Zhao Huan, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty (1100-1156 A.D.), formerly known as Zhao Fu, also known as Zhao Xuan. He was the eldest son of Zhao Ji in the late Northern Song Dynasty. Born on April 13, the third year of Fuyuan (1100 A.D.), and in December 1125, the seventh year of Xuanhe (1125 A.D.) when the Jin people invaded southward, Huizong Zen was located in him and reigned for one year and two months. He is indecisive, capricious and lacks judgment on political issues. In the 26th year of Shaoxing (1156 AD), he died in Yanjing at the age of 57 and was buried in Yongxian Mausoleum (located in Baoshan, Southeast of Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province).
Zhao Huan, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty (formerly known as 亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶亶), the ninth emperor of Northern Song Dynasty, Huizong and his eldest son, South brother, North nephew and North grandson, was born in Kunning Palace on April 13, Gengchen, Yuanfu. Zheng He got married in June of 1124, and the crown princess was Zhu Lian. Xuanhe was in office from December 24, 2007 (January 19, 1126) to February 6, 2012 (March 20, 1127), with the year of Jingkang: December 29, 2016 (January 24, 1126) - February 6, 2012 (March 20, 1127), with the year of March 1. On June 10, 26th, Shaoxing (June 29, 1156), Emperor qinzong died in wuguocheng. He was 57 years old. His temple was called qinzong, and his posthumous title was gong Wen, Shunde, Ren Xiao, Emperor. He was buried in Yongxian Mausoleum (today's Baoshan, Southeast of Shaoxing, Zhejiang). Personal resume
In December 1125, the seventh year of Xuanhe, Jin Bing was enthroned by his father, Huizong. The next year, Li Gang, the main militant group, was forced to fight against Jin. He killed and deposed one party, which was very effective. The Jin soldiers retreated to the north. But still promised to compensate, cut Taiyuan and other three towns to beg for peace.
In the first year of Jingkang (1126), Jin people came back. In November, Jin soldiers besieged Kaifeng, Bianjing, and went to Jinying to discuss and detain.
In February of the second year of Jingkang (1127), Bianjing city was broken, and the Northern Song Dynasty was destroyed. Huizong and other clans were abandoned by Jin. In April, Huizong and other clans, as well as some ministers of the Northern Song Dynasty were captured by Jin soldiers and taken to the north. They were first placed in Yanjing, and in September, they moved to the Huining mansion in Shangjing (now a city in Heilongjiang).
The next year, in August of the sixth year (1128), the golden society arrived in Beijing. Emperor Taizong granted Huizong the Duke of Hunde and qinzong the Marquis of Chonghun. In October, Emperor Hui and Emperor Qin were sent to Hanzhou (now North of Changtu, Liaoning Province, one said jilinlishu). In July of the eighth year of Tianhui (1130), the second emperor was moved to the border town of the northern country, wuguocheng (now Yilan County, Heilongjiang Province), where he "looked at the sky from the well". In April of 1135, Zhao Ji, the father of Huizong, died in the five kingdoms city.
In the first year of the emperor's reign (1141), Emperor Xizong of Jin renamed him Tianshui County Lord, Duke Houde (Emperor Huizong, late) as Tianshui county king, and the seashore king Yelu Yanxi (the last emperor of Liao Dynasty) as Yu king.
In the 12th year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1142), Weishi, the mother of Gaozong, and Huizong's "Zigong" were released to return to the south. Before leaving, he knelt down in Zhaohuan, the city of five kingdoms, and begged Weishi to bring a letter to Gaozong's Zhaogou, asking him, the half brother, to redeem them. "It's enough for Taiyi, he dare not look at it." Ming said that he only wanted to go back to Song Dynasty to become a Taoist. He no longer wanted to be an emperor. When Webster returned, there was no news. However, Emperor Gaozong was only concerned about the peace and killing of emperor qinzonger.
After emperor Wanyan Liang ascended the throne, Zhao Huan was once moved to Huining residence in Shangjing. In the first year of Zhenyuan (1153), Wanyan Liang moved his capital to Yanjing from Shangjing, renamed Zhongdu, and took Zhao Huan with him.
In June of the first year of Zhenglong (1156), Zhao Huan died in Yanjing at the age of 57, and was buried in yongxianling (now Gongxian County, Henan Province) in the Jin Dynasty.
