Brief introduction to Ying Zheng, the first emperor of China, the founding emperor of Qin Dynasty-看世界

Brief introduction to Ying Zheng, the first emperor of China, the founding emperor of Qin Dynasty

  秦始皇,名赢政(前259~前210),秦庄襄王之子,庄襄王死后继秦王位,后灭六国,统一中国,称始皇帝,是秦王朝的开国皇帝。在王位25年,帝位12年,病死,终年49岁。葬于郦邑(今陕西省临潼县东北25里处)。

  秦始皇嬴政(公元前259年—公元前210年),嬴姓赵氏,故又称赵政,汉族(当时称“华夏”),生于赵国首都邯郸。中国历史上著名的政治家、改革家、战略家,首位完成中国统一的开国,之子,十三岁即王位,三十九岁称皇帝,在位三十七年。秦始皇建立皇帝制度,中央实施三公九卿,地方废除分封制,代以郡县制,统一文字和度量衡,北击匈奴,南征百越,修筑。把中国推向了大一统时代,为建立专制主义中央集权制度开创了新局面,对中国和世界历史产生了深远影响,奠定中国两千余年政治制度基本格局。他被明代思想家李贽誉为“千古一帝”。

  秦始皇,名赢政(前259~前210),秦庄襄王之子,庄襄王死后继秦王位,后灭六国,统一中国,称始皇帝,是秦王朝的开国皇帝。在王位25年,帝位12年,病死,终年49岁。葬于郦邑(今陕西省临潼县东北25里处)。

  秦始皇,嬴姓,名政。因出生于赵国,又称赵政,秦庄襄王之子(另一说为之子)。公元前246年,年仅13岁的嬴政继承秦王位由丞相吕不韦和宣的男宠毒专权。公元前238年亲政,毒乘他外出之机,举兵叛乱,他一举粉碎叛乱,诛杀毒,幽禁太后。第二年免除吕不韦的相职,后逼杀吕不韦,任用了尉缭、等人。

  此后,嬴政继承了自以来变法革新、奖励耕战的一系列政策。接著,嬴政采取李斯等人的策略,以重金收买关东六国权臣,离间其君臣关系,远交近攻,从公元前230年起到公元前221年止的10年间,先后灭韩、魏、楚、燕、赵、齐六国,结束了自以来长达数百年之久的分裂割据、混战不已的局面,创立了中国历史上第一个统一的封建中央集权国家。

  赢政统一天下后,创立了“皇帝”的尊号,自称始皇帝,宣布子孙称二世、三世,以至万世,幻想秦王朝的统治能延续千秋万代;国家的一切政务都由皇帝裁决,中央和地方的重要官吏悉由皇帝任免,在中央实行三公九卿制。随后,秦始皇废除了自商、周以来的分封制,实行郡县制,以秦国原有的法律令为基础,吸收六国法律的某些条文,制定和颁行统一的法律。将原六国贵族豪富迁至关中、巴蜀,以防止他们的分裂复辟活动。

  在经济上推行重农抑商政策,扶植封建土地私有制的发展。始皇三十一年(前216年)下令占有土地的地主和自耕农只要向政府申报土地数额,交纳赋税,其土地所有权就得到政府的承认和保护,并以所制定的度量衡为标准统一全国的度量衡制度。以秦“半两”钱为流通货币,为发展全国水陆交通,又实行“车同轨”,修建由咸阳通向燕齐和吴楚地区的驰道,以及由咸阳经云阳(今陕西淳化西北)直达九原(今内蒙古包头西)的直道;在西南地区修筑了“五尺道”,开凿沟通湘江和漓江的灵渠。

  在文化思想方面,以秦国通行的文字为基础制定小篆,颁行全国。公元前213年,嬴政为了控制思想,采纳李斯的建议,将秦国的历史、医药、卜筮和植树以外的书下令焚毁。禁止私学。第二年,方士卢生和侯生在背后议论秦始皇贪权专断,滥施刑罚。赢政闻知后派人追缉,侯生、卢生逃亡,赢政大怒,将有牵连的460多个儒生全部坑杀于咸阳。这两件事.史称“”,它钳制了思想,严重地摧残了文化

