Zhao Huan, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty-看世界

Zhao Huan, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty

  基本信息

  宋钦宗赵桓(公元1100~1156年),原名赵亶,又名赵煊。是北宋末代,赵佶长子。生于元符三年(公元1100)四月十三日,宣和七年(公元1125)十二月金人南下大举入侵时,徽宗禅位于他,在位1年零2个月。为人优柔寡断,反复无常,对政治问题缺乏判断力。之变时被金人俘虏北去,绍兴二十六年(公元1156)病死于燕京,终年57岁,葬于永献陵(位于今浙江绍兴东南宝山)。

  基本信息

  宋钦宗赵桓(原名亶、煊),亦北宋第九位皇帝,北宋徽宗和长子,南哥哥,北侄子,北孙子,元符三年庚辰年四月十三日己酉(1100年5月23日)出生于坤宁殿〔靖康元年(1126年),钦宗把这天定为“乾龙节”〕,属相龙。政和六年(1124年)六月大婚,太子妃为朱琏。宣和七年十二月二十四日(1126年1月19日)—靖康二年二月六日(1127年3月20日)在位,当政共计1年3月,年号靖康:宣和七年十二月二十九日(1126年1月24日)—靖康二年二月六日(1127年3月20日),年号使用1年3月。绍兴二十六年六月十日庚辰(1156年6月29日)钦宗崩殂于五国城,享年57岁,庙号钦宗,谥号恭文顺德仁孝皇帝,葬钦宗于永献陵(今浙江绍兴东南宝山)。个人履历

  宣和七年(1125年)十二月,金兵南下时受父徽宗之禅即位。次年被迫起用主战派李纲抗金,斩杀罢黜了一党,卓有成效,金兵北退。但仍答应以赔款、割太原等三镇乞降求和。

  靖康元年(1126年)金人复来,十一月金兵围困汴京开封,亲自前往金营议和被扣留。

  靖康二年(1127年)二月,汴京城破,北宋灭亡,与徽宗被金废为庶人,四月与徽宗等宗室以及北宋一些大臣被金兵俘掳北去,先置于燕京,九月又徙往更遥远的上京会宁府(今黑龙江阿城)。

  次年金天会六年(1128年)八月,方抵上京,金太宗封徽宗为昏德公,钦宗为重昏侯。十月,又将徽、钦二帝发配至韩州(今辽宁昌图北,一说吉林梨树)。天会八年(1130年)七月,又将二帝迁往北国边陲小镇五国城(今黑龙江依兰县),在此“坐井观天”。天会十三年(1135年)四月,其父徽宗赵佶在五国城病死。

  皇统元年(1141年),金熙宗改封其为天水郡公,昏德公(徽宗,已故)为天水郡王,海滨王耶律延禧(辽末代皇帝)为豫王。

  南宋绍兴十二年(1142年),高宗之母韦氏与徽宗“梓宫”被放还南归,临行前在五国城赵桓跪求韦氏带信给高宗赵构,求他这位同父异母弟将其赎回,“只为太乙观主足矣,他不敢望也。”明说只求让他回宋出家去道观做一个道士就行了,不再有做皇帝的念头。韦氏归后,渺无音信。然高宗议和,杀等,所虑着惟钦宗尔。

  金海陵王完颜亮即位后,一度曾把赵桓迁到上京会宁府居住。贞元元年(1153年),完颜亮自上京迁都燕京,改名为中都,将赵桓带去。

  正隆元年六月(1156年),赵桓在燕京病死,终年57岁,金朝将其葬于永献陵(今河南省巩县)。

  赵桓死在燕京是史书有记载的,有定论的。《辞海》、《中国历史大事年表》等说他死在五国城是不对的。

  赵桓死因另据《大宋宣和遗事》记载,绍兴二十六年六月(1156年),金国皇帝完颜亮命57岁的宋钦宗赵桓和81岁的辽天祚帝耶律延禧去比赛马球。耶律延禧善骑术,企图纵马冲出重围逃命,结果被乱箭射死。钦宗皇帝身体孱弱,患有严重的风疾,又不善马术,很快从马上摔下,被马乱践而死。

