A brief introduction to wokuotai, Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty-看世界

A brief introduction to wokuotai, Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty

  简介

The Mongol Empire Khan (1186-dec. 11, 1241) is known as "wokuotai Khan". The third son of emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty. In 1225, it was sealed in the upper reaches of Shi River (now Erqis River) and the east belt of barkash lake, and built in yimili city (now Emin County, Xinjiang). In 1229, the hulitan assembly was supported and ascended to the throne to manage the whole Mongolian Empire. He continued his father's ambition to expand the territory, went down to the south to destroy the Jin Dynasty, and sent Batu to explore Europe. During his reign, he successfully conquered Central Asia, North China and Eastern Europe. In October of the third year of the Yuan Dynasty (1266), the Taimiao was built, and the title of the temple was made, and the title of the temple was Taizong. In November of the 8th year of Zhiyuan (1271), Kublai Khan changed the state name "great Mongolia" to "Great Yuan".

Brief introduction

Bo erqijin, wokuotai (December 11, 1186-1241), also translates the ancient moon, yueketai, yuekuotai, gouge, etc. Genghis Khan, the third son of Tiemuzhen, is the empress of baoershi. Khan of Mongolia, from September 13, 1229 to December 11, 1241. Temple name Taizong, posthumous title English emperor, honorific wood is also hard. In his early years, he conquered all parts of the northern part of the country with his father and participated in such wars as the western expedition, the attack on gold, and the extermination of summer. On September 13, 1229, the Khan position was elected by hulitani. Later, the government established Royal instruments, issued zasa (decrees), set up post stations, set up warehouses, fixed the amount of tax, and gradually improved the national system. In the following year, the proposal was adopted to set up a ten way collection and taxation envoy in the Han area to implement the tax system. In the past three years, he has led the army to attack gold. In the past four years, the main force of the Mongolian army to annihilate gold was Sanfeng mountain in Junzhou (now Yuxian County, Henan Province), and it entered Bianjing (now Kaifeng, Henan Province). Six years (1234), the end of the Jin Dynasty. Seven years later, he built a forest city. After that, he sent all the kings and princes to unite their forces in the western expedition and attack Gaoli. In eight years, the printing bank handed in the money. To include the Central Plains households to give the kings and relatives, the implementation of five households of silk, set up Dalu Huachi and officials to manage the military and civilian finance, in order to guard the town of Tama chijun. In his later years, orduraheman and yalaowachi, the Huihui merchants, were appointed to be in charge of the civil affairs and taxes of Han, and the rule was in disorder.

Life

In 1225, it was sealed by Genghis Khan, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, at the upper reaches of the Shihe River (now Erqis River) in Yeer and the east belt of barkash lake, and established urduo in yimili city (now Emin County, Xinjiang).

On September 13, 1229 (August 24, 1229 in the lunar calendar), he ascended the throne with the support of the emperor Tuolei, Chagatai, tiemugeou and Chijin.

In 1230, he personally attacked the Jin Dynasty. In 1231, the Guanshan Conference (now ninety-nine springs in Inner Mongolia) was held, and it was decided that the soldiers should attack Jin in three ways. In three years, it occupied the south of Shaanxi, the north of Henan and the area of Huaixi. In 1234, he joined forces with the Southern Song Dynasty to attack caizhou. On February 9, 1234, Jin AI Zong hanged himself and the Jin Dynasty was destroyed. But at the same time, because of the border with the Southern Song Dynasty, the conflict between the two sides became more and more serious, which also opened the prelude of the continuous fighting between the two sides in the next 45 years. When the southern front was in deadlock, the iron hoof of the Mongolian army turned to Koryo in the East and made them submit. On the western line, the Mongolian army completely controlled Persia and continued to move westward, occupying all the countries except Novgorod, as well as the whole territory of Poland and Hungary.

On December 11, 1241 (the eighth day of November 1241 in the lunar calendar), wokuotai died suddenly because of drinking, which forced him to stop his western expedition. At that time, the army was advancing towards Vienna, but in order to return to attend the Kuril platform conference in Mongolia, the army withdrew in a hurry. Since then, the Mongolian army has never set foot on this land.

Five years after his death, wokuotai was ruled by his Empress naimazhen until Guiyou, the son of wokuotai, succeeded him on August 24, 1246.