  公元前214年,嬴政派兵南定百越,增设闽中、南海、桂林、象郡(今广西崇左县)四郡。同年又派大将率兵北击匈奴,收复了今内蒙古河套一带地区,迁来内地人民,建筑城邑;始皇末年,秦郡数由统一之初的36郡增至40余郡,使秦朝的疆域,东到大海,西至陇西,北到长城一带,南到象郡。

  赢政在位时期徭役繁重,刑罚苛严。人民除了将收获物的三分之二缴作赋税外,还得负担沉重的徭役和兵役。他征发70多万人,在渭水南边修建豪华的阿房宫和骊山墓,他又征发农民将原来秦、赵、燕北方的长城连接起来,向东向西延伸,筑成一道西起临洮(今甘肃省岷县),东到辽东(今辽宁省辽阳市西北)的城防,这就是伟大的万里长城。它是中国古代一项伟大的工程,是中国古代劳动人民血汗和智慧的结晶。当时,全国被征去服兵役、徭役的多达150多万人,男丁不够,连妇女也被抓去运粮饷。许多人被折磨而死。为了防止人民的反抗,他除了下令收缴、销毁民间兵器外,还规定一人犯死罪,亲族—起处死,叫作“族诛”;一家犯法,邻里同罪,叫作“连坐”。人民随时都会被指控犯法,被罚做苦役,或者斩脚、割鼻、处死,押送到官府去的罪犯满路都是。

  赢政又好大喜功、浪费无度,他在即帝位的12年间,先后进行五次大规模的巡游,沿途刻石颂德,以表示他的不朽之功。为求长生不老之药,派方士率童男女数千人至东海求神仙等等,耗费了巨大的财力和人力,加深了人民的苦难。

  嬴政实行的暴政,使得秦朝一建立,阶级就开始激化,出现了小规模的农民起义。公元前210年,赢政进行最后一次巡游,随行的有丞相李斯、中车府令(掌管皇帝文书的宦官)和他最喜欢的小儿子胡亥。他渡过钱塘江,一直到达会稽郡的吴中。返回途中,在平原津(今山东省平原县东南)病倒。到了沙丘(今河北省广宗县),病势转危。他自知不行了,急忙命令李斯和赵高起草诏书,并将诏书和国玺递送给长子,催扶苏立即赶回咸阳,主持丧礼。当李斯草拟好诏书呈交嬴政审阅时,嬴政已经死去了。

  扶苏因为劝阻嬴政坑儒,曾被秦始皇贬出京城,派往上郡蒙恬军中任监军。赵高历来与蒙恬一家有仇,担心扶苏继位,蒙恬得到重用,对自己不利,就扣住遗诏不发,与胡亥密谋篡夺帝位。他又威逼利诱,迫使李斯和他们合谋,假造遗诏,指责扶苏在外不能立功,反而怨恨父皇,命令他和蒙恬自杀。蒙恬怀疑,不肯自杀。扶苏忠厚,相信诏书是真的,便自杀而死。

  赵高秘不发丧,将嬴政尸体放在车中,关上车门,拉上车帘,让百官以为秦始皇仍然活著,每天在车外奏本;一面带领大队拥著尸车匆忙赶回咸阳。因为天气炎热,尸体腐烂发臭。赵高派人弄来夭批鲍鱼,命令每辆车上装鲍鱼一石,以混淆尸臭。接著发丧,并拥立胡亥为帝。秦始皇为历史上对始皇帝嬴政的通称。

  自古以来,对秦始皇的评价就褒贬不一。但纵观秦始皇的一生,对中国历史的发展起了巨大推动作用,实为中国历史上一位有作为的皇帝,功绩不可泯灭。

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Ying Zheng, the first emperor of Qin (259-210 B.C.), was born in Handan, the capital of Zhao. A famous statesman, reformer, and strategist in Chinese history, he was the first one to complete the founding of China's reunification. His son, who was 13 years old, was the throne. At the age of 39, he was known as the emperor and reigned for 37 years. The first emperor of Qin established the system of emperor, the central government implemented the system of three gongs and nine Qing, the local government abolished the system of enfeoffment, replaced the system of counties and counties, unified the characters and weights and measures, attacked the Huns in the north, marched to Baiyue in the south, and built. It pushed China to the era of unification, created a new situation for the establishment of autocratic centralized system, had a profound impact on China and the world history, and laid the basic pattern of China's political system for more than 2000 years. Li Zhi, a thinker in Ming Dynasty, praised him as "one emperor for thousands of years".

