Brief introduction of Zhao Heng, Emperor Zhenzong of Song Dynasty-看世界

Brief introduction of Zhao Heng, Emperor Zhenzong of Song Dynasty

  人物简介

Zhao Heng (968-1022), the third son of song Zhenzong, succeeded him in 997 and died in 1022. He was fifty-five years old and reigned for 25 years. In the first year of Jingde (1004), when the Qidan people established the invasion of the Liao state, the prime minister pushed the emperor out of the way and urged him to fight in person. The two sides fought in the abyss 300 miles away from the capital Bianjing. The situation was conducive to Song Dynasty. However, because of the real clan's fear of Liao's momentum and despite the opposition of the Kou Zhun, they decided to settle the alliance and reconciliation in the abyss by paying a large amount of gold and silver as "year-old coins". In history. After that, the Northern Song Dynasty entered a period of economic prosperity. In the later period of Zhenzong, Wang qinruo and Ding were regarded as the two phases. They often used the theory of Fu Rui in the book of heaven to say that the emperor was also obsessed with the practice of Fengchan. As a result, the government was not promoted and the society was constantly intensified, which made the problem of "internal and external troubles" in the Song Dynasty more and more serious.

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Zhao Heng (968-1022 AD) was the third emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty. He was known as song Zhenzong and the third son of Zhao Guangyi, the Emperor Taizong of Song Dynasty. Before he ascended the throne, he was granted the title of King Han, King Xiang and King Heshou. In 997, he succeeded as prince. At first, he was not the heir to the throne. At first, Emperor Taizong appointed Zhao YuanZuo, the eldest son, as the crown prince. However, because Zhao YuanZuo later suffered from mental illness, injured people due to illness and set fire in the palace, he was finally abandoned. Emperor Taizong established his second son Zhao Yuanzhen as Prince again, but Zhao Yuanzhen died early. After Zhao Yuanzhen's death, Emperor Taizong established his third son, Zhao Dechang, as the crown prince. In the third year of Daoism (997), Emperor Taizong of Song Dynasty died because of the recurrence of his previous sword injury. Zhao Dechang succeeded as emperor and changed his name to Zhao Heng, which was song Zhenzong. The genealogy was named Zhao Dechang. After Taizong succeeded, it was renamed Zhao yuanxiu and Zhao Yuankan.

He was named king Han, King Xiang and King Shou before he succeeded the throne. He was once the official Yin of Kaifeng. It used to be named Xianping, Jingde, Dazhong Xiangfu, Tianxi and Qianxing. During the period of Xianping, the governance was well-established, the rule was increasingly solid, the state management was increasingly perfect, the social economy was prosperous, and the Northern Song Dynasty was relatively strong, known as "the governance of Xianping".

In the first year of Jingde (1004), when the Qidan people established the invasion of the Liao state, the prime minister Kou Zhun urged the emperor to fight in person. The two sides fought in the Duoyuan (now the west of Puyang County, Henan Province) 300 miles away from the capital Bian [Bi'An] Beijing (now Kaifeng, Henan Province). Song Sheng decided to give up his troops. Despite the opposition of Kou Zhun, the emperor decided to pay 300000 liang of silver and 200000 pieces of silk to Liao every year as "year old coins" In exchange for peace with Liao Dynasty, he settled the alliance and made a reconciliation with the alliance in Chanyuan, which was known as "the alliance of Chanyuan". Since then, after a long period of recuperation, the Northern Song Dynasty has gradually entered the period of economic prosperity. In the later period, Wang qinruo and Ding were regarded as the phase. They often used the theory of Fu Rui in the book of heaven to bewitch the court and the field. The emperor was also obsessed with the practice of Fengchan, so the government did not give up. In 1021 ad, song Zhenzong was ill. On the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, Zhao Zhen, the crown prince, was appointed to succeed him. In the first year of Qianxing (1022), he died in the Yanqing palace in Bianjing Palace on February 20, at the age of 55. He reigned for 25 years and was buried in Yongding Mausoleum (now caijiazhuang, Southeast of Gongyi City, Henan Province). After Zhao Heng's death, his posthumous title was Zhang Shengyuan, Emperor Xiao, and his temple name was Zhenzong.

Song Zhenzong is the author of the famous proverb "there is a golden house in a book, and there is a jade in a book".

Life of characters

Song Zhenzong, Zhao Heng (AD 968-1022), formerly Zhao Dechang, was renamed yuanxiu and Yuankan. The third son of Taizong. Taizong succeeded after death. He was in office for 25 years and died at the age of 55. He was buried in yongdingling (now caijiazhuang, Southeast of Gongxian County, Henan Province).

