Brief introduction to mengge, the only emperor who died in battle in the history of China-看世界

Brief introduction to mengge, the only emperor who died in battle in the history of China

  生平经历

From January 10, 1209 to August 11, 1259, the emperor Xianzong of the Yuan Dynasty was a Khan of the Mongol Empire, known as "Mongo Khan". From July 1, 1251 to August 11, 1259. He is the grandson and eldest son of the emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty. His fourth younger brother is the emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty. Mother instigated ruhoteni. Before assuming the throne, he took part in the western expedition of the eldest son of the commander of Batu, captured the leader of qincha, Ba Chi man, and attacked Russia. After assuming the throne, he mainly devoted himself to attacking and annihilating, Dali and other countries. And sent Xu liewu to the west to march on the countries of Western Asia. He died in 1259 at the foot of Diaoyu mountain in East Hechuan. In October of the third year of the Zhiyuan Dynasty (1266), the Taimiao was built and the title of the temple was made. Kublai, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, pursued the title of mengge temple as Xianzong and the title was huansu. In November of the 8th year of Zhiyuan (1271), Kublai Khan changed the state name "great Mongolia" to "Great Yuan".

Life experience

Early life

On December 3, the third year of the emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty (January 10, 1209), Mongo was born in the grassland of Mobei. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan, the eldest son of Tuolei, and the eldest son of Tuolei's wife abetting Lu heteni (Kublai, the first son of the emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty, Xu liewu, the third son of the emperor, and alibu, the fourth son of the emperor). "Mongo" means forever. Before the Emperor Taizong ascended the throne, he took mengge as his adopted son and asked empress anghui to nurture mengge. When he grew up, he married Huoli, a woman from the Ministry of huolula, as a concubine, and gave it to his people. In the fourth year of Emperor Taizong's reign (1232), after the death of Tuolei in September of the lunar calendar, he was allowed to go back to inherit the territory of Tuolei. Mengge followed wokuotai for many times to participate in the expedition and made many miracles. Mongo is reticent, not extravagant, and likes hunting. In the seventh year of Emperor Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty (1235), Mongo took part in the second western expedition of Mongolia. He fought with bali'er, qincha, and good offices in Europe and made great contributions. Near the Caspian Sea, he captured the leader of qincha, Bachman, alive.

Fight for the throne

After Guiyou died in March of the lunar calendar in 1248, Empress Wu Lihai lost his way to the imperial system. Due to the early discord between Guiyou and Badu, Badu refused to go to mourning. In order to fight against the wokuotai family, Badu, as the king of the long branch, sent envoys to invite the king and ministers to his residence in the Central Asian grassland to hold a meeting in hulitani to discuss and recommend the new Khan. Most of the princes of the wokuotai and Chagatai families refused to go. Empress Wu Lihai lost only sent minister Bala as a representative. Lu heteni ordered his eldest son, Mongo, to lead his younger brothers and family officials to go.

In 1250, the hulitani conference was held at the base of Badu in Central Asia. At the conference, Badu praised mengge's outstanding ability and great contribution to the western expedition, and pointed out that your establishment violated the life of wokuotai (wokuotai's life lost the throne of liemen), and the descendants of wokuotai were not qualified to continue to sweat. The General Assembly adopted the proposal of Batu and recommended Mongo as Khan. Wokuotai and Chagatai didn't admit it. Lu heteni and Mongo sent envoys to invite all the princes to the Bank of the Funan River to convene hulitani. Badu sent his younger brother bieerge and his army to accompany Mongo to the Bank of the Funan River. However, many of the princes of wokuotai and Chagatai still refused to answer the call, which delayed the meeting for a long time.

Because of his mother's high prestige in instigating luheteni, and being good at persuading the king and nobles, most of the king's ministers finally came. In June 1251, the lunar calendar held the hulitan Conference on the banks of the mediation River in the Mongolian grassland. On June 11 (July 1, 1251) of the first year of the emperor Xianzong of the Yuan Dynasty, the king's ministers and nobles all supported mengge to ascend the throne, and mengge became the emperor of the great Mongolia (the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire )On the day of Mengo's accession to the throne, Lu heteni was enthroned as emperor. Later, in order to consolidate the position of Khan, Lu heteni was instigated to suppress the opponents without mercy, and personally ordered the death of the empress of yuan dingzong Guiyou, dau hulihai, who was lost.

Since then, the Khanate inherited and transferred from the wokuotai family to the tralei family. The division within the royal family foreshadowed the complete division of the later great Mongolia.