The first emperor of Qin, known as Yingzheng (259-210 BC), was the son of King Zhuang Xiang of Qin. After the death of King Zhuang Xiang, he succeeded the throne of Qin, then destroyed the six kingdoms and unified China. He was the first emperor of Qin Dynasty. 25 years in the throne, 12 years in the throne, died of illness, 49 years old. It was buried in Liyi (now 25 Li northeast of Lintong County, Shaanxi Province).

First emperor of Qin, surname Ying, first name Zheng. Born in the state of Zhao, also known as Zhao Zheng, the son of King Zhuangxiang of Qin Dynasty (another said as the son). In 246 B.C., at the age of 13, Ying Zheng succeeded to the throne of the Qin Dynasty, which was dominated by Prime Minister LV Buwei and Xuan Nanchong. In 238 BC, when he was in charge of the government, poison took the opportunity of his going out to fight against the rebellion. He smashed the rebellion, killed the poison and imprisoned the Empress Dowager. In the second year, LV Buwei was relieved from his position as a minister, and then forced to kill him, and appointed Wei Liao and others.

Since then, Ying Zheng has inherited a series of policies of reforming law and rewarding farming war. After that, Ying Zheng took the strategy of Li Si and others to bribe the powerful ministers of the six countries of Guandong with heavy money, separated their relations between the monarchs and ministers, and engaged in close and long-term attacks. In the 10 years from 230 BC to 221 BC, he successively wiped out the six countries of South Korea, Wei, Chu, Yan, Zhao and Qi, ending the situation of hundreds of years of separatist and confrontational wars, creating the first unification in Chinese history The feudal centralized state.

After winning the government and unifying the world, he established the title of "emperor". He called himself the first emperor and announced that his descendants would be called the second, third and even the last. He fancied that the rule of the Qin Dynasty would last for thousands of generations. All the government affairs of the country were ruled by the emperor, and the important officials of the central and local governments were appointed and removed by the emperor. In the central government, the three gongjiu Qing system was implemented. Later, the first emperor of Qin abolished the enfeoffment system since the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and implemented the system of counties. Based on the original laws and orders of Qin, he absorbed some provisions of the laws of the six countries and formulated and promulgated unified laws. In order to prevent their secession and restoration, the noble and rich of the six countries were moved to Guanzhong and Bashu.

We should carry out the policy of emphasizing agriculture and restraining commerce in economy, and support the development of feudal private ownership of land. In the thirty first year (216 BC), the first emperor ordered landlords and self-employed peasants to declare the amount of land to the government and pay taxes, so that their land ownership would be recognized and protected by the government, and unified the national measurement system based on the established measurement system. In order to develop the national water and land transportation, the "half Liang" money of Qin Dynasty was used as the circulation currency, and the "same vehicle and rail" was implemented. The gallop road from Xianyang to Yanqi and wuchu areas, and the straight road from Xianyang to Jiuyuan (today's Baotou West, inner Mongolia) through Yunyang (today's northwest of Chunhua, Shaanxi) was built. The "five foot road" was built in the southwest area, and the Lingqu was dug to connect the Xiangjiang River and Lijiang River.

In terms of culture and ideology, Xiaozhuan was made and issued to the whole country on the basis of the common characters of Qin state. In 213 B.C., in order to control his mind, Ying Zheng adopted Lisi's suggestion and ordered the burning of books other than Qin's history, medicine, divination and tree planting. No private school. In the second year, Lu Sheng and Hou Sheng, the founder of the Qin Dynasty, talked behind their backs about the arbitrary corruption of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty and the abuse of punishment. After hearing this, Ying Zheng sent people to pursue Hou Sheng and Lu Sheng. Hou Sheng and Lu Sheng fled. Ying Zheng was furious and killed more than 460 Confucian scholars in Xianyang. These two things, Shi said, have restrained the thought and severely damaged the culture.

