportunity of his going out to fight against the rebellion. He smashed the rebellion, killed the poison and imprisoned the Empress Dowager. In the second year, LV Buwei was relieved from his position as a minister, and then forced to kill him, and appointed Wei Liao and others.
Since then, Ying Zheng has inherited a series of policies of reforming law and rewarding farming war. After that, Ying Zheng took the strategy of Li Si and others to bribe the powerful ministers of the six countries of Guandong with heavy money, separated their relations between the monarchs and ministers, and engaged in close and long-term attacks. In the 10 years from 230 BC to 221 BC, he successively wiped out the six countries of South Korea, Wei, Chu, Yan, Zhao and Qi, ending the situation of hundreds of years of separatist and confrontational wars, creating the first unification in Chinese history The feudal centralized state.
After winning the government and unifying the world, he established the title of "emperor". He called himself the first emperor and announced that his descendants would be called the second, third and even the last. He fancied that the rule of the Qin Dynasty would last for thousands of generations. All the government affairs of the country were ruled by the emperor, and the important officials of the central and local governments were appointed and removed by the emperor. In the central government, the three gongjiu Qing system was implemented. Later, the first emperor of Qin abolished the enfeoffment system since the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and implemented the system of counties. Based on the original laws and orders of Qin, he absorbed some provisions of the laws of the six countries and formulated and promulgated unified laws. In order to prevent their secession and restoration, the noble and rich of the six countries were moved to Guanzhong and Bashu.
We should carry out the policy of emphasizing agriculture and restraining commerce in economy, and support the development of feudal private ownership of land. In the thirty first year (216 BC), the first emperor ordered landlords and self-employed peasants to declare the amount of land to the government and pay taxes, so that their land ownership would be recognized and protected by the government, and unified the national measurement system based on the established measurement system. In order to develop the national water and land transportation, the "half Liang" money of Qin Dynasty was used as the circulation currency, and the "same vehicle and rail" was implemented. The gallop road from Xianyang to Yanqi and wuchu areas, and the straight road from Xianyang to Jiuyuan (today's Baotou West, inner Mongolia) through Yunyang (today's northwest of Chunhua, Shaanxi) was built. The "five foot road" was built in the southwest area, and the Lingqu was dug to connect the Xiangjiang River and Lijiang River.
In terms of culture and ideology, Xiaozhuan was made and issued to the whole country on the basis of the common characters of Qin state. In 213 B.C., in order to control his mind, Ying Zheng adopted Lisi's suggestion and ordered the burning of books other than Qin's history, medicine, divination and tree planting. No private school. In the second year, Lu Sheng and Hou Sheng, the founder of the Qin Dynasty, talked behind their backs about the arbitrary corruption of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty and the abuse of punishment. After hearing this, Ying Zheng sent people to pursue Hou Sheng and Lu Sheng. Hou Sheng and Lu Sheng fled. Ying Zheng was furious and killed more than 460 Confucian scholars in Xianyang. These two things, Shi said, have restrained the thought and severely damaged the culture.
In 214 BC, Ying Zheng sent troops to Baiyue in the south, adding four counties, namely Minzhong, Nanhai, Guilin and Xiangjun (now Chongzuo County, Guangxi). In the same year, he sent his generals to attack the Huns in the north, recaptured the area around Hetao, Inner Mongolia, and moved to the mainland to build cities. At the end of the first emperor's reign, the number of Qin counties increased from 36 counties at the beginning of unification to more than 40 counties, making the territory of Qin Dynasty reach the sea in the East, Longxi in the west, the Great Wall in the north and Xiangjun in the south.
During the reign of Yingzheng, there were heavy corvee and severe punishment. In addition to paying two-thirds of the harvest as taxes, the people also have to bear heavy corvee and military service. He recruited more than 700000 people to build a luxurious Afang palace and Lishan tomb in the south of Weishui. He also recruited farmers to connect the Great Wall in the north of Qin, Zhao and Yan, extending eastward and westward to build a city defense from Lintao (now Minxian County, Gansu Province) in the west to Liaodong (now northwest of Liaoyang City, Liaoning Province). This is the great great wall. It is a great project in ancient China and the crystallization of the sweat and wisdom of ancient Chinese working people. At that time, more than 1.5 million people were conscripted to perform military and corvee work in the whole country. There were not enough men, and even women were arrested to transport food and pay. Many people were tortured to death. In order to prevent the people's resistance, he ordered not only the collection and destruction of folk weapons, but also the execution of a person's death by his family, which is called "family killing"; a family who breaks the law, and the neighborhood who commits the same crime, which is called "sitting in company". At any time, the people will be accused of breaking the law, punished for hard labor, or cut their feet, cut their noses, put to death, and escorted to the government.
In the 12 years of the emperor's reign, he made five large-scale patrols and engraved stones and virtues along the way to show his immortal achievements. In order to seek the elixir of immortality, thousands of young men and women were sent to the East China Sea to seek immortals, which cost a lot of money and manpower and deepened the suffering of the people.
As soon as the Qin Dynasty was established, the class began to intensify, and a small-scale peasant uprising appeared. In 210 BC, Ying Zheng made his last tour, accompanied by Prime Minister Li Si, Zhongche official (Eunuch in charge of emperor's documents) and his favorite little son Hu Hai. He crossed the Qiantang River to Wuzhong in Kuaiji county. On the way back, he fell ill in pingpingjin (now Southeast of Pingyuan County, Shandong Province). When we arrived at Dune (now Guangzong County, Hebei Province), the disease turned critical. He knew he couldn't do it. He quickly ordered Li Si and Zhao Gao to draft the imperial edict and deliver it to his eldest son. He urged Fusu to rush back to Xianyang and preside over the funeral. When Li Sicao prepared the imperial edict and submitted it to Ying Zheng for review, Ying Zheng was dead.
Fu Su was demoted from the capital by the first emperor of Qin and sent to serve as a supervisor in the Mengtian army of Shangjun because he dissuaded Ying Zheng from pitching Confucians. Zhao Gao had always had a feud with the Mengtian family. Worried about supporting the Soviet Union to succeed, Mengtian would be put in a position of great importance, which was not good for him, so he stopped the imperial edict and conspired with Hu hai to usurp the throne. He also intimidated and lured Li Si to conspire with them, faked the imperial edict, accused Fu Su of failing to make contributions outside, but resented his father and emperor, and ordered him and Meng Tian to commit suicide. Meng Tian is suspicious and refuses to commit suicide. He believed that the imperial edict was true and committed suicide.
Zhao Gaomi did not mourn. He put Ying Zheng's body in the car, closed the car door, pulled the curtain on the car, and made the officials think that Qin Shihuang was still alive, and wrote the book outside the car every day. At the same time, he led the brigade to rush back to Xianyang with the corpse car. Because of the heat, the bodies rotted and smelled. Zhao Gao sent people to get the young batch of abalone and ordered each car to load a stone of abalone to confuse the body odor. Then mourning, and holding Hu Hai as the emperor. The first emperor of Qin is a general term for the first emperor Ying Zheng in history.
Since ancient times, there have been different opinions on Qin Shihuang. But throughout Qin Shihuang's life, it has played a huge role in promoting the development of Chinese history. In fact, it is an effective emperor in Chinese history, whose achievements cannot be lost.
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