  直到绍兴三十一年(1161年),赵桓的死讯才传到南宋,其弟高宗赵构表面上痛不欲生,内心却暗自窃喜,终于可以心安了,七月,为其上谥号“恭文顺德仁孝皇帝”,庙号钦宗。

  是非功过

  宋钦宗在位仅一年多时间,却走马灯似地拜罢了二十六名宰执大臣。其中对危局产生关键性影响者,则是耿南仲、李纲、种师道等人。他们的一些重要的救国之策不被宋钦宗采纳,而一些重要误国之谋却又被宋钦宗采纳。以下是中国社会科学院历史研究所,王曾瑜研究员《宋钦宗和他的四名宰执》一文节选,通过该文我们可以了解到一些关于宋钦宗在位期间政治策略的得失,以及他治国一年的功过是非。

  一、宋钦宗和耿南仲

  宋钦宗即位前,耿南仲曾任十四年的皇太子宫僚。宋徽宗宠爱三子郓王赵楷,颇有废立之意,据胡寅说:“渊圣皇帝在东宫,当宣和季年,王黼欲摇动者屡矣。(耿)南仲为东宫官,计无所出,则归依右丞李邦彦。邦彦其时方被宠眷,又阴为他日之计,每因王黼谗谮,颇曾解纷。”由于在皇太子地位岌岌可危时的特殊关系,宋钦宗即位后的第三天,就命耿南仲为签书枢密院事,后又升迁尚书左丞。耿南仲害怕金军,“奉椒房出奔”,一度逃离开封,仍深得宋钦宗的信任。

  耿南仲任执政后最重要的政绩,一是排除异己,二是“主和议”,破坏抗金。此两条劣迹不是在平时,而是在危难时期,就不能不在北宋覆亡中起着恶劣的作用。怯于公战,勇于私斗,宋朝有不少士大夫,如果说他们治国和救国全然无方,而彼此勾心斗角,玩弄机谋权术,却又有足够的聪明才智,耿南仲就是一个典型。

  二、宋钦宗和李纲

  当金军南侵之际,宋方朝野乱成一团,简直是束手无策。时为太常少卿的李纲却脱颖而出,超升兵部侍郎,很快又超升执政。

  宋钦宗随即又授任他东京留守、亲征行营使。正如《朱子语类》卷130所说:“当时不使他,更使谁?士气至此,消索无馀,它人皆不肯向前。惟有渠尚不顾死,且得倚仗之。”李纲作为一个本不知兵的文臣,在仓猝之际,居然相当有效地组织了开封的城防,屡次击退了敌人。他既在士民中赢得了很高的威望,却又招致了同列很深的忌妒。宋钦宗本人来回摇摆于卑怯的投降主义和轻率的冒险主义之间,他委任李纲负责城防,又不能授予全权,更不听李纲的劝阻,而致力于屈辱求和。靖康元年(公元1126)二月初,发生了宋钦宗批准姚平仲劫金营而失败的事件。李焘编纂《续长编》,将此事归结为“李纲主平仲之谋”,但李纲在上皇帝奏中明确说,“平仲之出”,“在微臣实无所与”。故《朱子语类》卷130力辩其非,说:“劫寨一事,决于姚平仲侥幸之举,纲实不知。”事实上,此次劫寨“杀伤相当”,“行营司所失才百馀人,而(陕)3西兵及勤王之师折伤千馀人”,然而宰相李邦彦“方主和议,忌李纲主战”,他与众执政乘机夸张事态,诿过于李纲。宋钦宗惊慌失措,下令罢免李纲和统率陕西援兵的老将、同知枢密院事种师道。於是开封城中爆发了陈东领导的伏阙上书爱国群众运动。