In 214 BC, Ying Zheng sent troops to Baiyue in the south, adding four counties, namely Minzhong, Nanhai, Guilin and Xiangjun (now Chongzuo County, Guangxi). In the same year, he sent his generals to attack the Huns in the north, recaptured the area around Hetao, Inner Mongolia, and moved to the mainland to build cities. At the end of the first emperor's reign, the number of Qin counties increased from 36 counties at the beginning of unification to more than 40 counties, making the territory of Qin Dynasty reach the sea in the East, Longxi in the west, the Great Wall in the north and Xiangjun in the south.

During the reign of Yingzheng, there were heavy corvee and severe punishment. In addition to paying two-thirds of the harvest as taxes, the people also have to bear heavy corvee and military service. He recruited more than 700000 people to build a luxurious Afang palace and Lishan tomb in the south of Weishui. He also recruited farmers to connect the Great Wall in the north of Qin, Zhao and Yan, extending eastward and westward to build a city defense from Lintao (now Minxian County, Gansu Province) in the west to Liaodong (now northwest of Liaoyang City, Liaoning Province). This is the great great wall. It is a great project in ancient China and the crystallization of the sweat and wisdom of ancient Chinese working people. At that time, more than 1.5 million people were conscripted to perform military and corvee work in the whole country. There were not enough men, and even women were arrested to transport food and pay. Many people were tortured to death. In order to prevent the people's resistance, he ordered not only the collection and destruction of folk weapons, but also the execution of a person's death by his family, which is called "family killing"; a family who breaks the law, and the neighborhood who commits the same crime, which is called "sitting in company". At any time, the people will be accused of breaking the law, punished for hard labor, or cut their feet, cut their noses, put to death, and escorted to the government.

In the 12 years of the emperor's reign, he made five large-scale patrols and engraved stones and virtues along the way to show his immortal achievements. In order to seek the elixir of immortality, thousands of young men and women were sent to the East China Sea to seek immortals, which cost a lot of money and manpower and deepened the suffering of the people.

As soon as the Qin Dynasty was established, the class began to intensify, and a small-scale peasant uprising appeared. In 210 BC, Ying Zheng made his last tour, accompanied by Prime Minister Li Si, Zhongche official (Eunuch in charge of emperor's documents) and his favorite little son Hu Hai. He crossed the Qiantang River to Wuzhong in Kuaiji county. On the way back, he fell ill in pingpingjin (now Southeast of Pingyuan County, Shandong Province). When we arrived at Dune (now Guangzong County, Hebei Province), the disease turned critical. He knew he couldn't do it. He quickly ordered Li Si and Zhao Gao to draft the imperial edict and deliver it to his eldest son. He urged Fusu to rush back to Xianyang and preside over the funeral. When Li Sicao prepared the imperial edict and submitted it to Ying Zheng for review, Ying Zheng was dead.

Fu Su was demoted from the capital by the first emperor of Qin and sent to serve as a supervisor in the Mengtian army of Shangjun because he dissuaded Ying Zheng from pitching Confucians. Zhao Gao had always had a feud with the Mengtian family. Worried about supporting the Soviet Union to succeed, Mengtian would be put in a position of great importance, which was not good for him, so he stopped the imperial edict and conspired with Hu hai to usurp the throne. He also intimidated and lured Li Si to conspire with them, faked the imperial edict, accused Fu Su of failing to make contributions outside, but resented his father and emperor, and ordered him and Meng Tian to commit suicide. Meng Tian is suspicious and refuses to commit suicide. He believed that the imperial edict was true and committed suicide.

Zhao Gaomi did not mourn. He put Ying Zheng's body in the car, closed the car door, pulled the curtain on the car, and made the officials think that Qin Shihuang was still alive, and wrote the book outside the car every day. At the same time, he led the brigade to rush back to Xianyang with the corpse car. Because of the heat, the bodies rotted and smelled. Zhao Gao sent people to get the young batch of abalone and ordered each car to load a stone of abalone to confuse the body odor. Then mourning, and holding Hu Hai as the emperor. The first emperor of Qin is a general term for the first emperor Ying Zheng in history.

Since ancient times, there have been different opinions on Qin Shihuang. But throughout Qin Shihuang's life, it has played a huge role in promoting the development of Chinese history. In fact, it is an effective emperor in Chinese history, whose achievements cannot be lost.

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