Brief introduction to Kublai Khan, the founder of the Great Yuan Empire-看世界

Brief introduction to Kublai Khan, the founder of the Great Yuan Empire

  元世祖忽必烈(1215~1294),元朝的创建者。拖雷正妻唆鲁禾贴尼的第二子。忽必烈为藩王时,便热心于学习汉文化。1251年,长兄蒙哥即大汗位,忽必烈以皇弟之亲,受任总理漠南汉地军国庶事,南驻爪忽都之地。他先后任汉人儒士整饬邢州吏治,立经略司于汴梁,整顿河南军政,并屯田唐、邓,收到积极效果。1253年,受京兆(今陕西西安)封地,忽必烈又在这里任诸儒臣兴立屯田,兴复吏治,恢复农业,建立学校,进一步取得北方汉族地主阶级对他的拥护,为元王朝的建立提供了社会基础。

He was the founder of Mongolian nationality from 1215 to 1294. He was the fourth son of Toray, the emperor's younger brother. In his youth, he thought that he could make great achievements in the world. Marco Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty, a vast, unified and multi-ethnic country. During his reign, he established a provincial system and strengthened the centralization of power, which gradually restored and developed the social economy. He has also sent troops to invade neighboring countries many times, but has suffered many failures. Like his grandfather, Kublai Khan is the founder of the glorious history of the Mongolian nation and an outstanding politician and strategist of the Mongolian nation. In the 35th year of his reign, the first month of 1294, he died of illness in Dadu. His posthumous title is Shengde divine power, Wenwu, and the temple is Shizu.

Kublai Khan (1215-1294), the founder of the Yuan Dynasty. His second son was abetted by his wife. When Kublai Khan was a vassal king, he was eager to learn Han culture. In 1251, the elder brother Meng Ge was in the position of Khan, and Kublai Khan was appointed Prime Minister of the Southern Han Dynasty as a relative of the emperor's younger brother. He settled in the land of zhuhudu in the south. He successively served as a Confucian scholar of Han Dynasty to rectify the official management of Xingzhou, set up an economic and strategic department in Bianliang, reorganized the military and government of Henan Province, and stationed the land in Tang and Deng dynasties, with positive results. In 1253, under the seal of Jingzhao (now Xi'an, Shaanxi Province), Kublai Khan was appointed here by all the Confucian officials to build up the countryside, revive the government of officials, restore agriculture, establish schools, further gain the support of the landlord class of the Han nationality in the north, and provide a social basis for the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty.

In the same year, Kublai Khan was ordered to join forces with general Wu Liang on an expedition to Yunnan to destroy Dali. In 1258, mengge launched the army and ordered Kublai Khan to replace the general East Road army. In September 1259, Kublai Khan led his division to the Huaihe River. The news of mengge's death on the front line of Hezhou came that Kublai Khan still crossed the Yangtze River from yangluobao, surrounded Ezhou (now Wuhan, Hubei Province), and received the Wuliang Hetai army from the north of Yunnan Province. At this time, it was learned that Ali Buge, the young brother left behind in Mobei, had drafted for Khan's position without authorization. Kublai Khan immediately adopted the offer of Hao Jing, a Han man, to make an appointment with Song Dynasty and rode back to Yanjing.

In March 1260, Kublai Khan was promoted by some kings, that is, Khan was located in Kaiping, the middle of the Yuan Dynasty. In the central government, there was Zhongshu Province, Wang Wentong was appointed as the official of Pingzhang, and 10 Xuanfu divisions were set up in different places to serve as the envoys of the Confucians. In May of the same year, Ali Buge was also supported by some of the kings who lived in Mobei and called Khan Yu Helin. Relying on the rich human and material resources of Han Dynasty, Kublai Khan sent troops to defeat Ali Buge. In the spring of the third year of the central unification (1262), Li from Yidu province took the opportunity to revolt and was quickly suppressed by Kublai Khan. Li's rebellion aroused Kublai Khan's suspicion of the Han people, so he took a series of measures, such as abolishing the hereditary system of the Han people's princes, weakening the military power of these families, and implementing the separation of the military and the people at the local level, etc., on the one hand, to strengthen the centralized power, on the other hand, to prevent the Han people strictly. In addition, Semu people were used to divide their powers in different levels of political power, so that they could restrain each other with the Han bureaucrats. In August 2005, Kublai Khan changed yuan to Zhiyuan. From the first year of the middle unification to the first year of the Yuan Dynasty, various systems of the new dynasty were basically established.

In the eighth year of the Zhiyuan era (1271), it took the meaning of "Da Zai Qian Yuan" in the book of changes, and the name of the founding of the people's Republic of China was Da Yuan.

In the following year, it is determined that Dadu is the capital. The reestablishment of the centralized politics restored the normal ruling order, restricted the exploitation of the people's taxes and corvee to a certain amount, and took some measures that were beneficial to the production of agriculture and handicraft industry, such as establishing the Department of agriculture, reclaiming wasteland, building water conservancy, restraining the good from slavery, etc. However, the regime also retained a large number of Mongolian backward old system. These systems remained in Yuan Dynasty all the time, which seriously restricted the development of productivity and intensified the society of Yuan Dynasty. At the same time, Kublai Khan actively began to eliminate the war in the Southern Song Dynasty. In the eleventh year of the Yuan Dynasty, he ordered Boyan to attack the Song Dynasty. In the 13th year, xialin'an and the 16th year, the remaining forces of the Southern Song Dynasty in exile were eliminated and the national reunification was completed. Yuan Dynasty is the first dynasty in Chinese history where ethnic minorities rule the whole country, which initially established the scale of China's territory.

After the reunification of the whole country, Kublai Khan's negative factors such as conservatism, favoritism and militarism developed. He used AHIMA as a returnee. Ahema has been in charge of the central finance since the beginning of the middle unification. He has been searching for many things and gained more power. He was good at the government. In nineteen years, Wang Zhu and Gao monk assassinated ahema. After that, Kublai Khan appointed Lu Shirong and sang Ge to manage finance successively, which ended in failure. In the same period, Kublai Khan's successive expeditions to Japan, Annan, Zhancheng, Myanmar and Java failed. But fighting against the invasion of the northwest kings such as Haidu and DUWA and subduing the rebellion of Naiyan, the Northeast kings, has a certain positive effect. In the thirty first year of Zhiyuan, Kublai Khan died of illness. He was 80 years old. Buried in the valley of Nianqi in the north of Mohei (at the south foot of Kent mountain on the current upper reaches of the krulun River).

In his whole life, Kublai Khan knew people and was good at their duties. He attached great importance to building and running the army and safeguarding national unity. He advocated the combination of politics and military affairs, the combination of war and caregiving, and focused on concentrating forces to avoid two-line operations. He was good at using the methods of long-range attack, detour, encirclement and annihilation, as well as the joint operations of infantry, cavalry, artillery and Marines, to win the victory and made great contributions to the establishment and consolidation of the Yuan Dynasty.

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