Zhao Dun, Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty-看世界

Zhao Dun, Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty

  生平

  宋光宗赵惇(1147年——1200年),第十二位,第三位皇帝(1190年——1194年在位),庙号光宗,在位5年,享年54岁,死后谥号循道宪仁明功茂德温文顺武圣哲慈孝皇帝

  生平

  宋光宗赵惇,孝宗和郭皇后第三子,绍兴十七年丁卯年九月四日乙丑(1147年9月30日)生于藩邸宫中〔光宗把这天定为重明节〕,属相兔。光宗于淳熙十六年二月二日(1189年2月18日)—绍熙五年七月五日(1194年7月24日)在位,当政共计6年,年号绍熙:绍熙元年正月一日(1190年2月7日)—绍熙五年七月五日(1194年7月24日),年号使用5年。庆元二年十月三日,上尊号圣安寿仁皇帝。庆元六年八月八日辛卯(1200年9月17日)光宗崩殂于寿康宫,享年54岁,后葬光宗于永崇陵。十一月十四日丙寅,庙号光宗,谥号宪仁圣哲慈孝皇帝,嘉泰三年(1203年)十一月八日壬申,加谥号循道宪仁明功茂德温文顺武圣哲慈孝皇帝。

  人物事迹

  宋光宗赵惇为第三子,为孝宗原配郭氏所生。郭氏出身名门,为郭皇后外家的六世孙。郭氏在宋孝宗继位前病死,后被追封为皇后。郭氏共生四子:长子赵愭,封邓王;次子赵恺,封庆王;三子赵惇,开始封为恭王,也就是后来的宋光宗;第四子早夭。宋孝宗先立长子赵愭为太子,但不久后赵愭病死。按照顺序,太子位应该轮到次子赵恺。但宋孝宗更偏爱三子赵惇,认为赵惇“英武类己”,而次子赵恺过于宽厚仁慈,其实就是嫌赵恺窝囊软弱,赵惇就是在这样的背景下被幸运地立为太子。

  赵惇当上太子后,开始尚对宋孝宗毕恭毕敬,但他并非真心对父皇谦恭,不过是为了保住储君之位而被迫做出来的表面文章。这样表面的文章做得久了,难免会有所厌烦。过了四十岁以后,赵惇已经当了十几年的太子,便开始有意无意地暗示宋孝宗早日传位。有一天,赵惇故意对宋孝宗说:“我的胡须已经开始白了,有人特地给我送来了染胡须的药,不过我没有用。”这弦外之音就是你儿子都已经一把白胡子了,该过过当皇帝的瘾了。宋孝宗自然明白儿子的心意,却故作不明白,严肃地回答道:“白胡须有什么不好?刚好可以向天下显示你的老成。”

  赵惇碰了钉子后,不敢再公然试探,转而讨好太皇吴氏(皇后),想靠太皇太后的力量来取得皇位。吴太后也明白赵惇的心意,曾经向宋孝宗暗示过,但宋孝宗却说太子还需要历练。这一系列的事件,在赵惇心中留下重重的阴影,从而直接导致他开始疑惧自己的亲生父亲

  一直到淳熙十六(1189年)二月,宋孝宗因为要为宋高宗服丧,才主动禅位给太子赵惇。四十三岁的赵惇终于盼到了朝思暮想的皇位。最讽刺的是,他一直迫不及待地要当皇帝,登上帝位后却无所作为。不仅如此,之前他对父皇的种种嫉恨,开始在各种外力的因素下逐渐诱发,从而导致了长达数年的“过宫事件”。