During his reign, he established a tax system of one hundred taxes in Mongolia, where there was no water to dig wells and move herdsmen to live. The establishment of post stations and the establishment of Wula system (post service) strengthened the connection between Mongolia and the occupied areas. In 1235, the capital city of Mongolia, halahelin City, was built, and Wan'an palace was built. The tax system of the central and western regions was formulated, and Yelu Chucai was appointed to preside over the tax melody of the central and western regions, while Shira Ximi, who was not in Mahe County, presided over the tax melody of the western regions. In order to strengthen the rule over the Central Plains, Zhongshu province was established, with Yelu Chucai as the Zhongshu order, Chongshan as the left prime minister and Zhenhai as the right prime minister. Set up ten ways to levy taxes. Bank notes are to be handed in. Liyanjing editorial office and Pingyang economic book office. Kong yuancuo, the grandson of the fifty first generation, was granted the title of Yan Shenggong. He built Confucian temples and tried Confucianism in Zhulu. Besides serving as the local councillors, the candidates also had to have 4030 people exempt from their taxes. In order to strengthen the ruling power of the Mongolian ruling class, kudun Kuo was appointed as the governor of Zhongzhou, who ruled Yanjing (now Beijing) and "ruled the Han people". In 1238, he sold 2.2 million liang of the Central Plains tax revenue back to the merchant audula Heman, and ordered him to be the official of the tax revenue collection office of all roads, which increased the burden of the Central Plains people. In 1240, Zhang Rou was appointed to attack Song Dynasty.

Change of official system

Genghis Khan's central official system was relatively simple. With the expansion of the ruling area and the variety of government affairs, on the basis of gradually accepting the advanced management of the surrounding regime, wokuotai began to reform. In 1229, a tax office was established. In 1231, Zhongshu province was established, and Yelu Chucai was appointed as zhongshuling, conglutinated Chongshan as the left prime minister and Zhenhai as the right prime minister. At this time, although the power of Zhongshu province cannot be compared with that of,, which is different from that of later Zhongshu province after the establishment of Kublai Khan, it after all marks that the highest administrative organ of the Mongolian regime has been preliminarily separated from the inner court, and marks the beginning of the separation of the military and political integration system. It is on this basis that a series of sinicization, namely feudalization reform, took place in the Mongolian regime and the Yuan Dynasty.

West sign

After the end of the Mongolian war against gold (see), wokuotai Khan established a strong rule in Central China and Central Asia. To the west of the Shi River (now Erqis River in Xinjiang) and to the east of the Ural River are the conquered areas of Mongolia, which are the territory of shuchi, the eldest son of Genghis Khan. However, qincha and ruros to the west of the Ural River have not been settled. In the seventh year of Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty (1235), wokuotai summoned hulilatai and decided to invade other countries such as qincha and rouros. Hulu Suman, the leader of the Ministry of qincha living between the Volga River and the Ural River, was afraid of the Mongolian army, so he had sent an envoy to pay for it, and the Mongolian army arrived, ready to surrender. However, the chief of the Ministry of inspection, Bachman, who lived in the lower Volga River, resolutely fought against Japan. At that time, Russia, Poland and Hungary were divided into several principalities, each of which was independent and disobeyed the orders of the grand duke. Germany, Italy and Austria were involved in the Crusades. The situation in Europe is favorable for Mongolia's western expedition.

In the spring of the eighth year of Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty, the eldest son of Genghis Khan, shuchi, Badu, Chahetai, Baita, wokuotai, Guiyou and Tuolei, the eldest sons of the third and the fourth, all under ten thousand families, Nayan also sent their eldest sons to fight for the battle, taking Badu as the commander in chief, with a total of 150000 troops, starting from all over the country and arriving at the East Bank of the Volga River in autumn. After all the kings had agreed, they led their troops forward. Speed and lead the vanguard to take briar (today's Vyatka, Russia, east of bolyana). In the winter of that year, Mongo marched into the lower reaches of the Volga River in the qincha department, and the leader of the olbulrik department, bachiman, appeared in the dense forest and attacked the Mongolian army from time to time. In the spring of the next year, he moved south from bulia'er to reinforce Mongo. Bachiman hears the speed and is afraid of it. He escapes into the sea. Mongo led his army to attack the island of kuantian Keith sea (today's Caspian Sea) and captured bachiman and executed him. As a result, kuantian Jihai and other parts north of the Transcaucasia mountains were shocked. In the summer and autumn of the ninth year (1237), a recuperate horse was found to the east of the Volga River. He decided to seek for good offices (now Kirov state in the north of Russia, west of Tatar Autonomous Republic, Ukraine and Belarus). In December, Badu and other kings led their troops across the Volga River and conquered the cities of reyezan (a work called "reyezan", now the city of Ryazan in Southeast Zambia state of Moscow) and koromna (now the city of koromna in Southeast Moscow).