  陈东直到临死,也并未与李纲有一面之交。几万无组织的群众云集宣德门下,正说明人同此心,心同此理,大家认定,救国已非李纲莫属。当然,群众运动到此也很难控制激烈的行为,如杀内侍,殴击宰相李邦彦等。但宋钦宗无疑是将爱国群众运动视为厉阶,不能容忍对其君主权威的挑战。他虽然被迫复用李纲,也根本不可能有李纲在幕後操纵此次“伏阙”的证据,而“自後君臣遂生间隙,疑其以军民胁己”,“颇忌之”。当时给李纲空名官告三千馀道,李纲“只用三十一道”,只因补无品小武官进武副尉二人,而宋钦宗居然亲下御批说:“惟辟作福,惟辟作威,大臣专权,浸不可长。”正如朱熹感叹说:“如此,教人如何做事?”

  宋钦宗曾被迫与金东路帅完颜斡离不订立城下之盟,事后他有翻悔,并听从李纲建议,“解太原之围”,拒绝割让自太原、中山和河间三镇以北的土地。

  宋钦宗毁约之後,首要的问题是救援被围的河东首府太原。北宋晚期,其战时统兵体制的一大弊病,是沿袭传统,往往还是由不知兵的文臣,以及宦官童贯、谭稹、梁方平等主持军事。如前所述,李纲公开斥责耿南仲离间皇帝父子,双方更多了一重嫌隙。当宋军初次救援太原失败後,耿南仲乘机进言:“欲援太原,非纲不可。”宋钦宗立即任命李纲为河北、河东路宣抚使。当时台谏官陈过庭、陈公辅、余应求等都看穿了耿南仲等人的用心,说李纲“不知军旅,将兵必败”,“为大臣所陷”,“不宜遣”。李纲本人也有自知之明,“再拜力辞”,说自己“且误国事,死不足以塞责”。宋钦宗却听信谗言,为之震怒。

      宰执中唯一志同道合的同知枢密院事许翰,为李纲写了“杜邮”两字,引用秦将被赐死的典故。李纲至此不得不就任出行。

  太原之战是决定北宋皇朝命运的关键性一战。太原失守,使金西路军得以南下,与东路军会师,而宋军主力则在两次救援战中耗折殆尽,开封的陷落遂成定局。李纲并非在救援战中不尽己力,却在本来已是十分艰难的形势下,又遇到朝廷的多方掣肘,终於在太原陷落後被劾下台,贬黜出京。正如後来胡寅评论说,耿南仲“中制河东之师,必使陷没,以伸和议之必信。”李纲的下台,固然是快了耿南仲之流的私愤,但受害最深的,却是宋钦宗本人。待开封再次被围,宋钦宗于靖康元年闰十一月“驿召李纲为资政殿大学士、领开封府”,却为时已晚。李纲接到此项


Zhao Huan, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty (1100-1156 A.D.), formerly known as Zhao Fu, also known as Zhao Xuan. He was the eldest son of Zhao Ji in the late Northern Song Dynasty. Born on April 13, the third year of Fuyuan (1100 A.D.), and in December 1125, the seventh year of Xuanhe (1125 A.D.) when the Jin people invaded southward, Huizong Zen was located in him and reigned for one year and two months. He is indecisive, capricious and lacks judgment on political issues. In the 26th year of Shaoxing (1156 AD), he died in Yanjing at the age of 57 and was buried in Yongxian Mausoleum (located in Baoshan, Southeast of Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province).