  宋光宗即位之初,曾率宫中嫔妃游览聚景园。本来这不是什么大不了的事,但因为没有邀请太上皇而遭到了非议。群臣纷纷上书,指出宋高宗在世时,宋孝宗每次出游都要恭请宋高宗同行,而宋光宗却只顾自己游玩。言下之意是指责宋光宗不孝,宋光宗看了奏章后自然很不高兴。刚好此时宋孝宗派宦官赐玉杯给宋光宗,宋光宗一时没有拿稳,将玉杯打碎了。宦官回到重华宫,向宋孝宗禀报,故意说:“官家一见玉杯是太上皇赏赐,非常气愤,就玉杯摔碎了。”宋孝宗听了,自然非常不高兴。父子之间的嫌隙渐生,而则因为宋光宗皇后的挑拨进一步加剧。

  李凤娘,安阳人,庆远军节度使李道女。据说她出生的时候,有黑凤凰聚集在李道营前的石头上,令人称奇,于是,李道给新出生的女儿取名为凤娘。李道出师湖北时,听说当地道士皇甫坦善给人看相,便请他给女儿看相。皇甫坦一见李凤娘,便大惊失色道:“此女当母仪天下,请务必妥善抚养。”后来,皇甫坦得到宋高宗宠幸,偶然谈起了李凤娘。当时恭王赵惇尚未娶亲,宋高宗便命纳李凤娘为恭王妃,赵惇封太子后,李凤娘也进为太子妃。

  李凤娘容貌美艳,性情却骄横阴险,胜过男子。她当上太子妃后,不断在宋高宗、宋孝宗和太子赵惇三宫之间搬弄是非。宋高宗对其很是不满,曾对吴皇后说:“是妇将种,吾为皇甫所误。”意思是受了道士皇甫坦的蒙骗。宋孝宗也不满儿媳妇的所作所为,严厉训斥说:“你应该学太上皇后(指宋高宗皇后吴氏)的后妃之德,若再插手太子事务,朕就要废掉你!”李凤娘由此对宋孝宗怀恨在心。

  宋孝宗预备禅位时,召集三省枢密院执政大臣,告知欲行内禅之举。大臣们都交口赞同,只有知枢密院事黄洽一言不发,宋孝宗觉得很奇怪,便特意征询他的意见。黄洽回答说:“太子可负大任,但李氏(李凤娘)不足以母仪天下,望陛下三思。”宋孝宗默然不答,要他公然承认不满儿媳妇,这是相当难堪的事。黄洽心知肚明,便说:“陛下问臣,臣不敢不答。他日陛下想起臣的这番话时,恐怕再也没有机会见到微臣了。”于是请求辞职。

  宋孝宗也没太当回事,想不到后来果然被黄洽而言中。李凤娘当上皇后后,强烈的权力欲日益迸发,甚至想要凌驾在皇帝之上。

  有一次,宋孝宗皇后谢氏看不惯李凤娘傲慢无礼,便好言规劝注意皇后身份,应该礼仪得体。李凤娘不但不听,反而当场讥讽说:“我是官家的结发夫妻!”谢氏原来是宋高宗皇后吴氏的侍女,后来被赏赐给宋孝宗,因为能写大字、善骑射而得到宋孝宗的宠爱,进封为皇后。李凤娘此言,无疑是讽刺谢氏身份卑微。谢氏大怒,将此事告诉了宋孝宗。宋孝宗决定废黜李凤娘,召来老臣史浩商议废后之事。不料史浩认为宋光宗刚刚登上皇位,如果立即废除皇后,会引起天下人的议论,不利于大局,坚决不同意废后一事。此时,宋孝宗已经退位为太上皇,得不到大臣的支持,废后一事只好作罢。但此事却被李凤娘得知,她恨宋孝宗入骨,决意挑拨宋孝宗与宋光宗的父子关系,以便她自己控制宋光宗。

