The second emperor of the Yuan Dynasty-看世界

The second emperor of the Yuan Dynasty


Tiemule (October 15, 1265-february 10, 1307), the second Khan of the Mongol Empire. The grandson of the Yuan Dynasty, the son of Prince Zhenjin. After the death of his father, in the thirtieth year of the Zhiyuan era (1293), he granted the title of emperor TAISUN, and the general troops guarded Mobei. The next year, the emperor. We will stop foreign wars and concentrate on rectifying domestic military and political affairs. Some measures, such as restricting the power of kings, reducing part of taxes, and making new laws and decrees, have been taken to temporarily ease the society. At the same time, the army sent troops to defeat the rebellious King Haidu and DUWA in the northwest, and both DUWA and chabaer were attached, which improved the long-term turmoil in the northwest. During his reign, he basically maintained a conservative situation, but he abused rewards, exceeded his income, lacked Treasury resources and devalued the currency. The temple is called Chengzong, and the posthumous title is emperor Guangxiao of Qinming. Mongol Khan, wanzedu Khan.


Tiemule (1265-1307), the second emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. In Mongolian, it is called emperor wanzedu (Ö ljeit ü - qahan). The second son of Kublai lie, the third son of Zhenjin, the second son of Yuan Shizu, and the mother of Hong Jila's family, Bo LAN, also known as Kuo Kuo Zhen. Born in 1265, the second year of Zhiyuan. In ten years, Kublai Khan established Zhenjin as the crown prince. After the death of Zhenjin in twenty-two years, Kublai Khan never determined his successor. By the end of the Yuan Dynasty, tiemule was ordered to be the Yanyu Dang Hedan. For thirty years, the unified army guarded Mobei and received the crown prince's treasure. In the first month of 31 years, Kublai Khan died. In April, the Mongolian nobles held a meeting to elect the emperor's hulitani in Shangdu. At the meeting, tiemur and his elder brother, King gamala of Jin, competed fiercely for the succession of the throne. With the support of his mother, Kuo Kuo, Zhen kedun, and the powerful officials, Boyan and yuxitimer, tiemur succeeded to the throne. Jianyuanzhen (1295-1296), later changed to Dade (1297-1307). In view of the mistakes of Kublai Khan in his later years, such as his fondness for Sango and his use of troops overseas, tiemule made a courtesy to the old ministers of Han people, restricted the illegal activities of the kings, stopped the invasion of Japan and Annan, reduced part of the taxes in the south of the Yangtze River, and ordered the editors to sort out the laws. These measures have temporarily eased social contradictions. Therefore, he basically maintained the situation of defending success in the early period of his reign.

However, in order to pay tribute to the kings and relatives who supported him, the excessive increase of rewards soon led to the exhaustion of the state treasury, which was "to store, to disperse", and "the amount of revenue, not to spend half a year", which could only be maintained by misappropriating the original money, resulting in the rapid depreciation of the money. In terms of employment, he is still devoted to a number of color bureaucrats such as Boyan (saidianchison) and Ali. In the later period of his reign, because of years of illness, these Semu bureaucrats colluded with empress Braham inside and outside, confusing the government, and the atmosphere of corruption in the officialdom flourished. In order to make contributions to later generations and improve their prestige, Timur sent another army to recruit 800 daughters in law (now northern Thailand and other places), causing great disturbance in the southwest, leading to the uprising of the people of all ethnic groups in Yunnan and Guizhou. All these measures have led to the emptiness of national strength and the darkness of politics. However, when he was in power, the yuan army successfully defeated the invasion of Haidu and DUWA, forced the rulers of Chagatai and liangulus to ask for peace, revived the position of the Khan as the leader of the western countries, and basically ended the Royal internal strife that lasted for more than 40 years in the West. In the first month of the 11th year of Dade, Timur died of ear disease. For fourteen years. The temple name became a family.


Song Lian, the official revisionist of the history of the Yuan Dynasty, said: "after the Chengzong had mixed the whole world, he could be said to be good at defending the Chenggong. However, in the last year of his life, when he was still in bed with illness, all state affairs were decided in the palace and entrusted to the chief minister. However, if he did not abandon the fall, he would take going to the ancestors as a long way to go, and the constitution was formed in the past. "

Song Lian, the official revisionist of the Ming Dynasty's history of the Yuan Dynasty, said: "the world is called the rule of the Yuan Dynasty, and even the Yuan Dynasty and Dade are the leaders. Therefore, in the world of our ancestors, we have enough for each other. The rule of great virtue is limited to Zhiyuan. "

Shao Yuanping, a historian, evaluated the compilation of Yuan history as follows: "the book said: to cure the disease by feeding the industry, to make it into a vertical arch; to fight against the south in middle age; to cure the disease of the last baby, the handle is sprouting; and rice Xianfu, to eliminate the inclination on the side of the town."

The evaluation of the Qing Dynasty historian Bi Yuan's "continuation" is: "the emperor is good at keeping the success after the confusion of the ancestors; however, in the last year, when he was in bed with illness, all the national political affairs were decided in the palace, and the external affairs were entrusted to the prime minister. Fortunately, it was not far away from the ancestors to keep the constitution, not to abandon it."

The evaluation of Yuan Shu, written by Zeng Lian, a historian of Qing Dynasty, is: "on the basis of saying that the number of Chengzong can abide by laws and regulations, but it's ill. The former star is Fuyao, and the female is jisichen, but it's hard to do it inside.". However, it's not the fault of Chengzong. Chengzong was appointed as the leader of HeLa hesun, who was a feather wing. Since ancient times, there have been no sages in power and their country has been in disorder. The sending of shares and arms should be in the words of Zhongliang, Tangzong and Xinfu! "

The evaluation of mengwu'er sent by Tu, a historian, is: "when the first Khan was a great grandson, he was fond of drinking without Festival. Kublai Khan often gave up. After receiving the staff three times, Kublai Khan ordered the medical officer to supervise his diet. There are those who are close to the Secretary TAISUN, who set wine in the toilet and enter the toilet instead of water. Kublai Khan hears it and is furious. He is banished to guard his people far away and kills them in the way. Since the Khan ascended to the extreme, he took the past as his fault and tried to save himself from drinking. He has the courage to change. Han Renhui congrui, after the world is mixed, the credit is mature, and the government is in the ascendant. From the first revolution to the middle of the Yuan Dynasty, it was a government of accumulation and redundant officials. Restrain all kings, concubines, Lords and consorts to disturb the people, forbid abusing and please reward them. Nature is modest and blunt, which is not worthy of false reputation. The ministers and queens repeatedly asked for the badge, but the soldiers refused. It can be said that the leader of Shoucheng. Although the late infant was at the end of his illness, he ruled out the middle palace, and there was no big mistake in lifting it. It is not the only one who can get help from his own

In the new yuan history, the private history of the Republic of China, Ke Shao'an commented that "the work of the predecessors of the chengzongxi, because of their success in law and profit and loss, was analyzed and the emperor did not use it. In his later years, when he fell ill, he decided not to pass on the throne of Wuzong early, so that after the change of the world, he would be killed by his relatives, but later by his mother. Sad husband! It's not a great lesson for later generations to respect the emperor and not protect his concubines. "

Year number

The official year of Yuanzhen (February 1295-1297)

Official year number of the court reform of the yuan Chengzong in Dade (February 1297-1307)

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