Zhao Huan's death in Yanjing is recorded in historical records and conclusive. "Cihai" and "chronology of China's historical events" are wrong to say that he died in the five kingdoms city.
The cause of Zhao Huan's death is also recorded in the great Song Dynasty's Xuanhe bequeath. In June of the 26th year of Shaoxing (1156), Emperor Wanyan liang of the Jin state ordered Zhao Huan, a 57 year old emperor of song, and Yelv Yanxi, an 81 year old emperor of Liao Tianzuo, to play polo. Yelu Yanxi was good at riding. He tried to run his horse out of the encirclement to escape, but he was shot dead by random arrows. Emperor qinzong was weak, suffering from severe wind disease and poor equestrian skills. He fell off his horse and was trampled to death.
It was not until the thirty first year of Shaoxing (1161) that the news of Zhao Huan's death reached the Southern Song Dynasty. His younger brother, Gaozong, Zhao Gou, was apparently in agony, but secretly pleased himself. Finally, he was able to feel at ease. In July, his posthumous title was gong Wen, Shun De, Ren Xiao emperor, and his temple name was Qin Zong.
Merits and demerits
Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty was only in power for more than one year, but he worshipped only 26 ministers like a lantern. Among them, Geng nanzhong, Li Gang, seed teacher and so on have a key impact on the crisis. Some of their important strategies to save the country were not adopted by Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty, while some of their important strategies to mislead the country were adopted by Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty. The following is an excerpt from an article by Wang Zengyu, a researcher at the Institute of history of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, entitled Song qinzong and his four masters. Through this article, we can learn something about the gains and losses of the political strategy of song qinzong during his reign and the merits and demerits of his one-year rule of the country.
Song qinzong and Geng nanzhong
Before emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty came to the throne, Geng nanzhong was a palace official of the crown prince for 14 years. Emperor Huizong of Song Dynasty doted on Zhao Kai, the third son of yunwang, with the intention of abolishing the establishment. According to Hu Yin, "when Emperor Yuansheng was in the East Palace, in the year of Xuanhe, Wang Fu wanted to shake many times. (Geng) nanzhong is an official of the eastern palace. If there is no plan, he will return to the right Cheng, Li Bangyan. At that time, Bangyan was favored, and Yin was the plan of the future. Every time because of Wang Fu's slander, he had solved many disputes. " Because of the special relationship when the position of the crown prince was in danger, Geng nanzhong was appointed to sign the Privy Council on the third day after emperor qinzong ascended to the throne, and then he was promoted to Zuo Cheng. Geng nanzhong was afraid of Jin Jun, and ran away from Kaifeng for a time. He was still trusted by song qinzong.
The most important achievements of Geng nanzhong after he was in power are: first, to eliminate dissidents; second, to "advocate peace and discuss" and to destroy anti gold. These two evils played a bad role in the fall of the Northern Song Dynasty. In the Song Dynasty, there were many scholar bureaucrats who were afraid of public battles and brave in private fights. If they said that there was no way for them to govern and save the country, but they were intriguing and playing tricks, but they had enough intelligence, Geng nanzhong was a typical example.
II. Song qinzong and Li Gang
When the Jin army invaded the south, the Song Dynasty was in a mess, which was helpless. Li Gang, who was often Shaoqing at that time, stood out. He was promoted to the Ministry of military and soon to the state.
Song qinzong then appointed him to stay in Tokyo and set up his own camp. As the zhuziyulei Volume 130 says, "who was more important than him at that time? At this point, morale is exhausted, and no one else is willing to move forward. But the canal is not dead, and it has to rely on it. " Li Gang, as a man of letters who didn't know the soldiers, organized the city defense of Kaifeng effectively and defeated the enemy many times when he was in a hurry. He not only won high prestige among the scholars, but also attracted the envy of the same rank. Song qinzong himself swung back and forth between the timid capitulationism and the reckless adventurism. He appointed Li Gang to be in charge of the city defense, but he could not grant full power, and he did not listen to Li Gang's dissuasion, but devoted himself to humiliating and seeking peace. In the early February of the first year of Jingkang (1126 A.D.), the emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty approved Yao pingzhong to rob the gold camp and failed. Li Tao compiled "the continuation of the long series" and attributed this matter to "Li Gang's plan to lead pingzhong", but Li Gang made it clear in the last emperor's performance that "the emergence of pingzhong" and "there is nothing to do with in micro ministers". Therefore, Volume 130 of zhuziyulei argues that "the robbery of the stockade was decided by Yao pingzhong's fluke, but the truth is not clear." As a matter of fact, the "killing" of the looted stronghold is quite similar. The camp division lost only 100 people, while (Shaanxi) 3 the Western army and the division of King Qin wounded more than 1000 people. However, the Prime Minister Li Bangyan "made peace with the master of the party and avoided Li Gang's main battle". He took the opportunity to exaggerate the situation with the people in power and put the blame on Li Gang. In panic, Emperor qinzong ordered the removal of Li Gang, the veteran general who was in charge of the Shaanxi reinforcements, and Tong Zhi, the Privy Council's affairs and preaching. In Kaifeng City, the patriotic mass movement led by Chen Dong broke out.
