A brief introduction to tutimeur, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty who paid most attention to culture and education-看世界

A brief introduction to tutimeur, the emperor of the Yuan Dynasty who paid most attention to culture and education


The Emperor Wen Zong of the Yuan Dynasty (1304-1332) taboo named tutimer, Mongolian nationality, the eighth generation, reigned from 1328 to 1329, and later returned to power from 1329 to 1332, totaling 5 years. The second son of Haishan, the younger brother of mingzong. Tuttemur is the son of Wuzong and the younger brother of mingzong. He was crowned emperor after his death. He can be described as a conspirator. He usurped the throne which should be inherited by asakiba, and then eliminated the crown prince asakiba. Then they plot to kill their brother mingzong and Shila.

Although tuttemur was full of conspiracy in his life, he still attached great importance to culture and education and wrote several poems, so the temple was called "Wenzong". However, he highly praised Buddhism and spent a lot of money. His subjects were Yan tiemur's dictatorship, which was sharp, coupled with the long-term Royal struggle. Finally, the Yuan Dynasty was put into a state of collapse.

In July of the first year (1328), when Emperor TAIDING died, Yan tiemur, a Privy Council official, launched a coup in Dadu to set up his son as emperor and sent his envoy to Jiangling to welcome him to the capital. In August, Wang Chan, the king of Liang, and inverted Sasha, the prime minister, set up the prince of TAIDING, ahsoji Ba, in the upper capital, and sent troops to attack the capital. In September, tutimeur took the throne in Dadu and changed the calendar of the Yuan Dynasty. With the support of Yan tiemuer, his qincha army and part of the old Ministry of Wuzong, [1-5] defeated Wang Chan, daolasha, etc. and won the capital. Then, he dispatched troops to pacify the opposition groups in Sichuan and Yunnan. In the second year of Tianli (1329), Wuzong's eldest son and shigu were emperor in the north of Helin, which was mingzong. When mingzong went south to wanghuchadu (north of Zhangbei County, Hebei Province), tuttemur and yantiemuer, who had been abdicated in name, went to meet him, waiting for the opportunity to poison mingzong. So tuttemurfu was in Xanadu in August. In the following year, the calendar of the Yuan Dynasty was changed, which is known as the change of the calendar.

Historical achievements

During his reign, he established kuizhange and edited the classics, which was quite interested in promoting the rule of culture. In the Yuan Dynasty, the officials wrote political documents. It is also known as the emperor's Classics. From Wenzong of Yuan Dynasty to the first year of Shun Dynasty (1330), Kui Zhangge bachelor's college was in charge of compilation. Zhao Shiyan was the president, Yu Ji was the vice president, and was completed in May of the following year. The book consists of 880 volumes, 12 catalogues, one volume of official documents and one volume of compilation and discussion. According to the records in the preface to jingshidadian in yuanwenlei, the whole book is divided into ten parts: four parts of monarchy, namely, Emperor name, Emperor training, emperor system and emperor system, which are compiled by Mongolian Bureau; six parts of official affairs, namely, governing code, Fu code, Li code, political code, constitutional code and engineering code, which are divided into several items.

The style of the book refers to the meeting requirements of Tang and Song Dynasties, and has some innovations. For example, there are 22 items in the work code, including palace, government, warehouse, Chengguo, bridge, canal, suburban temple, monk temple, Daogong, luzhang, weapon, halogen book, jade work, metalwork, carpentry, kneading work, stonework, silk work, leather work, felt work, painting and sculpture, and all kinds of craftsmen, most of which are needed by the Tang and Song dynasties. Before the main body of each article or item, there are narratives to explain the main idea of its content, or the reason for its change, or to set up a purpose for readers to understand; this compilation method is also better than that of Tang and Song dynasties. Most of them are based on the official documents of China, Korea and other countries, but the Mongolian literal translation system is changed into Chinese classical, and the official documents are deleted.

In the early Ming Dynasty, when the book was revised, it was often quoted and compiled. In 1441, it was still found in the bibliography of wenyuange written by Yang Shiqi, but it was incomplete. In 1605, sun Nengzhuan and Zhang Xuan wrote the catalogue of the cabinet collection, which was not listed, but was thought to have been lost. In addition to the preface to jingshidianlu and the remnant of Yongle Dadian photocopied by Zhonghua Book office, there are also the records of Dayuan Ma Zheng, Yuan Dynasty painting and sculpture, Dayuan felt works, Dayuan official system Miscellany and yuangaoli chronicle, all of which are collected by predecessors from Yongle Dadian The total volume is about ten volumes, less than 23% of the whole book. This part of the text still exists in jingshidadian, which covers the city's grain and grass purchase, warehouse, recruitment and arrest, station red, express delivery shop, shipping, Gaoli, Myanmar and other matters. It is an important material for studying the social economy, politics, military affairs, technology and Sino foreign relations of the Yuan Dynasty.

Personal merits and demerits

In terms of culture, Wenzong has made great contributions. He attaches great importance to the rule of culture and has made great contributions to the development of culture. During his reign, he established kuizhang Pavilion and compiled the Scriptures, which provided a valuable wealth for the study of the history of the Yuan Dynasty. However, the Wenzong of the Yuan Dynasty advocated Buddhism and went to extremes. First, the emperor's standards were too high. Second, some disciples relied on their power to commit crimes. Third, they abused Buddhism and spent a lot of money. Fourth, they intervened in the government of the dynasty. Fifth, they established the general office of the Guangjiao to govern the government of monks and nuns, A total of 16 institutes are set up across the country, "rank three products". Monks and nuns are exempt from all kinds of forced labor, while other religions practice ancestry. At that time, the political power of Semu people in the court was weakened, while the power of the imperial inspection bureaucrat group was greatly increased. Yan tiemur is a tyrant of power and arbitrary, and his political affairs are decided by him, so there are many drawbacks, and the contradictions within the aristocratic ruling group have been very sharp.

Yuan Wenzong's family

Father: yuanwuzonghaishan

Mother: Tang Wu

Spouse: Hongjila butasiri


Eldest son: atenadara, born of Queen butasiri

The second son: gunatala (later renamed yantiegusi, exiled to death by Huizong of Yuan Dynasty), born by Empress badatasili

Third son: taipingna (early death), born of empress butazri

The queen of butasili was also exiled to death by Yuan Huizong.

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