Basic information

Zhao Huan, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty (formerly known as 亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶), the ninth emperor of Northern Song Dynasty, Huizong and his eldest son, South brother, North nephew and North grandson, was born in Kunning Palace on April 13, Gengchen, Yuanfu. Zheng He got married in June of 1124, and the crown princess was Zhu Lian. Xuanhe was in office from December 24, 2007 (January 19, 1126) to February 6, 2012 (March 20, 1127), with the year of Jingkang: December 29, 2016 (January 24, 1126) - February 6, 2012 (March 20, 1127), with the year of March 1. On June 10, 26th, Shaoxing (June 29, 1156), Emperor qinzong died in wuguocheng. He was 57 years old. His temple was called qinzong, and his posthumous title was gong Wen, Shunde, Ren Xiao, Emperor. He was buried in Yongxian Mausoleum (today's Baoshan, Southeast of Shaoxing, Zhejiang). Personal resume

In December 1125, the seventh year of Xuanhe, Jin Bing was enthroned by his father, Huizong. The next year, Li Gang, the main militant group, was forced to fight against Jin. He killed and deposed one party, which was very effective. The Jin soldiers retreated to the north. But still promised to compensate, cut Taiyuan and other three towns to beg for peace.

In the first year of Jingkang (1126), Jin people came back. In November, Jin soldiers besieged Kaifeng, Bianjing, and went to Jinying to discuss and detain.

In February of the second year of Jingkang (1127), Bianjing city was broken, and the Northern Song Dynasty was destroyed. Huizong and other clans were abandoned by Jin. In April, Huizong and other clans, as well as some ministers of the Northern Song Dynasty were captured by Jin soldiers and taken to the north. They were first placed in Yanjing, and in September, they moved to the Huining mansion in Shangjing (now a city in Heilongjiang).

The next year, in August of the sixth year (1128), the golden society arrived in Beijing. Emperor Taizong granted Huizong the Duke of Hunde and qinzong the Marquis of Chonghun. In October, Emperor Hui and Emperor Qin were sent to Hanzhou (now North of Changtu, Liaoning Province, one said jilinlishu). In July of the eighth year of Tianhui (1130), the second emperor was moved to the border town of the northern country, wuguocheng (now Yilan County, Heilongjiang Province), where he "looked at the sky from the well". In April of 1135, Zhao Ji, the father of Huizong, died in the five kingdoms city.

In the first year of the emperor's reign (1141), Emperor Xizong of Jin renamed him Tianshui County Lord, Duke Houde (Emperor Huizong, late) as Tianshui county king, and the seashore king Yelu Yanxi (the last emperor of Liao Dynasty) as Yu king.

In the 12th year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1142), Weishi, the mother of Gaozong, and Huizong's "Zigong" were released to return to the south. Before leaving, he knelt down in Zhaohuan, the city of five kingdoms, and begged Weishi to bring a letter to Gaozong's Zhaogou, asking him, the half brother, to redeem them. "It's enough for Taiyi, he dare not look at it." Ming said that he only wanted to go back to Song Dynasty to become a Taoist. He no longer wanted to be an emperor. When Webster returned, there was no news. However, Emperor Gaozong was only concerned about the peace and killing of emperor qinzonger.

After emperor Wanyan Liang ascended the throne, Zhao Huan was once moved to Huining residence in Shangjing. In the first year of Zhenyuan (1153), Wanyan Liang moved his capital to Yanjing from Shangjing, renamed Zhongdu, and took Zhao Huan with him.

In June of the first year of Zhenglong (1156), Zhao Huan died in Yanjing at the age of 57, and was buried in yongxianling (now Gongxian County, Henan Province) in the Jin Dynasty.

Zhao Huan's death in Yanjing is recorded in historical records and conclusive. "Cihai" and "chronology of China's historical events" are wrong to say that he died in the five kingdoms city.

The cause of Zhao Huan's death is also recorded in the great Song Dynasty's Xuanhe bequeath. In June of the 26th year of Shaoxing (1156), Emperor Wanyan liang of the Jin state ordered Zhao Huan, a 57 year old emperor of song, and Yelv Yanxi, an 81 year old emperor of Liao Tianzuo, to play polo. Yelu Yanxi was good at riding. He tried to run his horse out of the encirclement to escape, but he was shot dead by random arrows. Emperor qinzong was weak, suffering from severe wind disease and poor equestrian skills. He fell off his horse and was trampled to death.

