The fifth generation of Mongol, the Great Khan of Mongol Empire. Son of law. Yingzong studied Confucian classics from his childhood. He became crown prince in 1316 A.D. at the age of 18 when he became emperor. The next year, he changed his name to Zhizhi. In August 1323 ad, yuanyingzong, who lived in Shangdu (now the east of Zhenglan Banner in Inner Mongolia), returned to Dadu (now Beijing) in the north. On the way, he was stationed in nanpodian (thirty miles southwest of Shangdu) and was assassinated by Tieshi. He was known as "the change of Nanpo". When Yingzong died, he was only 20 years old. He reigned for four years. His temple was Yingzong, his posthumous title was Emperor ruishengwenxiao, and his posthumous title was gejianhan.
Yuanyingzong (1303-1323), known as shuodebala, the eldest son of yuanrenzong, the fifth emperor of the Yuan Dynasty (1320-1323), is called Gejian emperor in Mongolian. In his early years, he studied the history of Confucian classics from the Han Dynasty, took the throne in 1320, and began to use Taichang rites court to make him worship as the Prime Minister of the left and fight with tiemudier, the Prime Minister of the right. In the second year of Zhizhi (1322), timudier died, and he was promoted to the right prime minister and vigorously reformed. The system of "Zhenju platform outline" was issued, in which Confucianism and officials of Han people were used for recruitment and selection of talents; the Hui Government Academy was abolished, redundant officials were cut down, and organizations were simplified; the law of helping and reducing corvee was implemented; the system of dayuantong was issued to strengthen the legal system. To eliminate the rest of timudier's party, to put to death the emissary of the xuanzheng yuan, such as basgis (timudier's son), and to investigate his crime. Tiemudier's remaining party and the imperial official Tieshi conspired to launch a coup. In August of the following year, yuanyingzong returned to Dadu (now Beijing) from Shangdu (now the east of Zhenglan Banner in Inner Mongolia) in the north, and was stationed in nanpodian (30 Li southwest of Shangdu) on the way. He was assassinated by tiehuo, etc. It is called "the change of South Slope". In his four-year reign, the temple was called Yingzong.
As a child, he was educated by Confucianism and had a good command of the feudal culture of the Han nationality. In the third year of Yanyou (1316), he became the crown prince, and in the seventh year he became the emperor. During the three years of reign (1320-1323), the mother of Renzong agreed that tiemudier, who was ousted by Renzong, was the right prime minister, colluding with each other, eliminating dissidents, and inclining power to the government. In order to consolidate their position, the emperor made the descendants of Muhuali, the great Minister of the emperor Taizu, worship as the Prime Minister of the left, and tried to restrain the influence of the Party of Yiji and tiemudier. In August and September of the second year of Zhizhi's reign (1322), timudier and Tazi passed away one after another. In October, Li Baizhu, Prime Minister of the right, said that he would strive for better governance and a new locomotive. In the following months, some reform measures have been taken: widely using Han landlords and Confucians, such as Zhang Yu, Wu Yuanyu, Wang Yue, Wu Cheng, etc.; issuing "Zhenju Taigang system", which requires the selection of talents and talents; abolishing the Huizheng yuan and redundant officials, streamlining the organization, saving the system of Finance and use, implementing the law of helping and reducing the corvee; issuing "dayuantong system" to strengthen the legal system and promote it Han FA: to eliminate the remaining tiemudier parties and investigate their cases of corruption and law bending. These measures were opposed by some conservative Mongolian nobles.
Yingzong New Deal
In the second year of the reign of emperor Shuo de Ba La (1322), the political reform of the new deal was carried out.