Zhao Heng was successively granted the titles of King Han, King Xiang and King Shou. In his later years, Emperor Taizong superstitiously believed in Xiangshu. He once called a monk into the palace to look after his nephew and kings. The monk looked at several nephews. Only Zhao Heng was still sleeping and didn't come out. But the monk said, "I have seen all the kings, and my life is not equal to that of the longevity king." Taizong said, "you haven't seen him yet, how can you know his life is the best?" the monk said, "I just saw three servants standing in front of the Shouwang gate. They all have the skill to become generals in the future. If servants do, their masters will be more noble. " Therefore, the emperor made Zhao Heng prince. Taizong died in March 997 ad. he succeeded in the same month and changed his name to "Xianping" in the second year. At the beginning of Zhao Heng's accession to the throne, Li Kang and other officials were appointed prime ministers, who were also able to pay attention to frugality and political stability.

In the autumn of 1004 ad, Xiao of Liao state. Shengzong personally led 200000 troops to the south, directly under the city of Chanzhou (Puyang County, Henan Province) on the Bank of the Yellow River, threatening the capital of Song Dynasty. The alarm was sent to Tokyo five times a night. Zhao Heng asked Ji qunchen. Wang qinruo and Chen yaosou, the deputy prime ministers, advocated running away. The prime minister Kou criterion, who had only been in office for one month, objected sharply: "those who come up with such an idea should be beheaded!" He said that if you give up running south of Bianjing, you will surely shake people's hearts. The enemy will take advantage of the situation and the country will be hard to preserve. If the emperor goes out in person, the morale will be greatly improved and the enemy troops will be defeated.

Zhao Heng agreed to fight in person and was commanded by Kou Zhun. When he arrived at Weicheng (now Southeast of Huaxian County, Henan Province), Zhao Heng heard that liaobing was powerful and wanted to withdraw. "Now that the enemy is approaching and the situation is critical, we can only move forward one foot, not backward one inch," said Kou Zhun solemnly. Our army is looking forward to your Majesty's arrival day and night. The March will make our army's morale 100 times higher. The retreat will make our army's morale lax and the people disappointed. The enemy will seize the opportunity to attack. Your majesty may not even be able to protect Jinling. " Zhao hengcai reluctantly agreed to continue to March and cross the river into the city of Chanzhou. Seeing the Yellow Dragon flag of the emperor, the song army cheered and leaped, shouted "long live", and their morale was greatly improved. Kou Zhun directed the song army to attack. They all rushed to kill thousands of Liao army and killed Xiao Dalan, the main general of Liao army. When empress Xiao saw that the Liao army was in a passive position, she asked for peace. After Kou Zhun's insistence and envoys Cao used to bargain again and again in the Liao camp, it was formally agreed in December that the Song Dynasty would give Liao 100000 liang of silver and 200000 pieces of silk in exchange for the withdrawal of the Liao army. This is the "alliance of the abyss" in history. From then on, the year old coins became a long-term heavy burden for the people of the Northern Song Dynasty.

Later, Zhao Heng listened to Wang qinruo's slander. He resented Kou Zhun and forced him to march in person. He took a risk and removed his position. He trusted Wang qinruo, Ding Wei and other traitors, forged "Tianshu", sealed the Buddhist temple and Mount Tai, advocated Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism, carried out superstitious activities, built a wide range of palaces and outlooks, trashed the people and wealth, political corruption, and social conflicts became acute.

In 1021 ad, Zhao Heng became ill. In February of the next year, he was seriously ill. On the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, he ordered the prince to succeed him and died in Yanqing palace in Bianjing palace. Zhao Heng's temple name after his death is the real one.

Historical evaluation

Throughout Chinese history, every emperor has his own good and bad. In the 25th year of Zhenzong's reign, during the reign of Zhenzong of Song Dynasty, there was a good governance. The rule of the Northern Song Dynasty was increasingly solid, the state management was increasingly perfect, the social economy was prosperous, and the Northern Song Dynasty was relatively strong, known as "the governance of Xianping". However, there was weakness in foreign policy. During the invasion of the Liao state, a few people, led by Prime Minister Kou Zhun, strongly advocated resistance. Although they persuaded song Zhenzong to fight in person, and the two sides met and won in the city of Chanyuan, Zhenzong stopped because of the momentum of the Liao army. He bought 100000 pieces of silver and 200000 pieces of silk from Liao every year for peace with Liao, and determined the alliance of Chanyuan. The evil practice of paying tribute to Fanfang for peace began in the Song Dynasty, which led to the fact that the emperors of the Song Dynasty always did.

In the late period of emperor Zhenzong's reign, Wang qinruo and Ding were prime ministers. At the same time, they believed in Taoism and Buddhism, called receiving the book of heaven, sealed Mount Tai and worshiped Fenyang, and built many temples.

In this way, Zhenzong is still a Mingjun.

During song Zhenzong's reign, with the progress of iron smelting technology and the increasing popularity of iron farming tools, the cultivated area increased to 520 million mu (more than 300 million mu in 996, the second year from Taizong to Daodao), and the introduction of Siamese improved rice, the output of crops doubled, and handicrafts and businesses such as textile, dyeing, papermaking and porcelain making flourished. In Jingde's reign, Changnan Town, which specializes in porcelain (formerly known as baiyachang), was in the production of porcelain Then it was renamed Jingdezhen, with an unprecedented level of trade.

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