Until his death, Chen Dong had no acquaintance with Li Gang. Tens of thousands of unorganized people gathered in Xuande gate, which shows that people share the same heart and reason. Everyone believes that it is not Li Gang who saves the country. Of course, it's hard for the mass movement to control the fierce behaviors, such as killing the internal servants and beating the Prime Minister Li Bangyan. However, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty undoubtedly regarded the patriotic mass movement as Li Jie and could not tolerate the challenge to the authority of his monarch. Although he was forced to reuse Li Gang, there was no evidence that Li Gang manipulated this "fuque" behind the scenes, and "since then, the emperor and his officials had a gap, suspected that he threatened himself with the military and the people", "rather avoid it". At that time, Li Gang was told more than three thousand ways by famous officials. Li Gang "only used thirty-one ways" because he wanted to supplement the two vice military officers. However, Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty actually approved him personally and said, "if we can only create happiness, we can only create prestige, and the minister has exclusive power, so we can't soak." As Zhu Xi exclaimed, "so, teach people how to do things?"
Song qinzong was once forced to form an alliance with Shuai Wanyan of Jindong road. Later, he repented and followed Li Gang's advice to "solve the siege of Taiyuan" and refused to cede land north of Taiyuan, Zhongshan and Hejian.
After song qinzong broke the contract, the first problem was to rescue Taiyuan, the capital of Hedong. In the late Northern Song Dynasty, one of the major drawbacks of the system of unifying troops in wartime was that it followed the tradition and was often presided over equally by the officials who did not know the soldiers, as well as the eunuchs Tong Guan, Tan Zhen and Liang Fang. As mentioned before, Li Gang publicly rebuked Geng nanzhong for leaving the emperor's father and son, and the two sides had more disagreements. When the song army failed to rescue Taiyuan for the first time, Geng nanzhong took the opportunity to say, "if you want to help Taiyuan, you have to do something." Song qinzong immediately appointed Li Gang as Xuanfu emissary of Hebei and Hedong road. At that time, Chen Guoting, Chen Gongfu and Yu Yingqiu, the counsellors of Taiwan, saw through the intentions of Geng nanzhong and others, saying that Li Gang "did not know the army, and the soldiers would lose", "was trapped by the ministers", "was not suitable for dispatch". Li Gang himself also knows that "to pay homage to power again", saying that he "misses the state affairs, and death is not enough to stop the blame". But emperor qinzong of song listened to slander and was furious.
Xu Han, the only member of the Privy Council with the same aspiration, wrote the word "du you" for Li Gang, quoting the allusion that Qin would be killed. Li Gang had to go on a trip.
The battle of Taiyuan was the key to the fate of the Northern Song Dynasty. Taiyuan lost, so that the Jinxi road army to the south, and the East Road Army division, while the main force of the song army in the two rescue wars were exhausted, the fall of Kaifeng was a foregone conclusion. Li Gang did not do his best in the rescue war, but he was impeached and deposed from Beijing after the fall of Taiyuan under the already very difficult situation and the constraints of the court. As Hu Yin later commented, Geng nanzhong "the master of the central system of Hedong must be trapped, so as to extend the peace talks, he must believe." Li Gang's downfall, of course, was soon the private indignation of Geng nanzhong, but it was song qinzong who suffered the most. When Kaifeng was besieged again, it was too late for emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty to "call Li Gang as a senior scholar and leader of Kaifeng mansion" in leap November of the first year of Jingkang. Li Gang receives this