In the first month of the seventh year of Yanyou (1320), Renzong died, and tiemudier, the former prime minister, took over as the right Prime Minister of Zhongshu. He immediately gathered his party members and killed the important officials of Renzong Dynasty who had offended him, which made them afraid. In March, shuodebala succeeded to the throne as the emperor of Yuanying. Yingzong was determined to make a difference and was determined to reform. Renzong's mother replied that she was dissatisfied with this. After the disclosure of the plan to abolish the establishment of emperor Yingzong, Emperor Yingzong killed the later party as much as possible, and tried to restrain the influence of the Party of answer oneself and tiemuddier. He appointed Mu Huali, a great official of Taizu, as the left Prime Minister of Zhongshu. In the autumn of the second year of the reign of emperor Yingzong (1322), he and timudier died one after another. Yingzong paid a full-time visit and said that he would make great efforts to improve and reform. At first, he summoned the senior officials of the former dynasty who were highly respected and experienced in governing the country to resume their official positions and give them preferential treatment so that they could write in the proceedings; he widely used the landlords and Confucians of the Han nationality, such as Zhang Gui, Wu Yuangui, Wang Yue, Wu Cheng, etc. During this period, the main reform measures are: to implement the law of helping service, to collect three hundred mu of land for the people, and to help service by the year; to issue the system of grand Yuan Tong, to strengthen the legal system, to supervise the state's political system laws and regulations, and to eliminate the confusion of different punishments for different crimes and different orders; to issue the system of vibrating platform, which requires the selection of talents and talents; to abolish redundant duties, save floating fees, reduce taxes and corvee, so as to ease agricultural forces. We will eliminate the remaining tiemudier parties and investigate and deal with their cases of corruption and perversion of the law. At that time, the world was in turmoil and politics was new. But these measures were opposed by some conservative Mongolian nobles.
The change of South Slope
At the beginning of August of the third year of Zhili's reign, Tieshi, the remaining tiemudier party and the senior official of the imperial history, conspired to launch a coup and sent his confidants to Mobei. On the fifth day of that month, yuanyingzong and Xizhu returned to Beijing from Shangdu (now the east of Zhenglan Banner in Inner Mongolia). On their way, they camped in nanpodian (30 Li southwest of Shangdu) and were assassinated by Tieshi. They were known as "the coup of Nanpo".
Under the influence of Confucianism, Shuo de ba'la of the yuan Yingzong wanted to make great achievements in politics. In fact, he is not cowardly and has a lot of ideas. As soon as he died, he began to fight with Yiji on the handling of political affairs. There was a servant named Qi who lost his prison. He was punished by the punishment department according to the law for selling his official position. But he intervened and called for a reprimand. Zhangxing was the fourth class of the five punishments in the Yuan Dynasty, with a minimum of 67 boards and a maximum of 107 boards. Flogging is the fifth class punishment, with 57 lashes at most; at least, 7 lashes to show the meaning of punishment. When he learned that his grandmother wanted to sell people, he immediately stopped her. He said to his grandmother, "the law embodies the general will of the world. If you accommodate your personal feelings and adjust your weight at will, you will not be able to maintain the prestige of the law in front of people all over the world. " He resolutely ordered that the original sentence be upheld, and that the punishment of beggars who had lost their prison should be carried out. After not half a month, another minister, called the missing liemen, was instructed by the minister to adjust personnel, remove a group of people and appoint a group of people. Shuodebala immediately rejected: "now, where is the time to seal a new official! The old ministers of the former Emperor should not be changed easily. When I officially ascended the throne, I would naturally consult with the prince of the clan and the Minister of the Senate. At that time, all the wise and capable will be appointed, and all the wicked will be removed. " He ran into several nails that were not hard or soft. He was very angry and said, "I really shouldn't raise this grandson!"
Timudier was regarded as the ahoma of the Yuan Dynasty because of his insidious and greedy behavior. Yuan Renzong AI Yu Li Ba Li Bada once discovered his crime and ordered him to be arrested and interrogated. However, he hid in his relatives' room. Aiyulibalibada knew that his mother was protecting him. He was unhappy for several days, but he had no choice but to issue an imperial edict to remove him from the post of prime minister, and the matter was over. On the fourth day after his death, aiyuli Bada gave a direct order to restore timudier's position. As soon as he came back to power, he falsely killed several honest ministers who had opposed him on the charges of "violating the Empress Dowager's will" and "disrespectful attitude when receiving the imperial edict".
Under the joint attack of Empress Dowager Yiji and Minister timudier, Shuo de Bala of Yuanying had to defend passively at first, and then gradually deployed counterattack. He appointed a large number of Han bureaucrats and intellectuals, and dismissed a number of Mongolian and Semu officials who depended on their privileges and stole important positions. He appointed the "Mongolian Confucians" as prime minister to restrict timudier's power.