It was not until the thirty first year of Shaoxing (1161) that the news of Zhao Huan's death reached the Southern Song Dynasty. His younger brother, Gaozong, Zhao Gou, was apparently in agony, but secretly pleased himself. Finally, he was able to feel at ease. In July, his posthumous title was gong Wen, Shun De, Ren Xiao emperor, and his temple name was Qin Zong.

Merits and demerits

Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty was only in power for more than one year, but he worshipped only 26 ministers like a lantern. Among them, Geng nanzhong, Li Gang, seed teacher and so on have a key impact on the crisis. Some of their important strategies to save the country were not adopted by Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty, while some of their important strategies to mislead the country were adopted by Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty. The following is an excerpt from an article by Wang Zengyu, a researcher at the Institute of history of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, entitled Song qinzong and his four masters. Through this article, we can learn something about the gains and losses of the political strategy of song qinzong during his reign and the merits and demerits of his one-year rule of the country.

Song qinzong and Geng nanzhong

Before emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty came to the throne, Geng nanzhong was a palace official of the crown prince for 14 years. Emperor Huizong of Song Dynasty doted on Zhao Kai, the third son of yunwang, with the intention of abolishing the establishment. According to Hu Yin, "when Emperor Yuansheng was in the East Palace, in the year of Xuanhe, Wang Fu wanted to shake many times. (Geng) nanzhong is an official of the eastern palace. If there is no plan, he will return to the right Cheng, Li Bangyan. At that time, Bangyan was favored, and Yin was the plan of the future. Every time because of Wang Fu's slander, he had solved many disputes. " Because of the special relationship when the position of the crown prince was in danger, Geng nanzhong was appointed to sign the Privy Council on the third day after emperor qinzong ascended to the throne, and then he was promoted to Zuo Cheng. Geng nanzhong was afraid of Jin Jun, and ran away from Kaifeng for a time. He was still trusted by song qinzong.

The most important achievements of Geng nanzhong after he was in power are: first, to eliminate dissidents; second, to "advocate peace and discuss" and to destroy anti gold. These two evils played a bad role in the fall of the Northern Song Dynasty. In the Song Dynasty, there were many scholar bureaucrats who were afraid of public battles and brave in private fights. If they said that there was no way for them to govern and save the country, but they were intriguing and playing tricks, but they had enough intelligence, Geng nanzhong was a typical example.

II. Song qinzong and Li Gang

When the Jin army invaded the south, the Song Dynasty was in a mess, which was helpless. Li Gang, who was often Shaoqing at that time, stood out. He was promoted to the Ministry of military and soon to the state.

Song qinzong then appointed him to stay in Tokyo and set up his own camp. As the zhuziyulei Volume 130 says, "who was more important than him at that time? At this point, morale is exhausted, and no one else is willing to move forward. But the canal is not dead, and it has to rely on it. " Li Gang, as a man of letters who didn't know the soldiers, organized the city defense of Kaifeng effectively and defeated the enemy many times when he was in a hurry. He not only won high prestige among the scholars, but also attracted the envy of the same rank. Song qinzong himself swung back and forth between the timid capitulationism and the reckless adventurism. He appointed Li Gang to be in charge of the city defense, but he could not grant full power, and he did not listen to Li Gang's dissuasion, but devoted himself to humiliating and seeking peace. In the early February of the first year of Jingkang (1126 A.D.), the emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty approved Yao pingzhong to rob the gold camp and failed. Li Tao compiled "the continuation of the long series" and attributed this matter to "Li Gang's plan to lead pingzhong", but Li Gang made it clear in the last emperor's performance that "the emergence of pingzhong" and "there is nothing to do with in micro ministers". Therefore, Volume 130 of zhuziyulei argues that "the robbery of the stockade was decided by Yao pingzhong's fluke, but the truth is not clear." As a matter of fact, the "killing" of the looted stronghold is quite similar. The camp division lost only 100 people, while (Shaanxi) 3 the Western army and the division of King Qin wounded more than 1000 people. However, the Prime Minister Li Bangyan "made peace with the master of the party and avoided Li Gang's main battle". He took the opportunity to exaggerate the situation with the people in power and put the blame on Li Gang. In panic, Emperor qinzong ordered the removal of Li Gang, the veteran general who was in charge of the Shaanxi reinforcements, and Tong Zhi, the Privy Council's affairs and preaching. In Kaifeng City, the patriotic mass movement led by Chen Dong broke out.