  最令人百思不得其解的是,宋光宗对李凤娘这位原配妻子又爱又怕。皇帝君临天下,拥有无上的权威,却在家里怕老婆,这样的情况在中国历史上并不多见,最典型的例子便是昔日晋惠帝惧怕妻子。宋光宗的情况也比晋惠帝好不到哪里去,李凤娘说的话,宋光宗只能惟命是从。但他毕竟是皇帝,受制于老婆,难免心有不甘,便想要改变这种状况。皇后深居内宫,无法与外界联系,只能倚仗宦官。宋光宗便想釜底抽薪,将李凤娘的亲信宦官全部杀死,但他性格懦弱,又犹豫未发。宋光宗的计划被宦官们知道后,便在宋光宗和李凤娘之间搬弄是非。因此每当宋光宗说出憎嫌宦官的话,李凤娘便加以包庇。对妻子的惧怕,加上对父亲的猜忌,宋光宗身心倍受折磨,心理压力很大,得了一种怔忡病。

  宋孝宗听说儿子生病后,血浓于水,还是爱子心切,便召御医入问,配了药方,打算等宋光宗来问安时,便将药给儿子试服。宦官却趁机兴风作浪,挑动李凤娘说:“太上官家(宋孝宗)合药,欲待皇上前去问安,即令服饮。倘有不测,岂不贻宗社之忧么?”意思是说宋孝宗别有用心。

  在这之前,宋光宗想立唯一的儿子,也就是李凤娘之子赵扩为太子,但宋孝宗却不同意。宋孝宗更喜欢赵恺(宋光宗兄长)的儿子赵抦,赵恺便是当初更有资格被立太子之人,当时宋光宗取代兄长赵恺成为太子,而如今宋孝宗却想立兄长之子为太子,这无疑让宋光宗感到极大的疑惧。所以,他不再定期去重华宫问安,这便让李凤娘有机可乘。李凤娘听信宦官之言,认为宋孝宗合药是想借机毒害丈夫。

  过了几天,宋孝宗召宋光宗家宴,李凤娘不让宋光宗知道,独自去了重华宫,当面向宋孝宗提出立儿子赵扩为储。宋孝宗沉吟不答。李凤娘按捺不住,竟然责问公公说:“古人有言,立嫡以长,我是六礼所聘,赵扩又是我亲生的,为什么不能立为太子?”因为宋孝宗不是宋高宗的亲生儿子,李凤娘这句话惹得宋孝宗大怒,当即拂袖而去。李凤娘回去后,不但向宋光宗哭诉,还添油加醋地说了合药一事,认为宋孝宗对宋光宗有废立之意。宋光宗信以为真,此后的一年多时间里,他再也没有去重华宫给父亲请安。

  李凤娘不但有着强烈的权力欲,还生性妒悍,是历史上有名的妒妇。宋光宗宠爱另一贵妃黄氏,李凤娘深为嫉妒,便趁宋光宗出宫祭祀之机,将黄贵妃杀死,之后谎称“暴死”。宋光宗明知有诈,却无可奈何。有一次,宋光宗洗手,看到一旁侍候的宫女的双手纤纤玉手洁白如玉,很是喜爱,忍不住说了一个“好”字。过了几天,李凤娘派人给宋光宗送来食盒,打开一看,却是那位宫女的双手。宋光宗吓得也不敢声张,内心的悲凉无从解脱。这一系列的事件,直接导致了宋光宗病情的加重。

  有一次,宋光宗突然发病,宋孝宗听说后,亲自赶过来探视。宋光宗已经不省人事,认不出父亲。宋孝宗满腔怒火无处发泄,便厉声训斥李凤娘说:“都是你


Zhao Dun, Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty (1147-1200), was the 12th and third Emperor (1190-1194). The temple was called Guangzong. He reigned for 5 years. He was 54 years old. After his death, his posthumous title was Emperor Xun Dao Xian Ren Ming, Gong Mao De, Wen Wen Shun, Wu Sheng, zhe CI Xiao.