In the second year of Zhizhi (1322), both TA Ji and tie Mu Dier died. Gu debala, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, ordered the investigation of timudier's corruption, the pursuit of his officials and lords, the confiscation of his family wealth, and the death of a number of officials who followed timudier in many ways.
Tieshier is tiemudier's sworn friend. He served as an emissary of Xuanhui academy, an official in charge of the supply of royal life. He took this as a ladder and was favored by his own. Later, he also served as the commander of the royal bodyguard and the imperial doctor who was responsible for investigating the good and evil of officials and political gains and losses. Shuo de Bala, the emperor of Yuanying, once hoped for him and said to him, "I live in the deep palace, and I can't understand the behaviors of my ministers and the sufferings of the people in depth. It's up to you people to listen to me. In the past, timudier was insatiable, and you would not disclose it. Now, although he is dead, I will also copy his property to warn the later generations. " Iron lost to hear, the heart has ghost, very uneasy.
In the autumn of the third year of Zhizhi (1323), shuodebala, the emperor of Yuanying, set out from Xanadu to return to Dadu. Xanadu has always been the stronghold of the conservative Mongolian aristocratic forces. When Ali bugo launched a rebellion against Kublai Khan, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, his base was Xanadu. Tieshi was afraid that shuodebhala, the emperor of Yuanying, would put the edge of rectifying the government on his own. He decided to make use of the "local advantages" of Xanadu, and put the first step to the strong, so as to get rid of shuodebhala. That night, shuodebala, yuanyingzong, stayed in Nanpo store, 30 miles south of Shangdu. Tieshi gathered a group of old-fashioned aristocrats who resented him, including suonan, tiemudier's son, to launch a coup. They rushed into the accommodation of shodebala and killed the prime minister. Tieshi himself broke into shuodeba's tent hall and killed the 21-year-old emperor. It is called "the change of South Slope".
In the first month of 1320, Renzong died. On the 24th, the eldest son, shuodebazi, was ordered by the Empress Dowager to dismiss bosha, the right Prime Minister of Zhongshu. Tiemudier was the right Prime Minister of Zhongshu. After timudier's resurrection, he immediately began to retaliate against the political enemy. First, he framed and flattered Han Ruoyu, a provincial counsellor, and asked for the death penalty. The prince knew that Han Ruoyu had been wronged and refused the request, but he was terrified by the lewd power of his wife and tiemudie's son and had to dismiss Han Ruoyu. In February, he successively dismissed, seized and demoted the zhongshupingzhang Chijin tiemu'er, a senior official of the imperial history, tuohuan, Li Meng, Wu bodushi, and Ali Hague who were not attached to him. Zhao Shiyan, Pingzhang of Sichuan Province, impeached tiemudier. At this time, timudier instigated people to falsely accuse him of guilt, and at the same time implied that as long as he gave up his fellow party, he could get high official and rich salary. Zhao Shiyan refused. Timudier added the charges of violating the imperial edict and disrespect to him and proposed to be sentenced to death. Yingzong knew that he was wronged, but he only dared to say that Zhao Shiyan's crime was committed before amnesty and should be lenient. Tiemudier asked to investigate those who impeached him together with Zhao. Yingzong is still prevaricating that these things happened before the amnesty. Timudier repeatedly asked Zhao Shiyan to be executed, but Yingzong disagreed. Therefore, in order to please timudier, the officials in charge of the interrogation tried their best to torture Zhao Shiyan, trying to make him commit suicide because he could not bear the insult. Unexpectedly, Zhao Shiyan neither confessed nor committed suicide. Timudier had to keep him in prison for a long time. Yingzong saves Zhao Shiyan.
At the same time of killing the political enemies, tiemudier promoted a large number of cronies, and promoted the left Prime Minister of Jiangsu and Zhejiang Province, Hailu (a black donkey), and Zhao Shirong, the Pingzhang of Shaanxi Province, to Zhongshu Pingzhang. In the name of the empress dowager, his party feather and the emissary of Yihui court asked the prince to change the courtiers on a large scale. The prince refused on the ground that the former Emperor and the former minister should not move lightly. Zhang Siming, Zuo Cheng of Zhongshu, also advised timudier not to make people panic