Until his death, Chen Dong had no acquaintance with Li Gang. Tens of thousands of unorganized people gathered in Xuande gate, which shows that people share the same heart and reason. Everyone believes that it is not Li Gang who saves the country. Of course, it's hard for the mass movement to control the fierce behaviors, such as killing the internal servants and beating the Prime Minister Li Bangyan. However, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty undoubtedly regarded the patriotic mass movement as Li Jie and could not tolerate the challenge to the authority of his monarch. Although he was forced to reuse Li Gang, there was no evidence that Li Gang manipulated this "fuque" behind the scenes, and "since then, the emperor and his officials had a gap, suspected that he threatened himself with the military and the people", "rather avoid it". At that time, Li Gang was told more than three thousand ways by famous officials. Li Gang "only used thirty-one ways" because he wanted to supplement the two vice military officers. However, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty actually approved him personally and said, "if we can only create happiness, we can only create prestige, and the minister has exclusive power, so we can't soak." As Zhu Xi exclaimed, "so, teach people how to do things?"

Song qinzong was once forced to form an alliance with Shuai Wanyan of Jindong road. Later, he repented and followed Li Gang's advice to "solve the siege of Taiyuan" and refused to cede land north of Taiyuan, Zhongshan and Hejian.

After song qinzong broke the contract, the first problem was to rescue Taiyuan, the capital of Hedong. In the late Northern Song Dynasty, one of the major drawbacks of the system of unifying troops in wartime was that it followed the tradition and was often presided over equally by the officials who did not know the soldiers, as well as the eunuchs Tong Guan, Tan Zhen and Liang Fang. As mentioned before, Li Gang publicly rebuked Geng nanzhong for leaving the emperor's father and son, and the two sides had more disagreements. When the song army failed to rescue Taiyuan for the first time, Geng nanzhong took the opportunity to say, "if you want to help Taiyuan, you have to do something." Song qinzong immediately appointed Li Gang as Xuanfu emissary of Hebei and Hedong road. At that time, Chen Guoting, Chen Gongfu and Yu Yingqiu, the counsellors of Taiwan, saw through the intentions of Geng nanzhong and others, saying that Li Gang "did not know the army, and the soldiers would lose", "was trapped by the ministers", "was not suitable for dispatch". Li Gang himself also knows that "to pay homage to power again", saying that he "misses the state affairs, and death is not enough to stop the blame". But emperor qinzong of song listened to slander and was furious.

Xu Han, the only member of the Privy Council with the same aspiration, wrote the word "du you" for Li Gang, quoting the allusion that Qin would be killed. Li Gang had to go on a trip.

The battle of Taiyuan was the key to the fate of the Northern Song Dynasty. Taiyuan lost, so that the Jinxi road army to the south, and the East Road Army division, while the main force of the song army in the two rescue wars were exhausted, the fall of Kaifeng was a foregone conclusion. Li Gang did not do his best in the rescue war, but he was impeached and deposed from Beijing after the fall of Taiyuan under the already very difficult situation and the constraints of the court. As Hu Yin later commented, Geng nanzhong "the master of the central system of Hedong must be trapped, so as to extend the peace talks, he must believe." Li Gang's downfall, of course, was soon the private indignation of Geng nanzhong, but it was song qinzong who suffered the most. When Kaifeng was besieged again, it was too late for emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty to "call Li Gang as a senior scholar and leader of Kaifeng mansion" in leap November of the first year of Jingkang. Li Gang receives this

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