Life

Zhao Dun, Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty, the third son of emperor Xiaozong and empress Guo, Yichou (September 30, 1147), born in Fandi Palace on September 4, Ding Mao's 17th year of Shaoxing (Guangzong designated this day as Chongming Festival), is a relative rabbit. Guangzong was in power for 6 years from February 2, 2016 (February 18, 1189) to July 5, 2015 (July 24, 1194), with the year number of 5 years. On October 3, the second year of Qingyuan, Emperor Shengan Shouren was honored. On August 8, Qingyuan (September 17, 1200), Guangzong died in Shoukang Palace at the age of 54. Later, Guangzong was buried in yongchongling. On November 14, Bingyin temple was named Guangzong, posthumous emperor Xianren, Shengzhe and cixiao, Renshen on November 8, the third year of Jiatai (1203), and posthumous emperor Xun Dao, xianrenming, gongmaode, wenwenshun, wusheng, zhetixiao.

Stories of characters

Zhao Dun, the third son of emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty, was born to Guo family. Guo was born into a famous family and was the sixth grandson of empress Guo's family. Guo died before emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty took office, and was later renamed queen. The fourth son of Guo's symbiosis: Zhao Li, the eldest son, was granted the title of King Deng; Zhao Kai, the second son, was granted the title of King Qing; Zhao Dun, the third son, began to be granted the title of King Gong, later the emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty; the fourth son died early. Song Xiaozong first made Zhao Li, the eldest son, the prince, but Zhao Li died soon after. In order, the crown prince's turn should be Zhao Kai, the second son. However, song Xiaozong preferred Zhao Dun, the third son, and thought that Zhao Dun was "a hero of his own kind", while Zhao Kai, the second son, was too lenient and kind, in fact, he thought Zhao Kai was weak, and Zhao Dun was lucky to be the prince in this context.

When Zhao Dun became prince, he began to be respectful to song Xiaozong, but he didn't really be respectful to his father and emperor, but he was forced to make superficial articles in order to keep the throne of the emperor. This kind of superficial article has been done for a long time, it is inevitable to get bored. After forty years of age, Zhao Dun, who had been Prince for more than ten years, began to suggest, consciously or unconsciously, that song Xiaozong should pass on his throne as soon as possible. One day, Zhao Dun deliberately said to song Xiaozong, "my beard has begun to turn white. Someone specially sent me the medicine to dye it, but I didn't use it." The implication is that your son has a white beard. It's time to be an emperor. Song Xiaozong naturally understood his son's mind, but pretended not to understand. He replied seriously, "what's wrong with a white beard? Just to show the world your maturity. "

After hitting a nail, Zhao Dun did not dare to publicly test again. Instead, he flattered the Empress Wu (empress) and tried to win the throne by the power of the Empress Dowager. The Empress Dowager Wu also understood Zhao Dun's mind and once hinted to song Xiaozong, but song Xiaozong said that the prince still needed experience. This series of events left a heavy shadow in Zhao Dun's heart, which directly led him to be afraid of his own father.

Until February of the 16th Chunxi reign (1189), Emperor Xiaozong of song had to mourn for Emperor Gaozong of song, so he took the initiative to abdicate to crown prince Zhao dun. At the age of forty-three, Zhao Dun finally aspired to the throne that he always wanted. The irony is that he can't wait to be emperor, but he doesn't do anything after he ascends the throne. Not only that, his previous grudges against his father began to be induced by various external factors, which led to the "palace crossing event" for several years.

At the beginning of emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty, he led his concubines to visit jujingyuan. It was not a big deal, but it was criticized for not inviting the emperor. All the officials wrote in succession, pointing out that when Emperor Gaozong was alive, Emperor Xiaozong of song invited him to travel with him every time, while emperor Guangzong of song only paid attention to his own travel. The implication is to accuse song Guangzong of being unfilial. Song Guangzong is naturally unhappy after reading the memorial. Just at this time, the eunuch of song Xiaozong sent jade cup to song Guangzong. Song Guangzong didn't hold on for a while and broke the jade cup. When the eunuch returned to Chonghua palace, he reported to Emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty and said deliberately, "when the official family saw that the jade cup was awarded by the emperor, they were very angry and broke it." Song Xiaozong was very unhappy. The gap between father and son grew gradually, but it was further aggravated by the instigation of empress Guangzong of Song Dynasty.