In February of the following year, it besieged Vladimir, the capital city of the great Duchy of rosvladimir (now northeast of Moscow, Russia). Dagong kuoerji fled to the banks of the Sidi River (now upstream of the Volga River) to wait for the reinforcements of the Kyiv principality. The Mongolian army besieged the city for five days, and forced the ulus people to take part in the siege. Batu army attacked more than 10 cities, including Rostov and Moscow, near the city of Vladimir. In March, Badu sent an army to attack Dagong barracks on the banks of the Sidi River, annihilating all its soldiers and killing Dagong. From then on, the Mongolian army marched to Novgorod, the ancient capital of Kiev, 20 li away from the city. Suddenly, the Mongolian army turned south and marched to the north of Caucasus. Mengo and Guiyou suppressed the ASU rebellion, Badu passed through the east of Volga River, and rested and raised a horse in qincha grassland. In October, Mengo and Guiyou conquered Tiemenguan pass (today's jelbintexi in southern Uzbekistan) and opened up the North-South transportation line of Caucasus. It's the autumn of the year. We call mengge and GUI to return from the East. In November, Batu sent troops across the Don River to plunder the southern part of ulus. They were too busy competing for power and profits to unite against the enemy, so that the Mongols captured the two cities of bereslough and Chernigov. When attacking the city of chernegov, the Mongolian army used giant riprappers. In the autumn of this year, Batu led his army to the city of Kivu (now Kiev City, Ukraine), where many armies gathered. And he gave orders to set up guns round about, day and night, and to attack fiercely. On November 19, it was conquered. After seizing the city of Kiwa, the Mongolian army continued to march westward, seizing Vladimir Warren, the capital of the Principality of kalich (now Vladimir wallensky in the state of Warren in Northwest Ukraine), and other cities in the territory. Danielle, the Duke of garridge, fled to Mazar. Oroth was occupied by the Mongolian army.

At the beginning of the 12th year of Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty, in addition to leaving 30000 troops to guard nanulus, the rest 120000 people marched into Mazar (now Hungary) in three ways. In the North Road, baidar led 30000 people under chakuotai to destroy Mazar's foreign aid to Poland; in the South Road, Hedan led 30000 people under kuotai, bypassing the Carpathian Mountains and making a detour from the South; in the Middle Road, Badu and shubutai led 60000 troops and crossed the Carpathian Mountains to the capital city of pisti (near Budapest, Hungary). The second route army from north to South started first. Baidal divided the South army and crossed the visdora River to march towards Poland. At that time, Poland was divided into a number of small vassals. King poleslav only governed the land directly under him, while other vassals were independent. In February of the 12th year, the Mongolian army successively conquered the sandomer city under the jurisdiction of the Polish Communist Party, poleslav (now sandomesh city on the West Bank of the visva River southeast of Warsaw, Poland). In March, defeated the Polish army, captured the capital city of krakov (now Krakow City in the south of Poland), and set fire to it. Then the Mongols attacked the Polish vassal state of Silesia (now Silesia in the southwest of Poland), crossed odkho by raft, and attacked the capital city of floslav (now floslav, the capital of Silesia in Poland). Henry II, king of Silesia, retreated to legnitz (near Gellis in Dresden, Germany), and assembled 30000 troops of polish, Germanic and Teutonic Knights to fight. Baidal gave up attacking the city of floslav and went near legnitz to lead Henry to the battle. At the beginning of April, Henry led the army to the war, the Mongolian army pretended to be defeated and retreated, and Henry followed. Taking advantage of Henri's fatigue, the Mongolian army suddenly launched a counter offensive and wiped out its troops. Henry was captured and beheaded. Taking advantage of the victory, the Mongolian army attacked Moravia (now the Moravia area in the south of the Czech Republic) and burned and plundered all the people

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