Brief introduction to the last emperor of the Yuan Dynasty-看世界

Brief introduction to the last emperor of the Yuan Dynasty

  人物简介

Baoerjintuobutimer (1320.05.25-1370.05.23), Khan of Mongol Empire, Khan No. "wuhagatu Khan". The eleventh Emperor (the last emperor of the Yuan Dynasty), the first emperor of the Northern Yuan Dynasty, the temple Huizong, posthumous emperor xuanrenpuxiao.

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Born on April 17, 1320, and died on April 28, 1370. From June 8, 1333 to April 28, 1370. From July 19, 1333 to September 14, 1368 in the Gregorian calendar, it was returned to Mobei grassland from Dadu on September 14, 1368, and from September 14, 1368 to May 23, 1370 in the Gregorian calendar, it was the emperor of Beiyuan. He has been in office for 37 years, at the age of 51.

There are four years in office:

From June 1333 to October 1333

Yuantong, October 1333 to November 1335

From November 1335 to 1340 in the lunar calendar (there was the year of Zhiyuan in the reign of emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty, which was used again in the reign of Emperor Huizong of the Yuan Dynasty)

From 1341 to 1370

Huizong was the last emperor of the Great Yuan Dynasty and the first emperor of the Northern Yuan Dynasty.

It is called "the son of Luban" by later generations.

Note: the reason why yuanhuizong is also called Yuanshun emperor is that when the emperor Taizu of Ming Dynasty attacked Dadu, yuanhuizong did not resist, only took some of his family members to Shangdu, and then fled to Yingchang. Because there was no large-scale resistance, the historian thought that he complied with the will of heaven, so yuanhuizong was called Yuanshun emperor in the history books of Ming Dynasty.

Life of characters

Yuan Huizong was born on May 25, 1320 and died on May 23, 1370. His eldest son, in 1330, his mother was killed and yuanhuizong was expelled, first to Koryo's Pyongyang (now Korean Peninsula) and later to Guilin, Guangxi. When he died in November 1332, Emperor butasiri ordered bo'erjintuohuan to stick Muer as emperor, which was opposed by Prime Minister Yan tiemuer. Therefore, he did not succeed until June of the following year. Tang Qi, Yan tiemur's son, rebelled until 1335. At that time, Boyan, the right prime minister, had a great influence in controlling the government, and even did not pay attention to yuanhuizong. Boyan adopted the policy of excluding the southerners, such as forbidding the southerners to participate in politics, canceling, and forbidding the Han people to learn Mongolian. These practices deepened the discord between the two ethnic groups, and also made yuanhuizong more dissatisfied.

With the passage of time, Yuan Huizong and right Prime Minister Boyan became increasingly sharp. Later, with the strong support of Boyan's nephew, Yuan Huizong finally pushed out the public opinion, successfully deposed Boyan and controlled the political situation. Later, many improper policies of Boyan were abolished by the order of yuanhuizong, such as the restoration of the imperial examination and so on.

In 1343, Huizong ordered the compilation of Liao, Jin and song histories, which was presided over by the right Prime Minister Tuotuo (later changed to alutu), and was completed in 1345. In 1350, inflation occurred in the Yuan Dynasty, and in order to control the flood (at that time, because of the frequent flood of the Yellow River, the Emperor Huizong ordered the right prime minister to get rid of the Yellow River and return to the original road to control the flood) increased the corvee, which led to the uprising of the red scarf army in 1351. Although the yuan army won a certain victory in 1362, due to the great power of the uprising army, there was another open and private struggle between the emperor and the crown prince (that is, the later emperor Zhaozong), so the yuan Huizong could not effectively control the political situation, and the generals in other provinces sometimes went their own ways and did not obey the unified command of the central government. All these give the opportunity for the peasants in the south to revolt and grow stronger.

In 1368, when the Ming army attacked Dadu, Huizong withdrew to the north, reached Shangdu, and then transferred to Yingchang. And organized the yuan army to counter attack twice, but failed. On May 23, 1370, yuanhuizong died of illness in Yingchang.

Achievements in office

In 1341 A.D., Emperor Shun of the Yuan Dynasty took up the role of tuotuogeng, changed the "Zhizheng" of the Yuan Dynasty, and announced "Geng Hua", which was called "tuotuogeng Hua" in history.

The main reform measures are as follows:

1. Restore the imperial examination system deposed by Boyan;

The imperial examination system began, but it was not implemented until Renzong after the Yuan Dynasty was established. After Boyan came to power, he ordered the abolition of the imperial examination in order to prevent the Han people from becoming officials.

2. Set up Xuanwen Pavilion and restore the four seasons sacrifice of Taimiao;

3. Pacify and clear up a number of unjust prisons;

4. Ban horses, reduce farmers' burden and relax policies;

After Tuotuo came to power, he ordered people to be exempted from all kinds of taxes in arrears, and relaxed the policy for Han and Nan people. Previously, it was forbidden by the people to raise horses, and Tuotuo took office to abolish the ban.

5. Presided over the compilation of the three histories of song, Jin and Liao;

China has always had the tradition of repairing the history of the previous dynasty. After the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty, the history of the song, Liao and Jin Dynasties has not been formally compiled. In March, the third year of Zhizheng, 1343, Yuan Huizong, Zhao Xiu, Jin Dynasty and three histories, Tuotuo served as the chief executive officer. Tuotuo organized Lian Huishan, a historian of Uigur nationality, shalaban, Yu que of Dangxiang nationality, and Tai Buhua, a historian of Mongolian nationality, to participate in the history revision together, setting a precedent for the cooperation of historians of all ethnic groups.

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