Li fengniang, a native of Anyang, is Li daonv, the governor of Qingyuan military Festival. It is said that when she was born, a black phoenix gathered on the stone in front of Li Dao's camp, which is amazing. So Li Dao named her new daughter fengniang. When Li Dao left Hubei, he heard that Huang Futan, a local Taoist, was good at showing his face to others, so he asked him to show his daughter. When Huang Futan saw Li fengniang, he was shocked and said: "this woman is the mother of the world, please be sure to properly raise." Later, Huang Futan got the favor of Emperor Gaozong of Song Dynasty and accidentally talked about Li fengniang. At that time, Zhao Dun, King Gong, was not married, so Emperor Gaozong of song appointed Li fengniang as Princess Gong. After Zhao Dun granted the crown prince, Li fengniang also became the crown princess.

Li fengniang's face is beautiful, but her temperament is arrogant and insidious, better than men. When she became the crown princess, she constantly gossiped among the three palaces of song Gaozong, song Xiaozong and crown prince Zhao dun. Emperor Gaozong of Song Dynasty was very dissatisfied with it. He once said to Empress Wu, "it's a woman who will breed. I was wronged by Huangfu." It means being deceived by the Taoist huangfutan. Song Xiaozong was also dissatisfied with the actions of his daughter-in-law. He severely scolded and said, "you should learn from the Empress Dowager's Empress Wu. If you interfere in the prince's affairs again, I will kill you!" Li fengniang had a grudge against song Xiaozong.

When Emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty was preparing for the Zen position, he summoned the ministers in power of the Privy Council of three provinces to inform him of his intention to practice inner Zen. The ministers all agreed with each other. Only when they knew that the Privy Council was silent about Huang Qiao, song Xiaozong thought it strange and asked for his opinions. Huang Qiao replied, "the prince can take on a great responsibility, but the Li family (Li fengniang) is not enough to show his mother the world. I hope your majesty will think twice." It is rather embarrassing for song Xiaozong to acquiesce and ask him to admit his dissatisfaction with his daughter-in-law. Huang Qia knew that and said: "Your Majesty asked me, I dare not not not not answer. I'm afraid that when his majesty thinks of his words, he will never have a chance to see him again. " So he asked to resign.

Song Xiaozong didn't take it seriously either. Unexpectedly, he was really talked about by Huang Chai later. When Li fengniang became Queen, her strong desire for power burst out day by day, and even wanted to be superior to the emperor.

Once, Xie, the empress of emperor Xiaozong of Song Dynasty, despised Li fengniang's insolence, so she said that she should pay attention to the empress's identity and be polite. Li fengniang not only did not listen, but sneered on the spot and said, "I am the married couple of the official family!" Xie was originally the maid of Wu, the empress of Gaozong of Song Dynasty. Later, she was awarded to song Xiaozong. Because she was able to write big characters and was good at riding and shooting, she was favored by song Xiaozong and became the empress. Li fengniang's remark undoubtedly satirizes Xie's humble status. In a rage, Xie told song Xiaozong about it. Song Xiaozong decided to depose Li fengniang and summon Shi Hao, an old minister, to discuss the affairs of the empress. However, Shi Hao thought that song Guangzong had just ascended the throne, if the empress was abolished immediately, it would cause people's discussion all over the world, which is not conducive to the overall situation, and firmly disagreed with the matter of abolishing the empress. At this time, Emperor Xiaozong of song had abdicated as the supreme emperor, without the support of his ministers, so he had to give up the post of abolition. However, Li fengniang learned that she hated song Xiaozong and was determined to instigate the father son relationship between Song Xiaozong and song Guangzong so that she could control song Guangzong herself.