Achievements in office

On July 1, 1251, after mengge ascended the throne, wokuotai was refused by the kings of various clans. Later, he led the troops to suppress it, and then led the military and political affairs of the Southern Han Dynasty with his younger brother Kublai Khan.

When he was in office, two viwers were killed because they were involved in the wokuotai family. One was named Zhenhai, and the other was named salendi yiduhu. The latter was sent to Helin for execution after being accused of preparing to massacre the returnees who had lost eight Li on Friday.

In 1258, the khurri regime crossed the Taiwan Strait, and the khurri King surrendered to the great Mongolia, and the two sides reached a peace agreement. Gaoli became a vassal state of great Mongolia, but it kept the original government system and traditional culture of Gaoli, "from its national customs", "from the selection of officials".

Kill Dali and take Yunnan

In June 1252, Emperor Xianzong of the Yuan Dynasty ordered his younger brother Kublai Khan to March south to Dali. In July, Kublai Khan led his army. In August 1253, the third year of Xianzong reign in the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan led his troops to attack the Dali state, which is located in today's Yunnan Province and other places. On December 12, the third year of Xianzong reign of the Yuan Dynasty (January 2, 1254), Kublai Khan conquered Dali city. Duan Xingzhi, the king of Dali, surrendered and the country of Dali was destroyed. The Yungui Plateau was incorporated into the territory of Mongolia. In 1256, Duan Xingzhi went to the palace of Helin in Mobei to meet mengge, who was appointed as the general manager of Dali and inherited by his descendants.

From 1254 when Kublai Khan, the emperor's younger brother of Xianzong in Yuan Dynasty, destroyed Dali, to 1382 when Liang Wang stationed in Yunnan defeated and killed himself, Duan Shi, the general manager of Dali in Yuan Dynasty, returned to Ming army after defeat, and the Yuan dynasty ruled Yunnan for 128 years.

Expedition to West Asia

In June 1253, mengge ordered his younger brother Xu liewu to lead an army of 100000 to the West. Xu liewu's western expeditionary army set out from the grassland of Mobei. After crossing the Amu Darya River in 1256, it conquered the Ruhr regime in the south of Persia. In 1256, it conquered the state of mullahi (asasim) in the west of Persia. In 1258, it conquered the Abbasid Dynasty in Baghdad. On March 1, 1260, it conquered the Ayyubid Dynasty in Syria and sent troops to occupy most of Asia Minor.

After conquering Syria, Xu liewu's front of the Western expeditionary army arrived in today's Palestinian area on the east coast of the Mediterranean, and was about to fight with the Mamluk Dynasty of Egypt. At this time, Xu liewu received the news that the supreme ruler of the Empire, Mongo, had died in Sichuan brought by the emissary, so he only sent less than 10000 vanguard and timid troops to stay in Syria, and began to return to the East with his army. On September 3, 1260, the Mamluk Dynasty of Egypt took advantage of the main force of xuliewu's attack to return to the East and occupied Syria. Xuliewu was extremely angry. He wanted to lead the army to continue the western expedition. But at this time, he and bieergohan of qinchakhan had to end the western expedition because they fought for Azerbaijan.

On his way back to the East, Xu liewu got the news that Kublai Khan and Ali bugo were fighting for the throne, so he stayed in West Asia and supported Kublai Khan from the emperor side. Later, Kublai Khan named him "Yierhan". The country of Yierhan in West Asia was established.

Expedition to the Southern Song Dynasty

In 1258, mengge, his younger brother Kublai Khan and general Wu Liang attacked the Southern Song Dynasty in three ways. In July of the lunar calendar in 1258, mengge led the main force to attack Sichuan, conquering most parts of northern Sichuan. At the beginning of 1259, the attack was blocked under the fishing city of Hezhou (now Hechuan District of Chongqing). He was unable to conquer for several months. On July 21, 2009 (August 11, 1259), mengge died of illness at yuyushan, Hezhou, aged 50. Mengge left his last words before his death. If he captured the fishing city in the future, he would kill all the soldiers and civilians (this matter is not recorded in the "Yuan Shi", "new Yuan Shi" and "Shi Ji", but it should be a wild history rumor. The three historical books recorded mengge's death is not related to the fishing city). However, when the fishing City surrendered in 1279, Kublai Khan pardoned all the soldiers and the people.

Although mengge failed to eliminate the unification of the Southern Song Dynasty before his death, his death had a great impact on the world structure at that time. The death of mengge led to the suspension of the third Mongolian Western Expedition of General Xu liewu. Moreover, after the death of mengge, the dispute between his younger brother Kublai Khan and alibuge on the succession broke out, which eventually led to the division of the great Mongolia (Mongol Empire).

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