The most puzzling thing is that song Guangzong loved and feared Li fengniang, the original wife. The emperor came to the world with supreme authority, but he was afraid of his wife at home, which is rare in Chinese history. The most typical example is the fear of his wife by the former Emperor Hui of Jin Dynasty. The situation of emperor Guangzong in Song Dynasty is better than that of emperor Huidi in Jin Dynasty. According to Li fengniang, Emperor Guangzong in Song Dynasty can only follow orders. But he is the emperor after all, subject to his wife, unavoidably unwilling to change this situation. The empress lived in the inner palace, unable to contact with the outside world, and could only rely on eunuchs. Song Guangzong wanted to kill all the eunuchs of Li fengniang, but he was cowardly and hesitated. After the eunuchs knew the plan of emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty, they began to gossip between emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty and Li fengniang. Therefore, whenever emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty said that he hated eunuchs, Li fengniang protected them. The fear of his wife and the suspicion of his father made him suffer from mental and physical agony. He was under great psychological pressure and suffered from a kind of serious anxiety.

When Emperor Xiaozong heard that his son was ill, his blood was thicker than water. He was still in love with his son, so he called the royal doctor to ask him and prepared a prescription. He planned to give the medicine to his son for trial when Emperor Guangzong came to ask him about peace. However, the eunuch took the opportunity to stir up trouble and stir up Li fengniang and said, "the imperial family (song Xiaozong) wanted to wait for the emperor to say hello, and then ordered to drink. If there is something unexpected, will it not cause the concern of the clan? " It means that song Xiaozong had ulterior motives.

Before this, Emperor Guangzong of song wanted to establish his only son, Zhao, son of Li fengniang, to be the prince, but emperor Xiaozong of song disagreed. Song Xiaozong preferred Zhao Jiao, the son of Zhao Kai, the elder brother of song Guangzong. Zhao Kai was the one who was more qualified to be the prince. At that time, song Guangzong replaced Zhao Kai, the elder brother, to be the prince. Now, song Xiaozong wants to make the elder brother's son the prince, which undoubtedly makes song Guangzong feel greatly suspicious. Therefore, he no longer went to Chonghua palace regularly to say hello, which gave Li fengniang a chance to take advantage of. Li fengniang believed the eunuch's words and thought that song Xiaozong wanted to poison her husband.

After a few days, song Xiaozong called song Guangzong for a family feast. Li fengniang didn't let song Guangzong know, and went to Chonghua palace alone. When facing song Xiaozong, she proposed to set up her son Zhao as a reserve. Song Xiaozong did not answer. Li fengniang couldn't help but ask the Duke, "the ancients said," I'm hired by Liuli and Zhao expander is my own son. Why can't I be the prince? " Because song Xiaozong was not the son of song Gaozong. Li fengniang's words provoked song Xiaozong's wrath and immediately left. After Li fengniang went back, she not only cried to song Guangzong, but also told him about the combination of drugs, believing that song Xiaozong had the intention of abolishing song Guangzong. Song Guangzong believed that it was true. For more than a year, he never went to Chonghua palace to say hello to his father.

Li fengniang not only has a strong desire for power, but also has a jealous nature. She is a famous jealous woman in history. Emperor Guangzong of Song Dynasty doted on another imperial concubine, Huang. Li fengniang was very jealous, so she took advantage of emperor Guangzong's sacrifice to kill concubine Huang, and then lied about "violent death". Song Guangzong knew there was fraud, but he had no choice. Once, when song Guangzong washed his hands, he saw that the hands of the palace maids who were waiting on him were as white as jade. He was very fond of them and couldn't help saying "good". After a few days, Li fengniang sent someone to bring the food box to song Guangzong, and opened it, but it was the hands of the palace maid. Song Guangzong was too frightened to speak out, and his inner sadness could not be relieved. This series of events directly led to the aggravation of song Guangzong's illness.

Once, Emperor Guangzong of song suddenly fell ill. After hearing about it, Emperor Xiaozong of song rushed to visit him in person. Song Guangzong was unconscious and could not recognize his father. Song Xiaozong was full of anger and had no place to vent, so he scolded Li fengniang and said: "it's all you

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